This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.PD Terry , AB Miller , TE Rohan . Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: a long latency period? Int J Cancer. 2002; 100, 723–728.
2.KC Johnson , AB Miller , NE Collishaw , Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk (2009). Tob Control. 2011; 20, e2, 1–6.
3.PD Terry , M Goodman . Is the association between cigarette smoking and breast cancer modified by genotype? A review of epidemiologic studies and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15, 602–611.
4.J Shen , MD Gammon , MB Terry , Polymorphisms in XRCC1 modify the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon–DNA adducts, cigarette smoking, dietary antioxidants, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14, 336–342.
5.J Shen , MB Terry , MD Gammon , MGMT genotype modulates the associations between cigarette smoking, dietary antioxidants and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2005; 26, 2131–2137.
7.Breast Cancer Family Registry, Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (Australasia) and Ontario Cancer Genetics Network (Canada). Smoking and risk of breast cancer in carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 aged less than 50 years. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 109, 67–75.
8.V Bissonauth , B Shatenstein , E Fafard , Weight history, smoking, physical activity and breast cancer risk among French–Canadian women non-carriers of more frequent BRCA1/2 mutations. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2009; 2009, 1–11.
9.JA Baron , C La Vecchia , F Levi . The antiestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 162, 502–514.
10.PR Band , ND Le , R Fang , M Deschamps . Carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects of cigarette smoke and risk of breast cancer. Lancet. 2002; 360, 1044–1049.
11.F Xue , WC Willett , BA Rosner , SE Hankinson , KB Michels . Cigarette smoking and the incidence of breast cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171, 125–133.
12.F Xue , KB Michels . Intrauterine factors and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8, 1088–1100.
13.MR Forman , MM Cantwell , C Ronckers , Y Zhang . Through the looking glass at early-life exposures and breast cancer risk. Cancer Invest. 2005; 23, 609–624.
14.AL Herbst , H Ulfelder , DC Poskanzer . Adenocarcinoma of the vagina: association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N Engl J Med. 1971; 284, 878–881.
15.RM Giusti , K Iwamoto , EE Hatch . Diethylstibestrol revisted: a review of the long-term health effects. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122, 778–788.
16.EE Hatch , JR Palmer , L Titus-Ernstoff , KL Noller , Cancer risk in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. JAMA. 1998; 280, 630–634.
17.R Anbazhagan , B Nathan , BA Gusterson . Prenatal influences and breast cancer [letter; comment]. Lancet. 1992; 340, 1477–1478.
18.R Anbazhagan , BA Gusterson . Prenatal factors may influence predisposition to breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1994; 30A, 1–3.
19.SJ Standfast . Birth characteristics of women dying from breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1967; 39, 33–42.
21.WD Thompson , DT Janerich . Maternal age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters. Epidemiology. 1990; 1, 101–106.
22.DT Janerich , CL Hayden , WD Thompson , SL Selenskas , C Mettlin . Epidemiologic evidence of the perinatal influence in the etiology of adult cancers. Clin Epidemiol. 1989; 42, 151–158.
23.CC Hsieh , A Tzonou , D Trichopoulos . Birth order and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 1991; 2, 95–98.
24.HA Weiss , NA Potischman , LA Brinton , Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Epidemiology. 1997; 8, 181–187.
25.AJ Swerdlow , BL De Stavola , MA Swanwick , NES Maconochie . Risks of breast and testicular cancer in young adult twins in England and Wales: evidence on prenatal and genetic aetilogy. Lancet. 1997; 350, 1723–1728.
26.A Ekbom , D Trichopoulos , HO Adami , CC Hsieh , SJ Lan . Evidence of prenatal influences on breast cancer risk. Lancet. 1992; 340, 1015–1018.
27.A Ekbom . Growing evidence that several human cancers may originate in utero. Semin Cancer Biol. 1997; 8, 237–244.
28.MM Braun , A Ahlbom , B Floderus , LA Brinton , RN Hoover . Effect of twinship on incidence of cancer of the testis, breast, and other sites (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 1995; 6, 519–524.
29.PK Verkasalo , J Kaprio , E Pukkala , M Koskenvuo . Breast cancer risk in monozygotic and dizygotic female twins: a 20-year population-based cohort study in Finland from 1976 to 1995. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999; 8, 271–274.
30.KB Michels , D Trichopoulos , JM Robins , Birthweight as a risk factor for breast cancer. Lancet. 1996; 348, 1542–1546.
31.M Sanderson , MA Williams , KE Malone , Perinatal factors and risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology. 1996; 7, 34–37.
32.I Mogren , L Damber , B Tavelin , U Hogberg . Characteristics of pregnancy and birth and malignancy in the offspring (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 1999; 10, 85–94.
33.P Tehranifar , Y Liao , JD Flom , MB Terry . Validity of self-reported birth weight by adult women: sociodemographic influences and implications for life-course studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170, 910–917.
34.T Liu , CA Gatsonis , A Baylin , SL Buka . Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and benign breast disease. Epidemiology. 2010; 21, 736–743.
