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Reforming the Liturgy under Henry VIII: The Instructions of John Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells (PRO, SP6/3, fos 42r–44v)

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1 Missal, 613. This refers to the second paragraph of the canon of the mass which reads ‘Imprimis quae tibi offerimus pro Ecclesia tua sancta Catholica, quam pacificare, custodire, adunare, et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum, una cum famulo tuo Papa nostro N. et Antistite nostro N. id est, proprio episcopo tantum et Rege nostro N. et dicuntur nominatim. Sequatur. et omnibus orthodoxis atque catholicae et apostolicae fidei cultoribus.’ The change results in the king's name being remembered before that of the local bishop, thus mirroring the changes effected by the establishment of royal supremacy.

2 John Clerk is here alluding to the initial prayer, secret and a post-communion of the missa pro papa: ibid. 815*.

3 This is one of the masses for the people which follows the votive masses for the souls of the dead. The beginning prayer reads: ‘Pietate tua, quaesumus, Domine, nostrorum solve vincula omnium delictorum; et, intercedente beata et gloriosa semperque virgine Dei genitrice Maria cum omnibus sanctis tuis, dominum papam, reges, et principes, et episcopos, et abbates, et omnem plebem illis commissam, nosque famulos tuos, atque loca nostra in omni sanctitate custodi; omnesque consanguinitate ac familiaritate vel confessione et oratione nobis junctos, seu omnem populum catholicum a vitiis omnibus purga, virtutibus illustra; pacem et salutem nobis tribue, hostes visibiles et invisibiles remove, pestem et famem repelle, inimicis nostris et amicis nostris veram caritatem atque infirmis sanitatem largire, et iter famulorum tuorum in salutis tuae prosperitate dispone; et omnibus fidelibus vivis ac defunctis in terra viventium vitam et requiem aeternam concede’: ibid. 879*.

4 The Good Friday petitions start with an invocation for the whole Church immediately followed by a petition for the pope. The prayer is in two parts separated by a time of silent prayer and genuflexion which is ordered by the deacon: ‘Oratio: Oremus et pro beatissimo Papa nostro N; ut Deus et Dominus noster, qui elegit eum in ordine Episcopatus, salvum atque incolumen custodiat Ecclesiae suae sanctae ad regendum populum sanctum Dei. Oremus. Flectamus genua. Levate. Oratio: Omnipotens et sempiterne Deus, cujus judicio universa fundatur; respice propitius ad preces nostras: et electum nobis Antistitem tua pietate conserva; ut Christiana plebs, quae tali gubernatur auctore, sub tanto Pontifice credulatis suae meritis augeatur’: ibid. 325.

5 The hymn Exultet jam angelica was sung by the deacon at the paschal vigil after the benediction of the paschal candle. At the end of the hymn there is an invocation for the pope, the king and the bishop: ‘Precamur ergo te Domine ut nos famulos tuos omnem clerum et devotissimum populum una cum patre nostro Papa N. atque Rege nostro N. necnon et Episcopo nostro N. quiete temporum concessa in his Paschalibus gaudis conservare digneris’: ibid. 342–3.

6 In the wedding service, the benedictions in which the union of a man and a woman was compared to that of Christ and his Church were to be left out when one of the spouses had already received the sacrament of marriage. The Sarum missal contains a lengthy explanation and apocryphal quotation of a Concertatio. Indeed, many priests had travelled to the Holy See to obtain absolution for having proffered such benedictions in those circumstances. The issue was discussed and determined in the pope's palace, and followed by the publication of a new constitution set forth by Pope John xxii which is then quoted at length. The relevant rubric to be deleted reads: ‘Sed omnes alie benedictiones indifferenter debent dici secundum Romanam Ecclesiam secundum Hostiensem, et secundum Thomam de Aquino et Morandum doctorem. Et sciendum est, quod ista quaestio discussa fuit et determinata in sacro palatio domini Papae et translata in Angliam per magistrum Johannem Haystede, anno Domini millesimo cccxxi. Et causa discussionis erat quia multi sacerdotum tunc temporis ad sedem apostolicam convolarunt causa obtinende absolutionis beneficium pro benedictionibus in secundis nuptiis collatis indiscrete. Ideo statuitur super hoc nova constitutio Johannis Papae xxii quae sic incipit.

