This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. PD Gluckman , MA Hanson , C Cooper , KL Thornburg . Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359, 61–73.
2. ME Symonds , SP Sebert , MA Hyatt , H Budge . Nutritional programming of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2009; 5, 604–610.
3. N Jansson , J Pettersson , A Haafiz , et al. Down-regulation of placental transport of amino acids precedes the development of intrauterine growth restriction in rats fed a low protein diet. J Physiol. 2006; 576, 935–946.
5. M Constancia , M Hemberger , J Hughes , et al. Placental-specific IGF-II is a major modulator of placental and fetal growth. Nature. 2002; 417, 945–948.
6. MJ Zhu , M Du , BW Hess , PW Nathanielsz , SP Ford . Periconceptional nutrient restriction in the ewe alters MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathways and vascularity in the placentome. Placenta. 2007; 28, 1192–1199.
7. MJ Zhu , Y Ma , NM Long , M Du , SP Ford . Maternal obesity markedly increases placental fatty acid transporter expression and fetal blood triglycerides at midgestation in the ewe. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299, R1224–R1231.
8. FJ Rosario , N Jansson , Y Kanai , et al. Maternal protein restriction in the rat inhibits placental insulin, mTOR, and STAT3 signaling and down-regulates placental amino acid transporters. Endocrinology. 2011; 152, 1119–1129.
9. L Belkacemi , DM Nelson , M Desai , MG Ross . Maternal undernutrition influences placental-fetal development. Biol Reprod. 2010; 83, 325–331.
11. LC Kusinski , CJ Jones , PN Baker , CP Sibley , JD Glazier . Isolation of plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta at term and measurement of system A and system beta amino acid transporter activity. Placenta. 2010; 31, 53–59.
12. GJ Burton , P Kaufmann , B Huppertz . Anatomy and genesis of the placenta. In Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (ed. Neill JD), 2006; pp. 189–241. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
13. FP Wooding , APF Flint . Placentation. In Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction (ed. Lamming GE) 1994; pp. 233–460. Chapman & Hall: London.
14. AM Carter . Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer. Placenta. 2009; 30(Suppl. A), S19–S25.
18. DE Atkinson , RDH Boyd , CP Sibley . Placental transfer. In Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (ed. Neill JD) 2006; pp. 2787–2846. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
19. T Jansson , TL Powell . Human placental transport in altered fetal growth: Does the placenta function as a nutrient sensor? – A review. Placenta. 2006; 27(Suppl.), 91–97.
20. CP Sibley , P Brownbill , M Dilworth , JD Glazier . Review: adaptation in placental nutrient supply to meet fetal growth demand: implications for programming. Placenta. 2010; 31(Suppl.), S70–S74.
21. M Constancia , E Angiolini , I Sandovici , et al. Adaptation of nutrient supply to fetal demand in the mouse involves interaction between the Igf2 gene and placental transporter systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102, 19219–19224.
22. E Angiolini , PM Coan , I Sandovici , et al. Developmental adaptations to increased fetal nutrient demand in mouse genetic models of Igf2-mediated overgrowth. FASEB J. 2011; 25, 1737–1745.
24. CP Sibley , MA Turner , I Cetin , et al. Placental phenotypes of intrauterine growth. Pediatr Res. 2005; 58, 827–832.
25. C Sibley , S D′Souza , J Glazier , S Greenwood . Mechanisms of solute transfer across the human placenta: effects of intrauterine growth restriction. Fetal Matern Med Rev. 1998; 10, 197–206.
26. I Cetin , G Alvino . Intrauterine growth restriction: implications for placental metabolism and transport. A review. Placenta. 2009; 30(Suppl. A), S77–S82.
27. JM Dicke , DK Verges . Neutral amino acid uptake by microvillous and basal plasma membrane vesicles from appropriate- and small-for- gestational age human pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Med. 1994; 3, 246–250.
28. T Jansson , K Ylvén , M Wennergren , TL Powell . Glucose transport and system A activity in syncytiotrophoblast microvillous and basal membranes in intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta. 2002; 23, 386–391.
29. JD Glazier , I Cetin , G Perugino , et al. Association between the activity of the system a amino acid transporter in the microvillous plasma membrane of the human placenta and severity of fetal compromise in intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res. 1997; 42, 514–519.
