Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Counter-Reformation of the Refugee: Exile and the Shaping of Catholic Militancy in the Dutch Revolt

  • GEERT H. JANSSEN (a1)
Abstract

This article explores the Catholic exile experience in the Dutch revolt of the 1570s and 1580s. It shows how Catholic refugees negotiated their stay in places such as Cologne and Douai and developed a more militant, Tridentine identity. This process of religious radicalisation is reflected in a series of white papers by leading refugees about Catholic renewal in the contested Netherlands. This article argues that Catholic exiles became the mobilising forces of a popular Counter-Reformation movement in the southern Netherlands, thereby facilitating the eventual split of the Low Countries into a northern and southern state.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 Tracy, James D., ‘With and without the Counter-Reformation: the Catholic Church in the Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, 1580–1650’, Catholic Historical Review lxxi (1985), 547–75; M. Cloet, ‘De gevolgen van de scheiding der Nederlanden op religieus, cultureel en mentaal gebied, van circa 1600 tot 1650’, in J. Craeybeckx, F. Daelemans and F. G. Scheelings (eds), ‘1585: Op gescheiden wegen …’, Leuven 1988, 53–78. An excellent assessment of Catholic reformation in the southern Netherlands is offered in Harline, Craig and Put, Eddy, A bishop's tale: Mathias Hovius among his flock in seventeenth-century Flanders, New Haven 2000.

2 Descimon, Robert and Ibáñez, José Javier Ruiz, Les Ligueurs de l'exil: le refuge catholique français après 1594, Seyssel 2005; Guilday, Peter, The English Catholic refugees on the continent, 1558–1795, London 1914; Arblaster, Paul, Antwerp and the world: Richard Verstegan and the international culture of Catholic Reformation, Leuven 2004; Walsham, Alexandra, ‘“Domme preachers”? Post–Reformation English Catholicism and the culture of print’, Past and Present clxviii (2000), 81108. For the use of the term Counter-Reformation in this context see O’ Malley, John, Trent and all that: renaming Catholicism in the early modern era, Cambridge, Ma 2000.

3 Marinus, M. J., De contrareformatie te Antwerpen (1585–1676), Brussels 1995, esp. p. 39; Thijs, A. K. L., Van geuzenstad tot katholiek bolwerk: Antwerpen en de contrareformatie, Leuven 1990, 3360; Tracy, ‘With and without the Counter-Reformation’, 548.

4 Paul Arblaster, ‘The Southern Netherlands connection: networks of support and patronage’, in Benjamin J. Kaplan and others (eds), Catholic communities in Protestant states: Britain and the Netherlands, c. 1570–1720, Manchester 2009, 125–7; Thøfner, Margit, A common art: urban ceremonial in Antwerp and Brussels during and after the Dutch Revolt, Zwolle 2007, 146–67. See also Tracy ‘With and without the Counter-Reformation’, 549.

5 Pollmann, Judith, Catholic identity and the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1520–1635, Oxford 2011.

6 This is now available in English translation: van Nierop, Henk, Treason in the Northern Quarter: war, terror and the rule of law in the Dutch revolt, Princeton 2009.

7 Parker, Geoffrey, The Dutch revolt, Harmondsworth 1985, 118–19; Israel, Jonathan, The Dutch republic: its rise, greatness and fall, 1477–1806, Oxford 1998, 160, 219; Briels, J. G. C. A., Zuid-Nederlanders in de Republiek, 1572–1630, Sint-Niklaas 1985, 80.

8 Examples include Backhouse, M., The Flemish and Walloon communities at Sandwich during the reign of Elizabeth I, 1561–1603, Brussels 1995; Dünnwald, A., Konfessionsstreit und Verfassungskonflikt: die Aufnahme der Niederländischen Flüchtlinge im Herzogtum Kleve, 1566–1585, Bielefeld 1998; Esser, Raingard, Niederländische Exulanten im England des 16. und frühen 17. Jahrhunderts, Berlin 1996; Grell, Ole, Calvinist exiles in Tudor and Stuart England, Aldershot 1996; Pettegree, Andrew, Emden and the Dutch revolt: exile and the development of Reformed Protestantism, Oxford 1992; and Schilling, Heinz, Niederländische Exulanten im 16. Jahrhundert: ihre Stellung im Sozialgefüge und im religiösen Leben Deutscher und Englischer Städte, Gütersloh 1972.

