Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-558cb97cc8-sbl5v Total loading time: 0.39 Render date: 2022-10-07T12:57:55.391Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Tracing the Evolution of Agglomeration Economies: Spain, 1860–1991

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 April 2018

Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia*
Affiliation:
Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia is Associate Professor in Economic History, Department of Historical Studies, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
Alfonso Díez-Minguela
Affiliation:
Alfonso Díez-Minguela is Assistant Professor in Economic History, Departament d'Anàlisi Econòmica, Facultat d'Economia, Universitat de València, Avda. dels tarongers s/n, 46022, València, Spain. E-mail: alfonso.diez@uv.es.
Julio Martinez-Galarraga
Affiliation:
Julio Martínez-Galarraga is Associate Professor in Economic History, Departament d'Anàlisi Econòmica, Facultat d'Economia, Universitat de València, Avda. dels tarongers s/n, 46022, València, Spain. E-mail: julio.martinez-galarraga@uv.es.
*
Dr. Beltrán Tapia is corresponding author. E-mail: francisco.beltran.tapia@ntnu.no.

Abstract

Using district population in Spain between 1860 and 1991, recorded approximately every decade, this article examines whether initial population affects subsequent population growth. While such a relationship between these two variables hardly existed during the second half of the nineteenth century, this link increased significantly between 1910 and 1970, although this trend was abruptly interrupted by the Civil War and the autarkic period that followed. The intensity of this relationship decreased in the 1970s, a process that continued during the 1980s. Our findings also stress that agglomeration economies were stronger in medium-size districts, especially from 1960 onwards.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Economic History Association 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

We are grateful to Daniel Tirado, Rafael González-Val, the editor, and two anonymous referees for their advice and suggestions. This article was presented at the 41st Simposio of the Spanish Economic Association (Bilbao), Iberometrics VIII (Pamplona), and the First Catalan Economic Society Conference (Barcelona). We thank the participants for their comments. Financial support from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (projects ECO2015-65049-C12-1-P, ECO2015-71534-REDT, HAR2015-64076-P and ECO2015-65582) is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