30. D Mahendran , P Donnai , JD Glazier , et al. Amino acid (System A) transporter activity in microvillous membrane vesicles from the placentas of appropriate and small for gestational age babies. Pediatr Res. 1993; 34, 661–665.
31. T Jansson , V Scholtbach , TL Powell . Placental transport of leucine and lysine is reduced in intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res. 1998; 44, 532–537.
32. S Norberg , TL Powell , T Jansson . Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with a reduced activity of placental taurine transporters. Pediatr Res. 1998; 44, 233–238.
33. S Roos , TL Powell , T Jansson . Human placental taurine transporter in uncomplicated and IUGR pregnancies: cellular localization, protein expression, and regulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004; 287, R886–R893.
34. PTY Ayuk , D Theophanous , SW D'Souza , CP Sibley , JD Glazier . l-Arginine transport by the microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast from human placenta in relation to nitric oxide production: effects of gestation, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87, 747–751.
35. T Jansson , M Wennergren , NP Illsley . Glucose transporter protein expression in human placenta throughout gestation and in intrauterine growth retardation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 77, 1554–1562.
36. AL Magnusson , IJ Waterman , M Wennergren , T Jansson , TL Powell . Triglyceride hydrolase activities and expression of fatty acid binding proteins in human placenta in pregnancies complicated by IUGR and diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89, 4607–4614.
37. H Strid , E Bucht , T Jansson , M Wennergren , T Powell . ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport across basal membrane of human syncytiotrophoblast in pregnancies complicated by diabetes or intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta. 2003; 24, 445–452.
38. M Johansson , T Jansson , JD Glazier , TL Powell . Activity and expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger is reduced in syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membranes isolated from preterm intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87, 5686–5694.
39. P Settle , CP Sibley , IM Doughty , et al. Placental lactate transporter activity and expression in intrauterine growth restriction. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2006; 13, 357–363.
40. M Johansson , L Karlsson , M Wennergren , T Jansson , TL Powell . Activity and protein expression of Na+K+ ATPase are reduced in microvillous syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes isolated from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88, 2831–2837.
41. DL Economides , KH Nicolaides . Blood glucose and oxygen tension in small-for-gestational-age fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 160, 120–126.
42. S Zamudio , T Torricos , E Fik , et al. Hypoglycemia and the origin of hypoxia-induced reduction in human fetal growth. PLoS One. 2010; 5, e8551.
43. B Mackenzie , JD Erickson . Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family. Pflugers Arch. 2004; 447, 784–795.
44. E Shibata , CA Hubel , RW Powers , et al. Placental System A amino acid transport is reduced in pregnancies complicated with small for gestational age (SGA) infants but not in preecalmpsia with SGA infants. Placenta. 2008; 29, 879–882.
45. N Jansson , S Greenwood , BR Johansson , TL Powell , T Jansson . Leptin stimulates the activity of the system A amino acid transporter in human placental villous fragments. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88, 1205–1211.
46. F von Versen-Hoynck , A Rajakumar , MS Parrott , RW Powers . Leptin affects system A amino acid transport activity in the human placenta: evidence for STAT3 dependent mechanisms. Placenta. 2009; 30, 361–367.
47. E Tsitsiou , CP Sibley , SW D'Souza , et al. Homocysteine is transported by the microvillous plasma membrane of human placenta. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011; 34, 57–65.
48. AM Marconi , CL Paolini , L Stramare , et al. Steady state maternal–fetal leucine enrichments in normal and intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies. Pediatr Res. 1999; 46, 114–119.
49. CL Paolini , AM Marconi , S Ronzoni , et al. Placental transport of leucine, phenylalanine, glycine, and proline in intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86, 5427–5432.
50. I Cetin , C Corbetta , LP Sereni , et al. Umbilical amino acid concentrations in normal and growth-retarded fetuses sampled in utero by cordocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 162, 253–261.
51. I Cetin , AM Marconi , P Bozzetti , et al. Umbilical amino acid concentrations in appropriate and small for gestational age infants: a biochemical difference present in utero. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988; 158, 120–126.
52. DL Economides , KH Nicolaides , WA Gahl , I Bernadini , MI Evans . Plasma amino acids in appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 161, 1219–1227.