9 Marnef, Guido, Het calvinistisch bewind te Mechelen, 1580–1585, Kortrijk 1987, 323–30, and ‘Het protestantisme in Brussel, ca. 1567–1585’, Tijdschrift voor Brusselse Geschiedenis i (1984), 57–80.

10 This is based on references in Van Nierop, Treason, esp. pp. 165–85; Parker, Charles H., Faith on the margins: Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch golden age, Cambridge, Ma 2008, 2831; Vermaseren, B. A., De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving in de 16e en 17e eeuw over de opstand, Leeuwarden 1981; Donnet, Fernand, Les Exilés anversois à Cologne (1582–1585), Antwerp 1899; Hoogland, A. A. J., ‘De Friesche vlugtelingen in 1580’, Archief van het Aartsbisdom Utrecht xvi (1888), 323–71; and Viaene, A., ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen te Douai: hun verweer tegen Marnix’ Biënkorf, 1578–1584’, Handelingen van het Genootschap voor Geschiedenis gesticht onder de Benaming Société d’émulation te Brugge xciii (1956), 537.

11 Dagboek van broeder Wouter Jacobsz (Gualtherus Jacobi Masius) prior van Stein, ed. I. van Eeghen, Groningen 1958, i. 131. I have used English translations provided by Alastair Duke at http://dutchrevolt.leidenuniv.nl/.

12 Janssen, Geert H., ‘Exiles and the politics of reintegration in the Dutch revolt’, History xciv (2009), 4352; Tracy, James D., The founding of the Dutch republic: war, finance, and politics in Holland, 1572–1588, Oxford 2008, 109–13, 118–20.

13 SAA, notariaat, Egide Verbraecken. The quotation is taken from a will made by P. Joossen, 29 Sept. 1583, fos 101v–102r.

14 See the diary of Cologne citizen Herman Weinsberg: Die autobiographischen Aufzeichnungen Hermann Weinsbergs: Digitale Gesamtausgabe, entries for 16 Mar., 19 July 1580; 16 Apr. 1581; 2 Jan. 1582. Available at http://www.weinsberg.uni–bonn.de/Home.

15 Dagboek van broeder Wouter Jacobsz, i. 211.

16 Unknown author to Alexander Farnese, 26 Jan. 1581, ARAB, Papieren van Staat en Audiëntie, 589, fo. 61.

17 Dagboek van broeder Wouter Jacobsz, i. 388–9.

18 Ibid. i. 158–9, 233.

19 This was a copy of Veldius, Jacobus, Daniel Propheta commentariis pro concione explicatus, Antwerp 1576. Buyck wrote the following poem on the title page: ‘Bis septem stuferis exsul me Clivica in urbe / Emit, cui nomen principis Vrna dedit. Scilicet ut tristi lenirem in commoda vitae, / Et patriae fleret cum Daniele vires’ : University Library, Amsterdam, sig. 273 G 20.

20 Dagboek van broeder Wouter Jacobsz, i. 162.

21 This is quoted in Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’, 10.

22 Schoutens, Stephanus, Geschiedenis van het voormalig klooster der arme Claren te Antwerpen, Antwerp 1900, 66100; Janssen, Geert H., ‘Quo Vadis? Catholic perceptions of flight and the revolt of the Low Countries, 1566–1609’, Renaissance Quarterly lxiv (2011), 472–99.

23 Johannes Costerius, Institutio necessaria de exitu Aegypti et fuga Babylonis: id est, de egressu Catholicorum e civitatibus haereticorum Iuramentis & edictis, varioq; inevitabili contagio pollutis, Douai 1580.

24 Compare Walzer, Michael, Exodus and revolution, New York 1985, 49.

25 This becomess clear from ARAB, Audiëntie, 910, fos 52–100; cf. Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’, 16, 30–1.

26 Pollmann, Judith, ‘Countering the Reformation in France and the Netherlands: clerical leadership and Catholic violence, 1560–1585’, Past and Present cxc (2006), 83120.

27 Bibliographie douaisienne ou Catalogue historique et raisonné des livres imprimés à Douai, ed. H. R. Duthilloeul, Douai 1842–50; Guilday, The English Catholic refugees, 63–120; Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 115–29; Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’.