REFERENCES

Ayuda, M. Isabel, Collantes, Fernando, and Pinilla, Vicente. “From Locational Fundamentals to Increasing Returns: The Spatial Concentration of Population in Spain, 1787–2000.” Journal of Geographical Systems 12, no. 1 (2010): 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bairoch, Paul, Batou, Jean, and Chèvre., Pierre Le Population des Villes Européennes de 800 à 1850: Banque de Données et Analyse Sommaire des Résultats. Genève: Droz, 1988.Google Scholar
Beeson, Patricia E., Dejong, David N., and Troesken, Werner. “Population Growth in US Counties, 1840–1990.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 31, no. 6 (2001): 669–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentolila, Samuel. “Las Migraciones Interiores en España.” FEDEA Working Paper No. 2001-07, Madrid, Spain, 2001.Google Scholar
Bentolila, Samuel, and Blanchard, Olivier J.. “Spanish Unemployment.” Economic Policy 5, no. 10 (1990): 233–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bentolila, Samuel, and Dolado, Juan José. “Mismatch and Internal Migration in Spain, 1962–1986.” In Mismatch and Labour Mobility, edited by Schioppa, Fiorella Padoa, 231–88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
Bosker, Maarten, and Buringh, Eltjo. “City Seeds: Geography and the Origins of the European City System.” Journal of Urban Economics 98 (2017): 139157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bosker, Maarten, Buringh, Eltjo, and Zanden, Jan Luiten Van. “From Baghdad to London: Unravelling Urban Development in Europe and the Arab World, 800–1800.” Review of Economics and Statistics 95, no. 4 (2013): 1418–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bover, Olympia, and Velilla, Pilar. “Migrations in Spain: Historical Background and Current Trends.” Banco de España Working Paper No. 9909, Madrid, Spain, 1999.Google Scholar
Briant, Anthony, Combes, Pierre-Philippe, and Lafourcade, Miren. “Dots to Boxes: Do the Size and Shape of Spatial Units Jeopardize Economic Geography Estimations?Journal of Urban Economics 67, no. 3 (2010): 287302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauvin, Juan Pablo, Glaeser, Edward L., and Tobio, Kristina. “Urban Economics in the US and India.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, 2014.Google Scholar
Ciccone, Antonio, and Hall, Robert E.. “Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity.” American Economic Review 86, no. 1 (1996): 5470.Google Scholar
Clark, J. Stephen, and Stabler, Jack C.. “Gibrat's Law and the Growth of Canadian Cities.” Urban Studies 28, no. 4 (1991): 635–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collantes, Fernando, and Pinilla, Vicente. The Peaceful Surrender: The Depopulation of Rural Spain in the Twentieth Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011.Google Scholar
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Démurger, Sylvie, and Li, Shi. “Urbanisation and Migration Externalities in China.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 9352, London, UK, 2013.Google Scholar
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Duranton, Gilles, and Gobillon, Laurent. “The Costs of Agglomeration: Land Prices in French Cities.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 9240, London, UK, 2012.Google Scholar
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Duranton, Gilles, Gobillon, Laurent, et al. “Estimating Agglomeration Economies with History, Geology, and Worker Effects.” In Agglomeration Economies, edited by Glaeser, Edward L., 1565. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, and Gobillon, Laurent. “The Empirics of Agglomeration Economies.” In Handbook of Urban and Regional Economics, edited by Duranton, Gilles, Vernon Henderson, J., and Strange, William, vol. 5, 237348. North-Holland: Elsevier, 2015.Google Scholar
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Mayer, Thierry, and Thisse, Jacques-François. Economic Geography. The Integration of Regions and Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
Cuberes, David, and González-Val, Rafael. “The Effect of the Spanish Reconquest on Iberian Cities.” Annals of Regional Science 58, no. 3 (2017): 375416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desmet, Klaus, and Fafchamps, Marcel. “Changes in the Spatial Concentration of Employment Across US Counties: A Sectoral Analysis 1972–2000.” Journal of Economic Geography 5, no. 3 (2005): 261–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desmet, Klaus, and Rappaport, Jordan. “The Settlement of the United States, 1800–2000: The Long Transition Towards Gibrat's Law.” Journal of Urban Economics 98 (2017): 5068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desmet, Klaus, and Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban. “Spatial Growth and Industry Age.” Journal of Economic Theory 144, no. 6 (2009): 2477–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dittmar, Jeremiah. “Cities, Markets, and Growth: The Emergence of Zipf's Law.” Unpublished manuscript, 2011.Google Scholar
Dobkins, Linda Harris, and Ioannides, Yannis M.. “Spatial Interactions among U.S. Cities: 1900–1990.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 31, no. 6 (2001): 701–31.Google Scholar
Durán-Herrera, Antonia M.La Actividad Censal en España Durante la Primera Mitad del Siglo XIX en el Contexto de las Reformas Liberales.” Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie V, Historia Contemporánea 19 (2007): 339–59.Google Scholar
Duranton, Gilles. “Urban Evolutions: The Fast, the Slow, and the Still.” American Economic Review 97, no. 1 (2007): 197221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duranton, Gilles, and Puga, Diego. “Micro-foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies.” In Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edited by Vernon Henderson, J. and Thisse, Jacques-François, vol. 4, 2063–117. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2004.Google Scholar