53. I Cetin , N Giovannini , G Alvino , et al. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid fetal–maternal relationships. Pediatr Res. 2002; 52, 750–755.
54. L Heasman , L Clarke , K Firth , T Stephenson , ME Symonds . Influence of restricted maternal nutrition in early to mid gestation on placental and fetal development at term in sheep. Pediatr Res. 1998; 44, 546–551.
55. S Langley-Evans , D Gardner , A Jackson . Association of disproportionate growth of fetal rats in late gestation with raised systolic blood pressure in later life. J Reprod Fertil. 1996; 106, 307–312.
56. N Schlabritz-Loutsevitch , B Ballesteros , C Dudley , et al. Moderate maternal nutrient restriction, but not glucocorticoid administration, leads to placental morphological changes in the baboon (Papio sp). Placenta. 2007; 28, 783–793.
58. L Belkacemi , CH Chen , MG Ross , M Desai . Increased placental apoptosis in maternal food restricted gestations: role of the Fas pathway. Placenta. 2009; 30, 739–751.
62. P Rosso . Maternal malnutrition and placental transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in the rat. Science. 1975; 187, 648–650.
63. DR Varma , R Ramakrishnan . Effects of protein-calorie malnutrition on transplacental kinetics of aminoisobutyric acid in rats. Placenta. 1991; 12, 277–284.
65. L Belkacemi , A Jelks , CH Chen , MG Ross , M Desai . Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011; 9, 105.
66. J Lesage , D Hahn , M Leonhardt , et al. Maternal undernutrition during late gestation-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat is associated with impaired placental GLUT3 expression, but does not correlate with endogenous corticosterone levels. J Endocrinol. 2002; 174, 37–43.
67. AN Sferruzzi-Perri , OR Vaughan , PM Coan , et al. Placental-specific Igf2 deficiency alters developmental adaptations to undernutrition in mice. Endocrinology. 2011; 152, 3202–3212.
68. PM Coan , OR Vaughan , Y Sekita , et al. Adaptations in placental phenotype support fetal growth during undernutrition of pregnant mice. J Physiol. 2010; 588, 527–538.
69. PM Coan , OR Vaughan , J McCarthy , et al. Dietary composition programmes placental phenotype in mice. J Physiol. 2011; 589, 3659–3670.
70. J Miller , S Turan , AA Baschat . Fetal growth restriction. Semin Perinatol. 2008; 32, 274–280.
71. M Nitzan , S Orloff , JD Schulman . Placental transfer of analogs of glucose and amino acids in experimental intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr Res. 1979; 13, 100–103.
72. JD Glazier , CP Sibley , AM Carter . Effect of fetal growth restriction on system A amino acid transporter activity in the maternal facing plasma membrane of rat syncytiotrophoblast. Pediatr Res. 1996; 40, 325–329.
73. GJ Reid , RH Lane , AS Flozak , RA Simmons . Placental expression of glucose transporter proteins 1 and 3 in growth-restricted fetal rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180, 1017–1023.
74. T Jansson , E Persson . Placental transfer of glucose and aminoacids in intrauterine growth retardation: studies with substrate analogs in the awake guinea pig. Pediatr Res. 1990; 28, 203–208.
75. J Saintonge , P Rosso . Placental blood flow and transfer of nutrient analogs in large, average, and small guinea pig littermates. Pediatr Res. 1981; 15, 152–156.
76. PM Coan , E Angiolini , I Sandovici , et al. Adaptations in placental nutrient transfer capacity to meet fetal growth demands depend on placental size in mice. J Physiol. 2008; 586, 4567–4576.
77. JS Barry , PJ Rozance , RV Anthony . An animal model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction. Semin Perinatol. 2008; 32, 225–230.
82. C Crowe , P Dandekar , M Fox , et al. The effects of anaemia on heart, placenta and body weight, and blood pressure in fetal and neonatal rats. J Physiol. 1995; 488, 515–519.
83. KM Godfrey , DJ Barker . Maternal nutrition in relation to fetal and placental growth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995; 61, 15–22.
84. L Gambling , R Danzeisen , S Gair , et al. Effect of iron deficiency on placental transfer of iron and expression of iron transport proteins in vivo and in vitro. Biochem J. 2001; 356, 883–889.
86. T Jansson , Y Ekstrand , C Björn , M Wennergren , TL Powell . Alterations in the activity of placental amino acid transporters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Diabetes. 2002; 51, 2214–2219.