28 Arndt, Johannes, Das Heilige Römische Reich und die Niederlande, 1566 bis 1648, Cologne 1998, 192–4, 217–30, 266–74; Kuckhoff, Josef, Die Geschichte des Gymnasium Tricoronatum: ein Querschnitt durch die Geschichte der Jugenderziehung in Köln vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert, Cologne 1931; von Molitor, H., Das Erzbistum Köln im Zeitalter der Glaubenskämpfe, 1515–1688, Cologne 2008; Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 1–27; Samme Zijlstra, ‘Studying abroad: the student years of two Frisian brothers at Cologne and Douai (1582–1593)’, in K. Goudriaan, J. van Moolenbroek and A. Tervoort (eds), Education and learning in the Netherlands, 1400–1600: essays in honour of Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Leiden 2004, 297–313.

29 The Jesuits in Douai had been expelled for a short period in 1578 when the town became involved with the revolt: Andriessen, J., De Jezuïeten en het samenhorigheidsbesef der Nederlanden, 1585–1648, Antwerp 1957, 1617.

30 The Cologne college incorporated a large number of Jesuits of Netherlandish origin: HAK, Bestand Jesuiten, A17, A18, A19; ARSI, Provincia Rheni et Rheni Inferioris, 38, Cat. trien. et brev, Colonienis 1584.

31 Châtellier, Louis, Europe of the devout: the Catholic Reformation and the formation of a new society, trans. J. Birrell, Cambridge 1989, 315; Kettenmeyer, J. B., Die Anfänge der Marianischen Sodalität in Köln, 1576–1586, Münster 1928, 410.

32 Lists of membership (1576–88), HAK, Jesuiten, A52.

33 List of prefects (1576–89), ibid. A52a. On the later development of the sodality see Kettenmeyer, Die Anfänge, and Rebekka von Mallinckrodt, ‘Reichweite und Grenzen des Konfessionalisierungs-Paradigmas am Beispiel der Kölner Laienbruderschaften im 17. Jahrhundert’, in Kaspar von Greyerz and others (eds), Interkonfessionalität– Transkonfessionalität – binnenkonfessionelle Pluralität: Neue Forschungen zur Konfessionalisierungsthese, Heidelberg 2003, 16–47.

34 Costerus, Franciscus, Libellus sodalitatis, hoc est christianarum institutionum libri quinque, Antwerp 1586. Many editions exist. I have used the Dutch version, entitled Het boecsken der broederschap, dat is vijf boecken der Christelijcker leeringhen, Antwerp 1587, preface (no page numbers).

35 This becomes clear from HAK, Jesuiten, A51, a collection of papers regarding the sodality; Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542–1582, ed. Josef Hansen, Bonn 1896, 703–4, 716; and Kettenmeyer, Die Anfänge, 16–18; cf. Châttelier, Europe of the devout, 33–46.

36 Costerus, Het boecsken, preface. An assessment is offered by Heal, Bridget, The cult of the Virgin Mary in early modern Germany: Protestant and Catholic piety, Cambridge 2007, 250–60.

37 Heal, Cult, 207–61.

38 van Roosbroeck, Robert, Emigranten: Nederlandse vluchtelingen in Duitsland (1550–1600), Leuven 1968, 135–57; Schilling, Niederländische Exulanten, esp. pp. 110–21.

39 Rheinische Akten, 754.

40 Die autobiographischen Aufzeichnungen Hermann Weinsbergs, entries for 24 Mar. 1578; 9 Mar. 1582.

41 Attestation for Elizabeth Styen, 31 Jan. 1585, SAA, notariaat, Egide Verbraecken, fo. 120r–v; Die autobiographischen Aufzeichnungen Hermann Weinsbergs, entry for 17 Feb. 1580; Kuckhoff, Die Geschichte, 63–4, 135, 159.

42 List of prefects (1576–89), HAK, Jesuiten, A52a; Kettenmeyer, Die Anfänge, 28.

43 Schilling, Niederländische Exulanten; Pettegree, Emden, esp. pp. 226–51. See also Alastair Duke, ‘Perspectives on European Calvinism’, in Alastair Duke, Gillian Lewis and Andrew Pettegree (eds), Calvinism in Europe, 1540–1620, Cambridge 1994, 5–6.