Eeckhout, Jan. “Gibrat's Law for (All) Cities.” American Economic Review 94, no. 5 (2004): 1429–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujita, Masahisa, Krugman, Paul, and Venables, Anthony J.. The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions and International Trade. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.Google Scholar
Fujita, Masahita, and Thisse, Jacques-François. Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Regional Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabaix, Xavier. “Zipf's Law for Cities: An Explanation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, no. 3 (1999): 739–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabaix, Xavier, and Ioannides, Yannis M.. “The Evolution of City Size Distributions.” In Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edited by Vernon Henderson, J. and Thisse, Jacques-François, vol. 4, 2341–78. North-Holland: Elsevier, 2004.Google Scholar
Garcia-López, Miquel Àngel, Holl, Adelheid, and Viladecans-Marsal, Elisabet. “Suburbanization and Highways in Spain When the Romans and the Bourbons Still Shape its Cities.” Journal of Urban Economics 85, no. 1 (2015): 5267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glaeser, Edward L.Introduction.” In Agglomeration Economics, edited by Glaeser, Edward L., 114. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glaeser, Edward L., Scheinkman, José A., and Shleifer, Andrei. “Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Cities.” Journal of Monetary Economics 36, no. 1 (1995): 117–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goerlich, Francisco J., and Mas, Matilde. “Algunas Pautas de Localización de la Población Española a lo largo del Siglo XX.” Investigaciones Regionales 12, no. 1 (2008): 533.Google Scholar
Goerlich, Francisco J., and Mas, Matilde. “Drivers of Agglomeration: Geography vs History.” The Open Urban Studies Journal 2 (2009): 2842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goerlich, Francisco J., Mas, Matilde, Azagra, Joaquín, et al. La Localización de la Población Sobre el Territorio. Un Siglo de Cambios: Un Estudio Basado en Series Homogéneas (1900–2001). Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2006.Google Scholar
Gómez Mendoza, Antonio, and Román., Elena SanTransportes y Comunicaciones.” In Estadísticas históricas de España, siglos XIX–XX, edited by Carreras, Albert and Tafunell, Xavier, 509–72. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2005.Google Scholar
González-Val, Rafael, Lanaspa, Luis, and Sanz-Gracia, Fernando. “New Evidence on Gibrat's Law for Cities.” Urban Studies 51, no. 1 (2014): 93115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Val, Rafael, Tirado, Daniel A., and Viladecans-Marsal, Elisabet. “Market Potential and City Growth: Spain 1860–1960.” Cliometrica 11, no. 1 (2017): 3161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Daniel J.Variable Returns to Agglomeration and the Effect of Road Traffic Congestion.” Journal of Urban Economics 62, no. 1 (2007): 103–20.Google Scholar
Henderson, J. Vernon. “Marshalls' Scale Economies.” Journal of Urban Economics 53, no. 1 (2003): 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herranz, Alfonso. “La Reducción de los Costes de Transporte en España (1800–1936).” Cuadernos Económicos ICE 70, no. 2 (2005): 183203.Google Scholar
Herranz, Alfonso. “Infrastructure Investment and Spanish Economic Growth, 1850–1935.” Explorations in Economic History 44, no. 3 (2007): 452–68.Google Scholar
Hijmans, Robert J., Cameron, Susan E., Parra, Juan L., et al. “Very High Resolution Interpolated Climate Surfaces for Global Land Areas.” International Journal of Climatology 25, no. 15 (2005): 1965–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage, 1969.Google Scholar
Krugman, Paul. “Increasing Returns and Economic Geography.” Journal of Political Economy 99, no. 3 (1991): 483–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krugman, Paul, and Venables, Anthony J.. “Globalization and the Inequality of Nations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, no. 4 (1995): 857–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanaspa, Luis, Pueyo, Fernando, and Sanz, Fernando. “The Evolution of Spanish Urban Structure during the Twentieth Century.” Urban Studies 40, no. 3 (2003): 567–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Alfred. Principles of Economics. London: Macmillan, 1890.Google Scholar
Martinez-Galarraga, Julio. “The Determinants of Industrial Location in Spain, 1856–1929.” Explorations in Economics History 49, no. 2 (2012): 255–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez-Galarraga, Julio, Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi, et al. “Agglomeration and Labour Productivity in Spain over the Long Term.” Cliometrica 2, no. 3 (2008): 195212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melo, Patricia C., Graham, Daniel J., and Nolan, Robert B.. “A Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Urban Agglomeration Economies.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 39, no. 3 (2009): 332–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michaels, Guy, Rauch, Ferdinand, and Redding, Stephen J.. “Urbanization and Structural Transformation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 127, no. 2 (2012): 535–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nadal, Jordi. “La Industria Fabril Española en 1900. Una Aproximación”. In La Economía Española en el Siglo XX: Una Perspectiva Histórica, edited by Nadal, Jordi, Carreras, Albert, and Sudrià, Carles, 2361. Barcelona: Ariel, 1987.Google Scholar
Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi, and Tirado, Daniel A.. “The Geographical Concentration of Industry across Spanish Regions, 1856–1995.” Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft 24 (2004): 143–60.Google Scholar
Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi. “Aglomeración y productividad del trabajo en las regiones españolas”. In Competitividad, Crecimiento y Capitalización de las Regiones Españolas, edited by Reig, Ernest, 249–76. Bilbao: Fundación BBV, 2007.Google Scholar
Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi. “A Test of the Market Potential Equation in Spain.” Applied Economics 41, no. 12 (2009a): 1487–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paluzie, Elisenda, Pons, Jordi, Silvestre, Javier, et al. “Migration and Market Potential in Spain over the Twentieth Century: A Test of the New Economic Geography.” Spanish Economic Review 11, no. 4 (2009b): 243–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Partridge, Mark D., Rickman, Dan S., Ali, Kamar, et al. “Lost in Space: Population Growth in the American Hinterlands and Small Cities.” Journal of Economic Geography 8, no. 6 (2008): 727–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peña, Daniel, and Sánchez-Albornoz, Nicolás. “Wheat Prices in Spain, 1857–1890: An Application of the Box-Jenkins Methodology.” Journal of European Economic History 2 (1984): 353–73.Google Scholar
Pons, Jordi, and Tirado, Daniel A.. “Los Determinantes de la Desigualdad Económica Regional en España.” Información Comercial Española, ICE: Revista de Economía 842 (2008): 195216.Google Scholar
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro. “Inequality, Poverty and the Kuznets Curve in Spain, 1850–2000.” European Review of Economic History 12, no. 3 (2008): 287324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, and Rosés., Joan R.The Sources of Long-Run Growth in Spain, 1850–2000.” Journal of Economic History 69, no. 4 (2009): 1063–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro, Rosés, Joan R., and Sanz-Villarroya, Isabel. “Economic Reforms and Growth in Franco's Spain.” Revista de Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History 30, no. 1 (2012): 4589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puga, Diego. “The Rise and Fall of Regional Inequalities.” European Economic Review 43, no. 2 (1999): 303–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rappaport, Jordan, and Sachs, Jeffrey D.. “The United States as a Coastal Nation.” Journal of Economic Growth 8, no. 1 (2003): 546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ringrose, David R. Spain and Europe, 1700–1900: The Myth of the Failure. Madrid: Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset, 1998.Google Scholar
Ródenas, Carmen. “Migraciones Interregionales en España, 1960–1989.” Revista de Economía Aplicada 2, no. 4 (1994): 536.Google Scholar
Rosés, Joan R., Martinez-Galarraga, Julio, and Tirado, Daniel A.. “The Upswing of Regional Income Inequality in Spain (1860–1930).” Explorations in Economic History 47, no. 2 (2010): 244–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosés, Joan R., and Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca. “Regional Wage Convergence in Spain 1850–1930.” Explorations in Economic History 41, no. 4 (2004): 404–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban, and Wright, Mark L.J.. “Urban Structure and Growth.” Review of Economic Studies 74, no. 2 (2007): 597624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca. Las Causas de la Emigración Española, 1880–1930. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1995.Google Scholar
Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca. “Those Who Left and Those Who Stayed Behind: Explaining Emigration from the Regions of Spain, 1880–1914.” Journal of Economic History 60, no. 3 (2000): 730–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvestre, Javier. “Internal Migrations in Spain, 1877–1930.” European Review of Economic History 9, no. 2 (2005): 233–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvestre, Javier. “Temporary Internal Migrations in Spain, 1860–1930.” Social Science History 31, no. 4 (2007): 539–74.Google Scholar
Simpson, James. Spanish Agriculture. The Long Siesta, 1765–1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Tedde, Pedro. “Cambio Institucional y Cambio Económico en la España del Siglo XX.” Revista de Historia Económica 12, no. 3 (1994): 525–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tirado, Daniel A., Paluzie, Elisenda, and Pons, Jordi. “Economic Integration and Industrial Location: The Case of Spain Before World War I.” Journal of Economic Geography 2, no. 3 (2002): 343–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tirado, Daniel A., Pons, Jordi, Paluzie, Elisenda, et al. “Trade Policy and Wage Gradients: Evidence from a Protectionist Turn.” Cliometrica 7, no. 3 (2013): 295318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations, 2014.Google Scholar
Venables, Anthony J.Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries.” International Economic Review 37, no. 2 (1996): 341–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wais, Francisco. Historia de los Ferrocarriles Españoles. Madrid: Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, 1987.Google Scholar
11
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Tracing the Evolution of Agglomeration Economies: Spain, 1860–1991
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Tracing the Evolution of Agglomeration Economies: Spain, 1860–1991
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Tracing the Evolution of Agglomeration Economies: Spain, 1860–1991
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *