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  • Cited by 5
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Inwood, Kris and Reid, Richard 2001. Gender and Occupational Identity in a Canadian Census. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 57.

    Lee, Chulhee 1999. Farm Value and Retirement of Farm Owners in Early-Twentieth-Century America. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 387.

    Moen, Jon R. 1994. The Unemployment and Retirement of Older Men: Further Evidence from the 1900 and 1910 Censuses. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 40.

    Carter, Susan B. Ransom, Roger L. and Sutch, Richard 1991. The Historical Labor Statistics Project at the University of California. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 52.

    Riley, James C 1991. Working health time: A comparison of preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial experience in life and health. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 169.


The Trend in the Rate of Labor Force Participation of Older Men, 1870–1930: A Reply to Moen

  • Roger L. Ransom (a1) and Richard Sutch (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2009

In the 1986 volume of this JOURNAL we discussed the frequency of retirement and downward occupational mobility (on-the-job retirement) of older men in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century.1 As we noted, study of retirement in the years before World War II is hampered by the lack of data on the labor force status of individuals. Indeed, until the concept of “gainful employment” was replaced by that of the “labor force” in 1940, the official census figures on occupations contained a large proportion of older men and women who by today's standard would be regarded as retired2.

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Daniel Scot. Smith , “A Community-Based Sample of the Older Population From the 1880 and 1900 United States Manuscript Census,” Historical Methods, 11 (Spring1978).

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The Journal of Economic History
  • ISSN: 0022-0507
  • EISSN: 1471-6372
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