44 For Stempelse see Boeree, A.Th., ‘Het verraad van hopman Maarten Schets: een mislukte aanslag op Gouda in 1572’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis xxxix (1924), 195219; Droog, M. P. R., ‘De oprichting van de nuntiatuur te Keulen’, De Katholiek cxxxviii (1910), 109–12; Hibben, C. C., Gouda in revolt: particularism and pacifism in the revolt of the Netherlands, Utrecht 1983, 48, 52, 70–2, 266; Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 18–24; and Uittreksel uit Francisci Dusseldorpii Annales, 1566–1616, ed. Robert Fruin, The Hague 1893, pp. li–liii, 479.

45 Romeinsche bronnen voor den kerkelijke-staatkundigen toestand der Nederlanden in de 16e eeuw, ed. G. Brom and H. Hensen, The Hague 1922, 242.

46 Compare letters in ARSI, Assistentia Germaniae, 137–II, 210; 138–II, 329; 157; Romeinsche bronnen, 280–2, 288, 293, 358, 419, 677–8, 706. See also Janssen, ‘Quo Vadis?’, 476–93.

47 ab Isselt, Michael, Michaelis ab Isselt Amorfortii svi temporis historia, in qua res in toto orbe terrarum gestae, tum praecipuè motuum Belgicorum sub Philippo II Hispaniarum rege & c. concitatorum origo et sucessus usque ad annum M.D.LXXXVI. perspicuè & accuratè describuntur, Cologne 1602, 648; Noordeloos, P., Pastoor Maarten Donk, Utrecht 1948, ii. 78.

48 Wilhelmus Lindanus to Don Juan, 24 July 1578, ARAB, Audiëntie, 1718/2; Lindanus to Farnese, 9 Jan., 10 Apr. 1581, ARAB, Audiëntie, 1806/1; various letters from exiles Jacques Ficq, Pierre Arentsoen, Willem Bonsen, Nicolaas Buyck, Jan Meeusz, Gerrit Gerritsz, Dirk Jan Deyman to Farnese, 1580s, ARAB, Audiëntie, 1840/4; Romeinsche bronnen, 281; cf. La Vie et les oeuvres de Gislain Bulteel d'Ypres, 1555–1611, ed. L. Bakelants, Brussels 1968, 251–484.

49 Costerius, Institutio, 7–9.

50 His membership is evident from HAK, Jesuiten, A52, fo. 61r. On Lindanus see van Beuningen, P.Th., Wilhelmus Lindanus als inquisiteur en bisschop: bijdrage tot zijn biografie (1525–1576), Assen 1976.

51 Jan Stempelse to Everardus Mercurianus, Cologne, 27 June 1577, ARSI, Germaniae, 138–I, 223. Note similar remarks about the militant spirit in the Cologne exile community in Laevinus Torrentius correspondance: période liégeoise, 1583–1587, ed. Marie Delcourt and Jean Hoyoux, Paris 1950, i. 182–6.

52 Audomarus, Petrus S., Declaratio cavssarvm, ob qvas Belgivm gravissimis, praemitur calamitatibus, cum demonstratione remedij aduersus easdem efficacissimi, Cologne 1582, preface.

53 ARAB, Audiëntie, 589; 1787/1; 1831/1; Christiaensz Bor, Pieter, Oorsprongk, begin, en vervolgh der Nederlandsche oorlogen, beroerten en borgerlyke oneenigheden, Amsterdam 1680, ii. 203–4. See also Guido Marnef, ‘Een Gentse proost in Keulen: Bucho Aytta en zijn rol in de Opstand, 1579–1581’, in A. Jans and others (eds), Liber amicorum Dr. J. Scheerder, Leuven 1987, 75–86, and Dudok van Heel, S. A. C., Van Amsterdamse burgers tot Europese aristocraten: de Heijnen–maagschap, 1400–1800, The Hague 2008, i. 8791.

54 Some white papers have been published, but they have not been studied comparatively. See references to these and other plans in Archivalia in Italië belangrijk voor de geschiedenis van Nederland, ed. G. Brom, The Hague, 1908–14, i/1, 273, 463; ii. 28, 190–5, 220; iii. 267–70, 272–3, and Romeinsche bronnen, 229–33, 554–5.