87. AG Kuruvilla , SW D'Souza , JD Glazier , et al. Altered activity of the system A amino acid transporter in microvillous membrane vesicles from placentas of macrosomic babies born to diabetic women. J Clin Invest. 1994; 94, 689–695.
88. T Jansson , Y Ekstrand , M Wennergren , TL Powell . Placental glucose transport in gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 184, 111–116.
89. T Jansson , M Wennergren , TL Powell . Placental glucose transport and GLUT 1 expression in insulin dependent diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180, 163–168.
90. K Gaither , AN Quraishi , NP Illsley . Diabetes alters the expression and activity of the human placental GLUT1 glucose transporter. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84, 695–701.
91. A Persson , M Johansson , T Jansson , TL Powell . Na+/K+-ATPase activity and expression in syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Placenta. 2002; 23, 386–391.
92. JM Dicke , GI Henderson . Placental amino acid uptake in normal and complicated pregnancies. Am J Med Sci. 1988; 295, 223–227.
93. KP Bibee , NP Illsley , KH Moley . Asymmetric syncytial expression of GLUT9 splice variants in human term placenta and alterations in diabetic pregnancies. Reprod Sci. 2011; 18, 20–27.
94. DT Osmond , CJ Nolan , RG King , SP Brennecke , NM Gude . Effects of gestational diabetes on human placental glucose uptake, transfer, and utilisation. Diabetologia. 2000; 43, 576–582.
95. DT Osmond , RG King , SP Brennecke , NM Gude . Placental glucose transport and utilisation is altered at term in insulin-treated, gestational-diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2001; 44, 1133–1139.
96. G Desoye , M Gauster , C Wadsack . Placental transport in pregnancy pathologies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94(Suppl 6), 1896S–1902S.
97. A Gil-Sanchez , B Koletzko , E Larque . Current understanding of placental fatty acid transport. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012; 15, 265–272.
98. MLS Lindegaard , P Damm , ER Mathiesen , LB Nielsen . Placental triglyceride accumulation in maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with increased lipase gene expression. J Lipid Res. 2006; 47, 2581–2588.
99. CM Scifres , B Chen , DM Nelson , Y Sadovsky . Fatty acid binding protein 4 regulates intracellular lipid accumulation in human trophoblasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96, E1083–E1091.
100. M Gauster , U Hiden , M van Poppel , et al. Dysregulation of placental endothelial lipase in obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2011; 60, 2457–2464.
101. V Wijendran , RB Bendel , SC Couch , et al. Fetal erythrocyte phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids are altered in pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Lipids. 2000; 35, 927–931.
102. L Higgins , SL Greenwood , M Wareing , CP Sibley , TA Mills . Obesity and the placenta: a consideration of nutrient exchange mechanisms in relation to aberrant fetal growth. Placenta. 2011; 32, 1–7.
103. SY Chu , SY Kim , CL Bish . Prepregnancy obesity prevalence in the United States, 2004–2005. Matern Child Health J. 2009; 13, 614–620.
104. NJ Sebire , M Jolly , JP Harris , et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25, 1175–1182.
106. HM Ehrenberg , BM Mercer , PM Catalano . The influence of obesity and diabetes on the prevalence of macrosomia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 191, 964–968.
107. DM Farley , J Choi , DJ Dudley , et al. Placental amino acid transport and placental leptin resistance in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Placenta. 2010; 31, 718–724.
110. E Dube , A Gravel , C Martin , et al. Modulation of fatty acid transport and metabolism by obesity in the human full-term placenta. Biol Reprod. 2012; May 2 [E-pub ahead of print].
111. A Jawerbaum , V White . Animal models in diabetes and pregnancy. Endocr Rev. 2010; 31, 680–701.
112. M Palacin , MA Lasuncion , A Martin , E Herrera . Decreased uterine blood flow in the diabetic pregnant rat does not modify the augmented glucose transfer to the fetus. Biol Neonate. 1985; 48, 197–203.
113. U Eriksson , L Jansson . Diabetes in pregnancy: decreased placental blood flow and disturbed fetal development in the rat. Pediatr Res. 1984; 18, 735–738.
114. AD Copeland Jr, SP Porterfield . Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in pregnant rats on placental transport and tissue uptake of alpha-amino-isobutyric acid. Horm Metab Res. 1987; 19, 57–61.
115. K Ogura , M Sakata , M Yamaguchi , H Kurachi , Y Murata . High concentration of glucose decreases glucose transporter-1 expression in mouse placenta in vitro and in vivo. J Endocrinol. 1999; 160, 443–452.
116. S Devaskar , U Devaskar , R Schroeder , et al. Expression of genes involved in placental glucose uptake and transport in the nonobese diabetic mouse pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 171, 1316–1323.
117. P Boileau , C Mrejen , J Girard , S Hauguel-de-Mouzon . Overexpression of GLUT 3 placental glucose transporter in diabetic rats. J Clin Invest. 1995; 96, 309–317.
118. E Herrera , M Palacin , A Martin , M Lasuncion . Relationship between maternal and fetal fuels and placental glucose transfer in rats with maternal diabetes of varying severity. Diabetes. 1985; 34(Suppl 2), 42–46.
119. C Thomas , C Lowy . Placental transfer and uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in control and diabetic rats. Metabolism. 1992; 41, 1199–1203.
121. E Shafrir , S Khassis . Maternal-fetal fat transport versus new fat synthesis in the pregnant diabetic rat. Diabetologia. 1982; 22, 111–117.
122. R Goldstein , E Levy , E Shafrir . Increased maternal-fetal transport of fat in diabetes assessed by polyunsaturated fatty acid content in fetal lipids. Biol Neonate. 1985; 47, 343–349.
123. M Li , DM Sloboda , MH Vickers . Maternal obesity and developmental programming of metabolic disorders in offspring: evidence from animal models. Exp Diabetes Res. 2011; 2011, 592408. Epub 28 September 2011.
124. JA Armitage , IY Khan , PD Taylor , PW Nathanielsz , L Poston . Developmental programming of metabolic syndrome by maternal nutritional imbalance; how strong is the evidence from expermental models in animals. J Physiol. 2004; 561, 355–377.
125. JM Wallace , DA Bourke , RP Aitken , JS Milne , WW Hay Jr. Placental glucose transport in growth-restricted pregnancies induced by adolescent sheep. J Physiol. 2003; 547, 85–94.
126. AE Frias , TK Morgan , AE Evans , et al. Maternal high-fat diet disturbs uteroplacental hemodynamics and increases the frequency of stillbirth in a nonhuman primate model of excess nutrition. Endocrinology. 2011; 152, 2456–2464.
127. HN Jones , LP Woollett , N Barbour , et al. High fat diet before and during pregnancy causes marked up-regulation of placental nutrient transport and fetal overgrowth in C57/Bl6 mice. FASEB J. 2009; 23, 271–278.
128. SL Rebholz , KT Burke , Q Yang , P Tso , LA Woollett . Dietary fat impacts fetal growth and metabolism: uptake of chylomicron remnant core lipids by the placenta. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 301, E416–E425.
129. HN Jones , TL Powell , T Jansson . Regulation of placental nutrient transport – a review. Placenta. 2007; 28, 763–774.
130. S Lager , TL Powell . Regulation of transport across the placenta. J Pregnancy. 2012 (In Press).
131. VD Longo , L Fontana . Calorie restriction and cancer prevention: metabolic and molecular mechanisms. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010; 31, 89–98.
132. R Holmes , R Montemagno , J Jones , et al. Fetal and maternal plasma insulin-like growth factors in pregnancies with appropriate or retarded fetal growth. Early Hum Dev. 1997; 49, 7–17.
133. L Yildiz , B Avci , M Ingec . Umbilical cord and maternal blood leptin concentrations in intrauterine growth retardation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002; 40, 1114–1117.
135. L Laviola , S Perrini , G Belsanti , et al. Intrauterine growth restriction in humans is associated with abnormalities in placental insulin-like growth factor signaling. Endocrinology. 2005; 146, 1498–1505.
136. RG Lea , D Howe , LT Hannah , et al. Placental leptin in normal diabetic and fetal growth-retarded pregnancies. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000; 6, 763–769.
137. JE Ramsay , WR Ferrell , L Crawford , et al. Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of metabolic, vascular and inflammatory pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87, 4231–4237.
139. FF Lauszus , JG Klebe , A Flyvbjerg . Macrosomia associated with maternal serum insulin-like growth factor-I and -II in diabetic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 97, 734–741.
140. PI Karl . Insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulates amino acid uptake by the cultured human placental trophoblast. J Cell Physiol. 1995; 165, 83–88.
142. HN Jones , T Jansson , TL Powell . IL-6 stimulates System A amino acid transporter activity in trophoblast cells through STAT3 and increased expression of SNAT2. Am J Physiol Cell. 2009; 297, C1228–C1235.
143. HN Jones , T Jansson , TL Powell . Full length adiponectin attenuates insulin signaling and inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in human primary trophoblast cells. Diabetes. 2010; 59, 1161–1170.
144. FJ Rosario , MA Schumacher , J Jiang , et al. Chronic maternal infusion of full-length adiponectin in pregnant mice down-regulates placental amino acid transporter activity and expression and decreases fetal growth. J Physiol. 2012; 590, 1495–1509.
145. AN Sferruzzi-Perri , JA Owens , P Standen , et al. Early treatment of the pregnant guinea pig with IGFs promotes placental transport and nutrition partitioning near term. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 292, E668–E676.
146. MC Audette , JR Challis , RL Jones , CP Sibley , SG Matthews . Antenatal dexamethasone treatment in midgestation reduces system A-mediated transport in the late-gestation murine placenta. Endocrinology. 2011; 152, 3561–3570.
147. G Desoye , M Hartmann , A Blaschitz , et al. Insulin receptors in syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium of human placenta. Immunohistochemical evidence for developmental changes in distribution pattern. Histochemistry. 1994; 101, 277–285.
148. CF Ebenbichler , S Kasser , M Laimer , et al. Polar expression and phosphorylation of human leptin receptor isoforms in paired syncytial, microvillous and basal membranes from human term placenta. Placenta. 2002; 23, 516–521.
149. J Fang , TC Furesz , RS Lurent , CH Smith , M Fant . Spatial polarization of insulin-like growth factor receptors on the human syncytiotrophoblast. Pediatr Res. 1997; 41, 258–265.
150. T Jansson , ILMH Aye , DCI Goberdhan . The emerging role of mTORC1 signalling in placental nutrient-sensing. Placenta. 2012 June 9. [Epub ahead of print].
151. HW Yung , S Calabrese , D Hynx , et al. Evidence of translation inhibition and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the etiology of human intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Pathol. 2008; 173, 311–314.
152. R Zoncu , A Efeyan , DM Sabatini . mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer, diabetes and ageing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2011; 12, 21–35.
153. S Roos , Y Kanai , PD Prasad , TL Powell , T Jansson . Regulation of placental amino acid transporter activity by mammalian target of rapamycin. Am J Physiol Cell. 2009; 296, C142–C150.
154. S Roos , N Jansson , I Palmberg , et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin in the human placenta regulates leucine transport and is down-regulated in restricted foetal growth. J Physiol. 2007; 582, 449–459.
156. JA Arroyo , LD Brown , HL Galan . Placental mammalian target of rapamycin and related signaling pathways in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 201, 616e611–616e617.
157. PM Coan , GJ Burton , AC Ferguson-Smith . Imprinted genes in the placenta – a review. Placenta. 2005; 26(Suppl. A), S10–S20.
158. PM Coan , AL Fowden , M Constancia , et al. Disproportional effects of Igf2 knockout on placental morphology and diffusional exchange characteristics in the mouse. J Physiol. 2008; 586, 5023–5032.
159. A Smerieri , M Petraroli , MA Ziveri , et al. Effects of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IL-6 and cortisol concentrations on human birth weight and length: pilot study. PLoS One. 2011; 6, e29562.
160. H Christou , JM Connors , M Ziotopoulou , et al. Cord blood leptin and insulin-like growth factor levels are independent predictors of fetal growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86, 935–938.
161. H Strid , AD Care , T Jansson , TL Powell . PTHrp midmolecule stimulates Ca2+ ATPase in human syncytiotrophoblast basal membrane. J Endocrinol. 2002; 175, 517–524.
162. KM Godfrey , N Matthews , J Glazier , et al. Neutral amino acid uptake by microvillous plasma membrane of the human placenta is inversely related to fetal size at birth in normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83, 3320–3326.