Concertationi antiquae finem imponere cupientes, praesenti declaramus edicto; quod licet vir vel mulier ad bigamiam vel ad secundas nuptias transierint benedici non debent, cum fuerint alias benedicti. Quod si forsan alter eorum vel ambo essent ad secundas nuptias transituri, et in primis nuptiis benedicti non fuerint, danda est eis benedictio in secundis nuptiis. Sane volentes antiquum rigorem temperare, concedimus, quod presbyter qui secundas nuptias benedixerit scienter, ad sedem apostolicam ex hoc venire minime teneatur, sed a poena suspensionis hoc casu a jure indicta per suos potest diocesanos absolvi. Si qui vero juxta opinionem quorundam hactenus non reputantes se esse suspensos, ordines quoslibet seu quaevis beneficia receperint, diocesani eorum a poena suspensionis praedictae ipsos absolvere, ac super executione ordinum et retentione beneficiorum hujusmodi cum eis valeant licite dispensare’: ibid. 842*

7 In printed missals the rubric introducing the Mass of the Five Wounds details the circumstances in which the mass was written by Pope Boniface, its apotropaic virtues and the indulgences granted to whoever celebrates it or has it celebrated vicariously: ‘Sanctus Bonifactus papa oegrotavit usque ad mortem; qui instanter petiit a Deo vitam in hoc seculo sibi prolongari. Ad quem misit Dominus sanctum Raphaelem archangelum cum officio missae de quinque vulneribus Christi, dicens ad papam. Surge et scribe istud Officium; et dicas ipsum quinque vicibus et continuo recipies sanitatem. Et quiquumque sacerdos hoc officium devote pro se vel alio aegrotante celebraverit quinquies; hic sanitatem et gratiam recipiet, et in futuro vitam aeternam possidebit, si in bono perseveret. Et in quacunque tribulatione homo exstiterit in hoc saeculo, si procuraverit a sacerdote hoc officium quinquies pro se legi, sine dubio liberabitur. Et si pro anima defuncti legatur ; statim postquam complete dictum fuerit, scilicet quinquies, a poenis anima solvetur. Sanctus igitur Bonifacius papa haec audiens statim erexit se in loco quo jacuit infirmatus, et ipsum conjuravit per omnipotentem Deum, ut absque suo periculo recederet, et quis esset, et ad quid venisset sibi continuo indicaret. Qui statim dixit, se esse archangelum Raphaelem a Deo sibi missum, et superius pronunciata promittebat sine dubio fore rata. Sanctus tunc Bonifacius papa officium confirmavit apostolica auctoritate; tribuens omnibus vere confessis et contritis, septimam partem remissionis omnium peccatorum suorum, qui illud devote legerint quina vice. Et similiter illud praedictum officium legi procurantibus, quadraginta dies criminalium et unum annum venialium in Domino relaxavit’: ibid. 750*.

8 This absolution formula of the Ash Wednesday service is unique to the Sarum rite in England: ‘Absolvimus vos vice beati Petri Apostolorum principis, cui collata est a Domino potestas ligandi atque solvendi; et quantum ad vos pertinet accusatio et ad nos remissio; sit vobis omnipotens Deus vita et salus et omnium peccatorum vestrorum pius indultor’: ibid. 132–4.

9 The feasts of nine canonised popes are in the calendar of the breviary: Marcellus (16 Jan.), Gregory (12 Mar.), Leo (28 June), Stephen (2 Aug.), Calixtus (14 Oct.), Clement (23 Nov.), Linus (26 Nov.), Silvester (31 Dec.) and the ordination of Gregory (3 Sept.): Breviary, i, pp. iii–xiv. The calendar of the missal counts only eight utterances, the ordination of St Gregory being left out.

10 John Clerk is referring to the ‘Te rogamus’ prayer of the litany in the breviary and in the processional which reads ‘Ut donum Apostolicum et omnes gradus Ecclesiae in sancta religione conservare digneris, te rog[amus]’: Breviary, ii. 252; Portiforium, sig. i. ii; Processionale ad vsum insignis ac preclare ecclesie Sarum, Paris 1519 (STC 16235), fo. ciiii.

11 There are scores of lessons in the breviary which are taken from sermons by former popes, especially Gregory and Leo.

12 The feast of St Leo is celebrated on 28 June, which coincides with the eve of the Feast of SS Peter and Paul. The word papa occurs in the heading rubric: ‘Sancti Leonis, Papae et confessoris’: Breviary, iii. 363; Portiforium, sig. red BB viv.

13 The beginning of the first lesson of the feast of St Leo reads ‘Leo junior natione Siculus ex patre Paulo sedit papatus cathedra mensibus decem, diebus decem et septem’: Breviary, iii. 363; Portiforium, sig. red BB viv.

14 The beginning of the second lesson of the feast of St Leo is: ‘Hujus beatissimi papae temporibus, percurrente jussione clementissimi principis, restituta est ecclesia Ravennae sub ordinatione sedis apostolicae: ut, defuncto archiepiscopo, qui electus fuerit juxta antiquam consuetudinem in civitatem Romanam veniat ordinandus’: Breviary, iii. 364; there is a slightly different wording in Portiforium, sig. red BB viv.

15 This item refers to the Feast of SS Peter and Paul, Apostles (29 June). The third verse of the hymn, starting ‘Aurea luce’. i: ‘Jam bone pastor Petre clemens accipe / Vota precantium: et peccati vincula/ Resolve tibi potestate tradita/ Qua cunctis caelum verbo claudis, aperies’: Breviary iii. 365; Portiforium only provides the first line.

16 The response of the first lesson at matins on the feast of SS Peter and Paul is: ‘Symon Petre, antequam de navi vocarem te novi te: et super plebem meam principem te constitui. Et claves regni caelorum tradidi tibi’: Breviary, iii. 367–8; Portiforium, sig. red BB viiv.

17 In the third lesson of the feast of SS Peter and Paul: ‘Isti sunt qui te Roma ad hanc gloriam provexerunt, ut gens sancta, populus electus, civitas sacerdotalis et regia per sacram beati Petri sedem caput orbis effecta latius praesideres religione divina quam dominatione terrena’: Portiforium, sig. red BB viiv–viii. For a very slightly different version of this passage placed in the second lesson see Breviary, iii. 368.

18 The response to the fifth lesson of the feast of SS Peter and Paul is ‘Tu es pastor ovium princeps apostolorum: tibi tradidit Deus omnia regna mundi. Et ideo traditae sunt tibi claves regni caelorum’: Breviary, iii. 371; Portiforium, sig. red BB viiiv.

19 The sixth lesson of the feast of Corpus Christi reads ‘Ut autem praedicta quinta feria et per Octavas sequentes ejusdem salutaris institutionis honorificentius agatur memoria, et solennitas de hoc celebrior habeatur: loco distributionum materialium qui in ecclesiis cathedralibus largiuntur, existentibus canonicis Horis nocturnis pariterque diurnis, praefatus Romanus pontifex eis qui hujusmodi Horis in hac solennitate personaliter in ecclesiis interessent, stipendia spiritualia apostolica largitione concessit, quatenus per hoc fideles ad tanti Festi celebritatem avidius et copiosius convenirent. Unde omnibus vere poenitentibus et confessis, qui matutinali officio hujus Festi praesentialiter in ecclesia ubi celebretur interessent: centum dies. Qui vero Missae, totidem. Illis autem qui interessent primis istius Festi Vesperis: similiter centum. Qui vero secundis: totidem. Eis quoque qui Primae, Tertiae, Sextae, Nonae, et Completorii adessent officiis: pro qualibet ipsarum Horarum, quadraginta. Illis vero qui per ipsius Festi Octavas in matutinalibus, vespertinis, Missae, ac praedictarum Horarum officiis praesentes extiterint: singulis diebus ipsarum Octavarum centum dierum indulgentiam misericorditer tribuit, perpetuis temporibus duraturam’: Breviary, i, pp. mlxviii–mlxix. The relevant page is missing from the Portiforium held at Cambridge University Library but can be found in Portiforium seu Breviarium ad vsum ecclesie Sarisburiensis, Paris 1531 (STC 15831), BB iv .

20 This sentence from the second lesson in the feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin must be altered: ‘Laudes igitur et praeconia tam excelsae matris Romanus pontifex Urbanus sextus pio studio volens ampliare, festivitatibus antiquis hodiernam superaddere decrevit, ut visitationis ejus memoria frequentaretur, qua post conceptionem Verbi divini cognatam suam Elizabeth humiliter salutavit’: Breviary, iii. 397; Portiforium, sig. red CC vi.

21 The third lesson of the feast of the Visitation reads ‘Ut autem devotius et attentius ad idem festum celebrandum invitaretur plebs fidelis, praefatus pontifex Romanus auctoritate apostolica statuit diem solemnitatis sexto Nonas Julii per singulos annos celebrandum, concedens piis hujus festi cultoribus speciales indulgentias perpetuis temporibus duraturas. Unde omnibus vere poenitentibus et confessis qui Matutinali officio, seu Missae, aut Vesperis ejusdem festivitatis in ecclesia praesentes affuerint : centum dies. Eis vero qui Primae, Tertiae, Sextae, Nonae, ac Completorii, officiis interfuerint: pro qualibet ipsarum [Horarum] quadraginta dies. Illis autem qui per octavas ejusdem Matutinalibus, Missae, Vesperarum ac praedictarum Horarum officiis interessent: singulis diebus centum dies de injunctis sibi poenitentiis misericorditer relaxavit’: Breviary, iii. 398; Portiforium, sig. red CC vi.

22 There are several versions of this passage and not all are contained in the first lesson of the Feast of the Translation of St Thomas. John Clerk was referring to the second part of the first lesson, found in the 1525 Portiforium: ‘Hic enim annus jubileus est: id est remissionis. Unde Honorius papa tercius accessuris ad solennitatem translationis ejus annuatim remissiones tales concessit quales retroactis temporibus nusquam meminimus romanos pontifices indulsisse’: Portiforium, sig. red DD vv. In other versions of the Sarum Breviary a similar sentence is contained in the third lesson: ‘Annus quinquagesimus annus jubilaeus est. Jubilaeus autem remissionis annus est, vel remissivus interpretatur. Sicut enim in Lege, anno jubilaeo fiebant remissiones: sic et in anno jubilaeo translationis ipsius martyris onera poenitentium remittuntur’: Breviary, iii. 446.

23 The relevant passage is available in the 1525 Portiforium and other editions: ‘Adveniente igitur translationis die presente maxima multitudine tam divitum quam pauperum Pandulphus apostolice sedis legatus canthuariensis et remensis archiepiscopi, episcopique et abbates quam plurimi cum comitibus et baronibus praedictam capsam presente rege henrico tertio super humeros suos susceperunt et in loco quo nunc honoratur cum omni gaudio collocaverunt’: Portiforium, sig. red DD vi. In the version edited by Procter and Wordsworth, the apostolic legate is mentioned in the eighth lesson when describing the celebration of St Thomas's translation: ‘Adveniente igitur die Translationi praefixo: venerabiles patres Pandulphus Apostolicae Sedis Legatus, Cantuariensis et Remensis archiepiscopi, episcopi, et abbates, ac nobilis vir Hubertus de Burgo, tunc justiciarius, cum comitibus et baronibus nonnullis, capsam praedictam super humeros susceperunt: in praesentia illustris Anglorum regis Henrici iii, qui propter aetatis minoris imbecillitatem et tumultum populi non suscepit cum eis deferendam’: Breviary, iii. 449.

24 When the feast day of St Aldhelm, bishop and confessor occurs after Pentecost, three lessons are read in memory of St Urban, pope: Breviary, iii. 300–1. Here John Clerk is referring to the fourth lesson: ‘Hic beati Petri apostoli octavusdecimus vicarius fuit immediate post martyrium beati Calixti, sedit in papatu annis octo mensibus undecim diebus vero duo decim’: Portiforium, sig. red AA ii. In the Procter and Wordsworth edition the latter part of the sentence is missing: Breviary, iii. 300.

25 Here, again, the Procter and Wordsworth version differs from some of the early printed editions. In the 1525 Portiforium the word papa occurs once in the seventh and ninth lessons and twice in the eighth: sig. red AA iiv. There is one utterance in the eighth lesson and one in a rubric: Breviary, iii. 301, 302.

26 In the sixth lesson of the matins for the Feast of St Augustine, bishop and confessor of the English: ‘Videns autem rex mundissimam vitam et miracula sanctorum credens baptizatus est. Sed et omnis populus respuens gentilitatis errorem ad deum conversus est. Post hec Augustinus ab episcopo arelatensi jussu pape archiepiscopus anglorum ordinatus est. Ordinavit que beatus Augustinus duos episcopos mellitum et justum ad praedicandum verbum dei. Omnibusque rite peractis obiit vir dei septimo kalendas junii et in ecclesia apostolorum petri et pauli jussu et expensis regis ethelberti constructa honorifice sepultus est’: Portiforium, sig. red AA iii. There is another wording for this passage: ‘Interea vir Domini Augustinus venit Arelas: et ab archiepiscopo ejusdem civitatis Ethereo (juxta quod jussa sancti patris Gregorii acceperat) archiepiscopus Anglorum genti ordinatus est’: Breviary, iii. 305.