55 This is published in ‘Stukken betreffende Nederlandsche kerkgeschiedenis van 1556–1580’, ed. G. Brom, Archief voor de Geschiedenis van het Aartsbisdom Utrecht xxii (1895), 415–19; cf. Archivalia in Italië, i/1, 270, and Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 20–2.

56 Kamen, Henry, The duke of Alba, New Haven 2004, 75105; Soen, Violet, Geen pardon zonder paus! Studie over de complementariteit van het koninklijk en pauselijk generaal pardon (1570–1574) en over inquisiteur–generaal Michael Baius (1560–1576), Brussels 2007, esp. pp. 243–55.

57 Johannes Rethius to Mercurianus, Cologne, 9 Feb., 4 Mar. 1574, ARSI, Germaniae, 135–I, 115. See also Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 19–22.

58 ‘Stukken’, 421–2; Correspondance de Philippe II sur les affaires des Pays–Bas, ed. L.–P. Gachard, Brussels 1858, iii. 20–2; Rogier, L. J., Geschiedenis van het katholicisme in Noord–Nederland in de 16de en 17de eeuw, Amsterdam 1964, i. 211.

59 To make matters worse, Rethius was murdered in Cologne in December 1574: Kuckhoff, Die Geschichte, 156.

60 This is published in ‘Twee geschriften van den bisschop van Roermond, Wilhelmus Lindanus over den kerkelijken toestand der Nederlanden in 1578–1579’, ed. G. Brom, Publications de la Société Historique et Archéologique dans le Duché de Limbourg xxix (1892), 277–300. See also Spiertz, M. G., ‘Wilhemus Lindanus, eerste bisschop van Roermond en zijn partijkeuze in de Nederlandse opstand (november 1576–juli 1578)’, Archief voor de Geschiedenis van de Katholieke Kerk in Nederland xxxi (1989), 192213. For Lindanus’ earlier involvement with exiles see Beuningen, Wilhelmus Lindanus, 16–17, 285–7.

61 This analysis resonated with an advice that Lindanus had composed for Philip ii ten years earlier: Beuningen, Wilhelmus Lindanus, 189–90. Compare similar remarks made by Laurentius Metsius, bishop of Den Bosch, in Correspondance de Philippe II, iv. 739–94.

62 ‘Twee geschriften’, 284. This policy had been tested with success by the bishop himself. From 1572 onwards Lindanus had consciously appointed exiles from Holland to ecclesiastical positions in his diocese: Beuningen, Wilhelmus Lindanus, 285–7.

63 This link was also characteristic of Jesuit discourses, with which Lindanus was well familiar: Andriessen, De Jezuïeten, 33–4, 40–1, 51–3.

64 Spiertz, ‘Wilhelmus Lindanus’, 199–210; Janssens, Gustaaf, Brabant in het verweer: loyale oppositie tegen Spanje's bewind in de Nederlanden van Alva tot Farnese, 1567–1578, Kortrijk 1989; Valvekens, E., De Zuid–Nederlandsche Norbertijner abdijen en de opstand tegen Spanje: maart 1576–1585, Leuven 1929, 103–9, 198–201.

65 ‘Twee geschriften’, 285–90.

66 This is summarised by Woltjer, J. J., Tussen vrijheidsstrijd en burgeroorlog: over de Nederlandse opstand, 1555–1580, Amsterdam 1994, 6488.

67 In Spain Lindanus presented another memorandum of which the content is unknown: Les Archives générales de Simancas et l'histoire de la Belgique, ed. M. van Durme, Brussels 1964–73, iv. 169; Romeinsche bronnen, 260–2; Spiertz, ‘Wilhelmus Lindanus’, 210.

68 This is published in ‘Stukken’, 429–39.

69 Woltjer, Tussen vrijheidsstrijd, 79–88.

70 Parker, Geoffrey, The grand strategy of Philip II, New Haven 1998, 145, 164–70; Elliott, John H., Imperial Spain, 1469–1716, London 2002, 263–6, 269–70.

