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    Carter, Patricia A. 2014. Women Educators, Leaders and Activists.

    Bertaux, Nancy E. 1991. The roots of today's “women's jobs” and “men's jobs”: Using the index of dissimilarity to measure occupational segregation by gender. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 28, Issue. 4, p. 433.

    Carter, Susan B. and Savoca, Elizabeth 1991. Gender differences in learning and earning in nineteenth-century America: The role of expected job and career attachment. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 28, Issue. 3, p. 323.

    Abel, Marjorie and Folbre, Nancy 1990. A Methodology for Revising Estimates: Female Market Participation in the U.S. Before 1940. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 167.

    Killingsworth, Mark R. and Heckman, James J. 1986.

    Tannen, Michael B 1982. Women's Earnings, skill, and nativity in the progressive era. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 128.


The Work and Wages of Single Women, 1870 to 1920


Single women dominated the U.S. female labor force from 1870 to 1920. Data on the home life and working conditions of single women in 1888 and 1907 enable the estimation of their earnings functions. Work in the manufacturing sector for these women was task-oriented and payment was frequently by the piece. Earnings rose steeply with experience and peaked early; learning was mainly on-the-job. Occupational segregation by sex was a partial product of the method of payment, and the early termination of human capital investment was a function of the life-cycle labor force participation of these women, although the role of the family was also critical.

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Joanne Salop and Steven Salop , “Self-Selection and Turnover in the Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90 (Nov. 1976), 619–27

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The Journal of Economic History
  • ISSN: 0022-0507
  • EISSN: 1471-6372
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-economic-history
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