27 This mass is also referred to as Missa pro mortalitate evitanda. The rubric recounts the papal origin of the service and details the spiritual benefits granted to all who attend the mass: ‘Missa pro mortalitate evitanda quam dominus Papa Clemens fecit et constituit in collegio cum omnibus Cardinalibus, et concessit omnibus poenitentibus, vere contritis et confessis, sequentem Missam audientibus cclx dies indulgentiae. Et omnes audientes sequentem Missam debent portare in manu unam candelam ardentem dum Missam audiunt per quinque dies sequentes, et tenere eam in manu per totam Missam, genibus flexis: et eis mors subitanea nocere non poterit. Et hoc est certum et approbatum in Avinione et in partibus circumvicinis’: Missal, 886*.

28 This rubric precedes the Gospel of the Missa contra mortalitatem : ‘Istud Evangelium compositum fuit per Johannem Papam xxii apud Avinionem tertio die ante decessum suum; pro quo concessit omnibus illud dicentibus vel audientibus, vere confessis et contritis, trecentos dies indulgentie’: ibid. 890*.

29 The general sentence is usually printed or written in English at the end of the Manual: Manuale secundum usum insignis Sarum, C. Endouiensis: Antwerp 1523 (STC 1645), fo. cxixv. It is also found in Mirk's Festiall and the relevant section is edited in Letters of Thomas Cranmer, 281–2.

1 The most detailed account comes from G. R. Elton's study of the implementation of the Henrician Reformation: many cases of clerical disobedience are detailed, with special attention to the different techniques used by the parochial staff to deface their missals: Policy and police: the enforcement of the Reformation in the age of Thomas Cromwell, Cambridge 1972, 236. See also Scarisbrick, J. J., Henry VIII (1968), London 1997, 392; Bernard, G. W., The king's reformation, London 2005, 179; and Duffy, Eamon, The stripping of the altars: traditional religion in England, 1400–1580 (1992) New Haven–London 2005, 416.

2 The bidding prayers or bidding of the bedes were a long series of intercessory prayers read in the vernacular in churches every Sunday. For Cranmer's letter see Miscellaneous writings and letters of Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, ed. John E. Cox, Cambridge 1846, 460–3. On this letter see MacCulloch, Diarmaid, Thomas Cranmer: a life, New Haven–London 1996, 122–3.

3 LP viii, no. 293, i, ii.

4 This letter has been lost, but its content may be partially reconstructed from the circular sent to secular authorities by Thomas Cromwell and from the instructions sent to the parish priests by the bishops of Lincoln and Ely: Elton, Policy and police, 231–3; Bowker, Margaret, The Henrician Reformation: the diocese of Lincoln under John Longland, 1521–1547, Cambridge 1981, 142–3, 157; Wabuda, Susan, ‘Bishop Longland's mandate to his clergy, 1535’, The Library 6th ser. xxxv/3 (1991), 255–61.

5 Elton, Policy and police, 239.

6 Tudor royal proclamations, ed. Paul L. Hughes and James F Larkin, London 1964, i. 230. Although this text appears in Tudor royal proclamations, Elton warns that it was not a royal proclamation but a circular to lay officers: Policy and police, 238 n. 5.

7 For the list of surviving responses see Wabuda, ‘Bishop John Longland's mandate’, 257 n. 12.

8 Bowker, Henrician Reformation, 242–3. This document is to be found in the Lincoln Archives Office, Register 26, fos 260v–261v, and its printed version was edited by Wabuda: ‘Bishop John Longland's mandate’, 261.

9 CUL, G/1/7, fo. 125r–v. Bishop Goodrich left out the instruction to schoolmasters to instruct children about the royal supremacy and there are six minute differences in wording between the mandate for the diocese of Ely and that for Lincoln.

10 BL, ms Cleopatra E VI, fos 240r–242v (LP viii, no. 869). See also his detailed defence of the supremacy: TNA, SP 3/6, fos 72r–74v (LP viii, no. 292)

11 ms Cleopatra E VI, fo. 243 (LP viii, no. 963).

12 SP 1/101, fo. 9 (LP x, no. 14); Elton, Policy and police, 237.

13 SP 1/99, fo. 172v (LP x, no. 1059); Elton, Policy and police, 237.

14 The introduction to SP 6 was written by Dr V. M. Murphy and is to be found in the relevant binder at The National Archives.

15 Edward Lee's letter to his clergy explaining and justifying the royal supremacy and quoted above is kept in the same collection: SP 6/3, fos 72r–74v.

16 These are, respectively, Bodleian Library, Oxford, ms Don b 6, and Salisbury Cathedral, Mus E 2/244. An undefaced book contains indications that it may have belonged to a parish in the diocese of Bath and Wells: Stonyhurst College, ms XL.

17 Bodl. Lib., S. Seld. d 23; BL, C 35 i 2; National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, BCL S 157. This may also be the case for York Minster, XI F 1, which was in use at St George's Chapel near Windsor under Mary.

18 These were in use respectively at Bromsgrove, Worcester (CUL, ms 6688); Arlingham, Gloucester (Salisbury Cathedral, ms 152) and Llandeilo Fawr, Carmarthenshire (BL, C 35 i 10).

19 An example is the Arlingham breviary mentioned at n. 18 above. See also BL, IB 43955. For missals and breviaries of York Use that present additional defacings to the feasts of local saints see A. de Mézerac-Zanetti, ‘Liturgical changes to the cult of the saints under Henry viii’, in Peter Clarke and Tony Claydon (eds), Saints and sanctity (Studies in Church History xlvii, 2011), 181–92.

20 Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, 392.

21 Elton, Policy and police, 234.

22 Tudor royal proclamations, i. 231.

23 SP 1/133, fo. 32.

24 Bodl. Lib., ms Don b 6.

25 Letters of Thomas Cranmer, 281–3. On the jurisdictional issue raised by these letters see MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 122–3.

26 Missal, 613. This refers to the second paragraph of the canon of the mass which reads ‘Imprimis quae tibi offerimus pro Ecclesia tua sancta Catholica, quam pacificare, custodire, adunare, et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum, una cum famulo tuo Papa nostro N. et Antistite nostro N. id est, proprio episcopo tantum et Rege nostro N. et dicuntur nominatim. Sequatur. et omnibus orthodoxis atque catholicae et apostolicae fidei cultoribus.’ The change results in the king's name being remembered before that of the local bishop, thus mirroring the changes effected by the establishment of royal supremacy.

27 John Clerk is here alluding to the initial prayer, secret and a post-communion of the missa pro papa: ibid. 815*.

28 This is one of the masses for the people which follows the votive masses for the souls of the dead. The beginning prayer reads: ‘Pietate tua, quaesumus, Domine, nostrorum solve vincula omnium delictorum; et, intercedente beata et gloriosa semperque virgine Dei genitrice Maria cum omnibus sanctis tuis, dominum papam, reges, et principes, et episcopos, et abbates, et omnem plebem illis commissam, nosque famulos tuos, atque loca nostra in omni sanctitate custodi ; omnesque consanguinitate ac familiaritate vel confessione et oratione nobis junctos, seu omnem populum catholicum a vitiis omnibus purga, virtutibus illustra ; pacem et salutem nobis tribue, hostes visibiles et invibiles remove, pestem et famem repelle, inimicis nostris et amicis nostris veram caritatem atque infirmis sanitatem largire, et iter famulorum tuorum in salutis tuae prosperitate dispone ; et omnibus fidelibus vivis ac defunctis in terra viventium vitam et requiem aeternam concede’: ibid. 879*.

29 The Good Friday petitions start with an invocation for the whole Church immediately followed by a petition for the pope. The prayer is in two parts separated by a time of silent prayer and genuflexion which is ordered by the deacon: ‘Oratio: Oremus et pro beatissimo Papa nostro N; ut Deus et Dominus noster, qui elegit eum in ordine Episcopatus, salvum atque incolumen custodiat Ecclesiae suae sanctae ad regendum populum sanctum Dei. Oremus. Flectamus genua. Levate. Oratio: Omnipotens et sempiterne Deus, cujus judicio universa fundatur; respice propitius ad preces nostras : et electum nobis Antistitem tua pietate conserva ; ut Christiana plebs, quae tali gubernatur auctore, sub tanto Pontifice credulatis suae meritis augeatur’: ibid. 325

I am grateful to my three supervisors, Professors Richard Gameson and Franck Lessay for their encouragement and advice and Professor Alec Ryrie for reading this article at various stages and suggesting many improvements. I am also indebted to Pat Musset and Dr Margaret Harvey whose knowledge of Latin and practice of archival material greatly made up for my own inexperience

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