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    Bustos, Martha Venkataramanan, Raman and Caritis, Steve 2016. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy - What's new?. Autonomic Neuroscience,

    Fejzo, Marlena S. Magtira, Aromalyn Schoenberg, Frederic Paik Macgibbon, Kimber and Mullin, Patrick M. 2015. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 189, p. 79.

    Ayyavoo, Ahila Derraik, José G.B. Hofman, Paul L. and Cutfield, Wayne S. 2014. Hyperemesis gravidarum and long-term health of the offspring. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 210, Issue. 6, p. 521.

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    Parker, Samantha E. Starr, Jacqueline R. Collett, Brent R. Speltz, Matthew L. and Werler, Martha M. 2014. Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Offspring. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 527.

    Vikanes, Åse Magnus, Per Vangen, Siri Lomsdal, Sølvi and Grjibovski, Andrej M 2012. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Roseboom, Tessa J. Painter, Rebecca C. van Abeelen, Annet F.M. Veenendaal, Marjolein V.E. and de Rooij, Susanne R. 2011. Hungry in the womb: What are the consequences? Lessons from the Dutch famine. Maturitas, Vol. 70, Issue. 2, p. 141.

  • Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Volume 2, Issue 4
  • August 2011, pp. 200-204

Prenatal exposure to hyperemesis gravidarum linked to increased risk of psychological and behavioral disorders in adulthood

  • P. M. Mullin (a1), A. Bray (a2), F. Schoenberg (a2), K. W. MacGibbon (a3), R. Romero (a4), T. M. Goodwin (a1) and M. S. Fejzo (a1) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 08 June 2011

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, is characterized by long-term maternal stress, undernutrition and dehydration. While maternal stress and malnutrition of pregnancy are linked to poor neonatal outcome and associated with poor adult health, long-term outcome of fetal exposure to HG has never been explored. The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term emotional and behavioral diagnoses may be associated with fetal exposure to HG. Emotional and behavioral diagnoses of adults born of a pregnancy complicated by HG were compared to diagnoses from non-exposed controls. Offspring exposed to HG in utero were significantly more likely to have a psychological and behavioral disorder (OR = 3.6, P < 0.0001) with diagnoses primarily of depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. In utero exposure to HG may lead to increased risks of psychological and behavioral disorders in the offspring.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr M. S. Fejzo, Ph.D., 5535 MRL Building. 675 Charles E Young Dr South, LA, CA 90095, USA. (Email
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These authors contributed equally.

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