Anderson, O'Gorman, and Benedict, Richard, ed. 2001. Violence and the State in Suharto's Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: SEAP Publications.
Aspinall, Edward. 2009. Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Aspinall, Edward, and Berger, Mark T.. 2001. “The Break-up of Indonesia? Nationalisms after Decolonisation and the Limits of the Nation-State in Post-Cold War Southeast Asia.” Third World Quarterly
22 (6): 1003–1024.
Barker, Joshua. 1998. “State of Fear: Controlling the Criminal Contagion in Suharto's New Order.” Indonesia
66 (October): 7–43.
Barron, Patrick. 2014. “Barriers to the Consolidation of Peace: The Political Economy of Post-Conflict Violence in Indonesia.” D. Phil thesis. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Barron, Patrick, Azca, Muhammad Najib, and Susdinarjanti, Tri. 2012. After The Communal War: Understanding and Addressing Post-Conflict Violence in Eastern Indonesia. Yogjakarta, Indonesia: Universitas Gadjah Mada CSPS Books.
Barron, Patrick, Jaffrey, Sana, Palmer, Blair, and Varshney, Ashutosh. 2009. “Understanding Violent Conflict in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Approach.” Social Development Paper 117. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Barron, Patrick, Kaiser, Kai, and Pradhan, Menno. 2009. “Understanding Variations in Local Conflict: Evidence and Implications from Indonesia.” World Development
37 (3): 698–713.
Barron, Patrick, and Madden, David. 2004. “Violence and Conflict Resolution in ‘Non-Conflict’ Regions: The Case of Lampung, Indonesia.” Indonesian Social Development Paper 2. Jakarta: World Bank.
Barron, Patrick, and Sharpe, Joanne. 2008. “Local Conflict in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding Variations in Violence Levels and Forms through Local Newspapers.” Journal of East Asian Studies
8 (3): 395–423.
Bertrand, Jacques. 2004. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Blattman, Christopher, and Miguel, Edward. 2010. “Civil War.” Journal of Economic Literature
48 (1): 3–57.
Bourchier, David. 1990. “Crime, Law and State Authority in Indonesia.” In State and Civil Society in Indonesia, edited by Budiman, Arief, 177–212. Melbourne: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University.
Boyle, Michael J.
2014. Violence after War: Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Chaudhary, Torunn, and Suhrke, Astri. 2008. “Postwar Violence.” Unpublished Background Paper. Geneva: Small Arms Survey.
Chua, Amy. 2004. World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. New York: Knopf Doubleday.
Colombijn, Freek, and Lindblad, J. Thomas. 2002. Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective. Verhandelingen van Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 194. Leiden: Brill.
Cramer, Christopher. 2006. Civil War Is Not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries. London: Hurst and Company.
Cribb, Robert B.
1990. The Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966: Studies from Java and Bali. Clayton, Victoria: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University.
Crouch, Harold A.
2010. Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Daly, Sarah Zukerman. 2012. “Organizational Legacies of Violence Conditions Favoring Insurgency Onset in Colombia, 1964–1984.” Journal of Peace Research
49 (3): 473–491.
Davidson, Jamie Seth. 2009. From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo. Singapore: NUS Press.
Emmerson, Donald K.
2000. “Will Indonesia Survive?” Foreign Affairs
79 (3): 95–106.
Fortna, Virginia Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work?: Shaping Belligerents’ Choices after Civil War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
The Habibie Center. 2012. “Map of Violence in Indonesia (January–April 2012).” Jakarta, Indonesia: The Habibie Center.
Heryanto, Ariel. 2006. State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Fatally Belonging. London and New York: Routledge.
Horowitz, Donald L.
2013. Constitutional Change and Democracy in Indonesia. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Isaac, Jeffrey C.
2012. “New Approaches to the Study of Violence.” Perspectives on Politics
10 (2): 235–241.
Kalyvas, Stathis N.
2003. “The Ontology of ‘Political Violence’: Action and Identity in Civil Wars.” Perspectives on Politics
1 (3): 475–494.
King, Blair Andrew. 2004. “Empowering the Presidency: Interests and Perceptions in Indonesia's Constitutional Reforms, 1999–2002.” Ph.D. diss.The Ohio State University.
Klinken, Gerry van. 2007. Communal Violence and Democratization in Indonesia: Small Town Wars. London: Routledge.
Kloos, David. 2014. “In the Name of Syariah? Vigilante Violence, Territoriality, and Moral Authority in Aceh, Indonesia.” Indonesia
98 (October): 59–90.
Liem, Soei Liong. 2002. “It's the Military, Stupid!” In Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective, edited by Colombijn, Freek and Lindblad, J. Thomas, 197–226. Leiden: Brill.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 1995. “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security
20 (1): 5–38.
McRae, Dave. 2013. A Few Poorly Organized Men: Interreligious Violence in Poso, Indonesia. Leiden: Brill.
Mietzner, Marcus. 2009. Military Politics, Islam, and the State in Indonesia: From Turbulent Transition to Democratic Consolidation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Moser, Caroline O. N., and McIlwaine, Cathy. 2001. Violence in a Post-Conflict Context: Urban Poor Perceptions from Guatemala. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Murshed, Syed Mansoob, and Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan. 2009. “Revisiting the Greed and Grievance Explanations for Violent Internal Conflict.” Journal of International Development
21 (1): 87–111.
Østby, Gudrun, Urdal, Henrik, Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, Murshed, S. Mansoob, and Strand, Håvard. 2011. “Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequality and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study of Indonesian Provinces, 1990–2003.” Journal of Development Studies
47 (3): 377–398.
Panggabean, Samsu Rizal, and Smith, Benjamin. 2011. “Explaining Anti-Chinese Riots in Late 20th Century Indonesia.” World Development
39 (2): 231–242.
Paris, Roland. 2004. At War's End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Purdey, Jemma. 2006. Anti-Chinese Violence in Indonesia: 1996–99. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Raleigh, Clionadh, Linke, Andrew, Hegre, Håvard, and Karlsen, Joakim. 2010. “Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset Special Data Feature.” Journal of Peace Research
47 (5): 651–660.
Robinson, Geoffrey. 1995. The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Robinson, Geoffrey. 2001. “People's War: Militias in East Timor and Indonesia.” South East Asia Research
9 (3): 271–318.
Rodgers, Dennis. 2009. “Slum Wars of the 21st Century: Gangs, Mano Dura and the New Urban Geography of Conflict in Central America.” Development and Change
40 (5): 949–976.
Sidel, John. 2006. Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Siegel, James T.
1998. A New Criminal Type in Jakarta: Counter-Revolution Today. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Snyder, Jack L.
2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan. 2014. Explaining Collective Violence in Contemporary Indonesia: From Conflict to Cooperation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, Chowdhury, Anis, and Murshed, Syed Mansoob. 2012. “Routine Violence in Java, Indonesia: Neo-Malthusian and Social Justice Perspectives.” In Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict, edited by Scheffran, Jurgen
et al. , 633–650. Berlin: Springer.
Tajima, Yuhki. 2014. The Institutional Origins of Communal Violence: Indonesia's Transition from Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2002. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2008. “Analyzing Collective Violence in Indonesia: An Overview.” Journal of East Asian Studies
8 (3): 341–359.
Varshney, Ashutosh, Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, and Panggabean, Rizal. 2008. “Creating Datasets in Information-Poor Environments: Patterns of Collective Violence in Indonesia, 1990–2003.” Journal of East Asian Studies
8 (3): 361–394.
Walter, Barbara F.
2004. “Does Conflict Beget Conflict? Explaining Recurring Civil War.” Journal of Peace Research
41 (3): 371–388.
Weinstein, Jeremy M.
2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Welsh, Bridget. 2008. “Local and National: Keroyokan Mobbing in Indonesia.” Journal of East Asian Studies
8 (3): 473–504.
Wilson, Chris. 2008. Ethno-Religious Violence in Indonesia: From Soil to God. London: Routledge.
Wilson, Chris. 2013. “'Ethnic Outbidding’ for Patronage: The 2010 Riots in Tarakan, Indonesia.” South East Asia Research
21 (1): 105–129.
World Bank. 2011. World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.