35.M Sanderson , MA Williams , JR Daling , Maternal factors and breast cancer risk among young women. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998; 12, 397–407.
36.DP Sandler , RB Everson , AJ Wilcox , JP Browder . Cancer risk in adulthood from early life exposure to parents’ smoking. Am J Public Health. 1985; 75, 487–492.
37.NF Boyd , H Guo , LJ Martin , Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356, 227–236.
38.NF Boyd , GA Lockwood , JW Byng , DL Tritchler , MJ Yaffe . Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7, 1133–1144.
39.NF Boyd , JW Byng , RA Jong , Quantitative classification of mammographic densities and breast cancer risk: results from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87, 670–675.
40.S Ciatto , M Zappa . A prospective study of the value of mammographic patterns as indicators of breast cancer risk in a screening experience. Eur J Radiol. 1993; 17, 122–125.
41.C Byrne , C Schairer , J Wolfe , Mammographic features and breast cancer risk: effects with time, age, and menopause status. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87, 1622–1629.
42.I Kato , C Beinart , A Bleich , A nested case–control study of mammographic patterns, breast volume, and breast cancer (New York City, NY, United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1995; 6, 431–438.
44.LM Butler , EB Gold , SM Conroy , Active, but not passive cigarette smoking was inversely associated with mammographic density. Cancer Causes Control. 2010; 21, 301–311.
45.Y Bremnes , G Ursin , N Bjurstam , IT Gram . Different measures of smoking exposure and mammographic density in postmenopausal Norwegian women: a cross-sectional study. Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9(5), R73. 1–8.
46.M Jeffreys , R Warren , D Gunnell , P McCarron , GD Smith . Life course breast cancer risk factors and adult breast density (United Kingdom). Cancer Causes Control. 2004; 15, 947–955.
48.S Broman . The Collaborative Perinatal Project: an overview. In Handbook of Longitudinal Research, Vol. I (eds. Mednick SA, Harway M, Finello KM), 1984, pp. 185–227. Praeger Publishers: New York.
49.E Susser , SL Buka , CA Schaefer , The Early Determinants of Adult Health (EDAH) Study, 2011. DOHAD.
50.K Benirschke . Examination of the placenta. Obstet Gynecol. 1961; 18, 309–333.
51.JW Byng , NF Boyd , E Fishell , RA Jong , MJ Yaffe . The quantitative analysis of mammographic densities. Phys Med Biol. 1994; 39, 1629–1638.
52.JW Byng , NF Boyd , L Little , Symmetry of projection in the quantitative analysis of mammographic images. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996; 5, 319–327.
53.WC Strohsnitter , KL Noller , L Titus-Ernstoff , Breast cancer incidence in women prenatally exposed to maternal cigarette smoke. Epidemiology. 2005; 16, 342–345.
54.JS Ferris , JD Flom , P Tehranifar , ST Mayne , MB Terry . Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure and age at menarche. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010; 24, 515–523.
55.B MacMahon , D Trichopoulos , P Cole , J Brown . Cigarette smoking and urinary estrogens. N Engl J Med. 1982; 307, 1062–1065.
56.P Evans , T Wheeler , F Anthony , C Osmond . Maternal serum vascular endothelial growth factor during early pregnancy. Clin Sci. 1997; 92, 567–571.
57.DB Kandel , JR Udry . Prenatal effects of maternal smoking on daughters’ smoking: nicotine or testosterone exposure? Am J Public Health. 1999; 89, 1377–1383.
58.LJ Martin , S Minkin , NF Boyd . Hormone therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk. Maturitas. 2009; 64, 20–26.
59.B Galobardes , M Shaw , DA Lawlor , JW Lynch , G Davey Smith . Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006; 60, 7–12.
60.GA Giovino . Epidemiology of tobacco use in the United States. Oncogene. 2002; 21, 7326–7340.
62.BG Link , J Phelan . The social shaping of health and smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 104, S6–S10.
63.BG Link . Epidemiological sociology and the social shaping of population health. J Health Soc Behav. 2008; 49, 367–384.
64.LH Mortensen , F Diderichsen , GD Smith , AM Andersen . The social gradient in birthweight at term: quantification of the mediating role of maternal smoking and body mass index. Hum Reprod. 2009; 24, 2629–2635.
65.MB Terry , J Flom , P Tehranifar , E Susser . The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009; 23, 431–445.
66.E Susser , MB Terry , T Matte . The birth cohorts grow up: new opportunities for epidemiology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2000; 14, 98–100.
67.E Susser , MB Terry . A conception-to-death cohort. Lancet. 2003; 361, 797–798.
68.AH Hemachandra , PP Howards , SL Furth , MA Klebanoff . Birth weight, postnatal growth, and risk for high blood pressure at 7 years of age: results from the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Pediatrics. 2007; 119, e1264–e1270.
69.MA Klebanoff , BS Zemel , S Buka , S Zierler . Long-term follow-up of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project: tracking the next generation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998; 12, 334–346.