71 Bor, Oorsprongk, ii. 215.

72 HAK, Jesuiten, A52, fo. 62v; Bor, Oorsprongk, ii. 215.

73 Bossy, John, Giordano Bruno and the embassy affair, London 1991, 5; Parker, The grand strategy, 96–7; J. H. M. Salmon, ‘Catholic resistance theory, ultramontanism, and the royalist response, 1580–1620’, in J. H. Burns and M. Goldie (eds), The Cambridge history of political thought, 1450–1700, Cambridge 1991, 221–3, 236–41.

74 This is published in Annales ecclesiastici quos post Caesarem S. R. E. Card. Baronium, Odoricum Raynaldum ac Iacobum Laderchium, presbyteros Congregationis Oratorii de Urbe ab an. 1572. / ad nostra usque tempora continuat, ed. Augustin Theiner, Rome 1856, iii. 474–5.

75 Bor, Oorsprongk, i. 935.

76 Loos, Cornelis, De tumultuosa Belgarum rebellione sedanda, Luxemburg 1579; cf. Andriessen, De Jezuïeten, 50, and Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 47–50.

77 Walvis, Ignatius, Beschrijving der stad Gouda, bevattende een verhaal van stads grondlegginge, Gouda 1714, i. 7881, 287–8. For Cunerus Petri see Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, 44–9.

78 Parker, The Dutch revolt, 208–16.

79 Die autobiographischen Aufzeichnungen Hermann Weinsbergs, entry for 17 Aug. 1585.

80 Foppens, Jean-François, Histoire du Conseil de Flandre, Brussels 1869, 70–1; Marinus, Contrareformatie, 155–6; Prims, Floris, Geschiedenis van Antwerpen: viii: met Spanje (1555–1715): 3e boek: de geestelijke orde, Antwerp 1943, 217, 226, 252–3; Guillaume Weydts, Chronique flamande, 1571–1584, ed. Émile Varenbergh, Ghent 1869, 144–5.

81 Notes regarding the election of magistrates in Ghent, 1584, ARAB, Audiëntie, 809/9.

82 Notes regarding the election of magistrates in Bruges, 1584, ibid. 809/7.

83 List of recommendations from Ferdinand Veranneman, addressed to Jean Richardot, Bruges, 14 Aug. 1584, ibid.

84 Ibid. 809/13. Returning exiles were also (re)installed on lower administrative levels: SAA, list of town secretaries. Available at http://www.felixarchief.be/Unrestricted/Folder.aspx?document_id=09041acf80000ab3&format=pdf.

85 A number of examples are cited in Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’, 7–22.

86 There are numerous examples in ARAB, Audiëntie, 1806/4; 1807/2; 2855; 2552–3.

87 Andriessen, De Jezuïeten, 113–14; Marnef, Het calvinistisch bewind, 323–30; Marinus, Contrareformatie, 41–3; Vander Haeghen, V., ‘Archives Gantoises’, Messager des Sciences Historiques (1887), 8897.

88 van Lerius, Th., Kronyk van de sodaliteit der getrouwden te Antwerpen (1585–1773), Antwerp 1862, 7. I am grateful to Judith Pollmann for providing me with a copy of this volume.

89 Ibid. 7–8.

90 Marinus, Contrareformatie, 255–8.

91 Porteman, Karel, ‘Na 350 jaar: de “sermoonen” van Franciscus Costerus’, Ons Geestelijk Erf xliii (1969), 209–69; Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’, 14–16, 29–37; cf. Arblaster, Antwerp and the world.

92 Marinus, Contrareformatie, 158–62.

93 Compare the assessment by Philip L. Kintner, ‘Refugees’, in Hans J. Hillerbrand (ed.), The Oxford encyclopedia of the Reformation, Oxford 1996, available at http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t172.e1174.

94 Benedict, Philip, Christ's Churches purely reformed: a social history of Calvinism, New Haven 2002, esp. pp. 70–1, 179–80; Duke, ‘Perspectives’, 5–6; Oberman, Heiko, ‘Europa afflicta: the reformation of the refugees’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte lxxxiii (1992), 91111.

Research for this article was generously supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. I am grateful to audiences in Geneva, Leuven and St Andrews as well as to Katy Gibbons, Judith Pollmann and Arnoud Visser for their helpful comments.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Ecclesiastical History
  • ISSN: 0022-0469
  • EISSN: 1469-7637
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-ecclesiastical-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed