Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-qq8pn Total loading time: 0.229 Render date: 2021-06-23T07:12:44.871Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Swimming freely near the ground leads to flow-mediated equilibrium altitudes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2019

Melike Kurt
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Jackson Cochran-Carney
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Qiang Zhong
Affiliation:
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Amin Mivehchi
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Daniel B. Quinn
Affiliation:
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Keith W. Moored
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Experiments and computations are presented for a foil pitching about its leading edge near a planar, solid boundary. The foil is examined when it is constrained in space and when it is unconstrained or freely swimming in the cross-stream direction. It was found that the foil has stable equilibrium altitudes: the time-averaged lift is zero at certain altitudes and acts to return the foil to these equilibria. These stable equilibrium altitudes exist for both constrained and freely swimming foils and are independent of the initial conditions of the foil. In all cases, the equilibrium altitudes move farther from the ground when the Strouhal number is increased or the reduced frequency is decreased. Potential flow simulations predict the equilibrium altitudes to within 3 %–11 %, indicating that the equilibrium altitudes are primarily due to inviscid mechanisms. In fact, it is determined that stable equilibrium altitudes arise from an interplay among three time-averaged forces: a negative jet deflection circulatory force, a positive quasistatic circulatory force and a negative added mass force. At equilibrium, the foil exhibits a deflected wake and experiences a thrust enhancement of 4 %–17 % with no penalty in efficiency as compared to a pitching foil far from the ground. These newfound lateral stability characteristics suggest that unsteady ground effect may play a role in the control strategies of near-boundary fish and fish-inspired robots.

Type
JFM Rapids
Copyright
© 2019 Cambridge University Press 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Blake, R. W. 1983 Mechanics of gliding in birds with special reference to the influence of the ground effect. J. Biomech. 16 (8), 649654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blevins, E. & Lauder, G. V. 2013 Swimming near the substrate: a simple robotic model of stingray locomotion. Bioinspir. Biomim. 8 (1), 016005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brennen, C. E.1982 A review of added mass and fluid inertial forces. Tech. Rep. CR 82.010. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory.Google Scholar
Cui, E. & Zhang, X. 2010 Ground effect aerodynamics. In Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
Dai, L., He, G. & Zhang, X. 2016 Self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil near a solid wall. Bioinspir. Biomim. 11 (4), 046005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández-Prats, R., Raspa, V., Thiria, B., Huera-Huarte, F. & Godoy-Diana, R. 2015 Large-amplitude undulatory swimming near a wall. Bioinspir. Biomim. 10 (1), 016003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godoy-Diana, R., Aider, J.-L. & Wesfreid, J. E. 2008 Transitions in the wake of a flapping foil. Phys. Rev. E 77 (1), 016308.Google ScholarPubMed
Hainsworth, F. R. 1988 Induced drag savings from ground effect and formation flight in brown pelicans. J. Expl Biol. 135 (1), 431444.Google Scholar
Iosilevskii, G. 2008 Asymptotic theory of an oscillating wing section in weak ground effect. Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids) 27 (4), 477490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, J. & Plotkin, A. 2001 Low-speed Aerodynamics, vol. 13. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keulegan, G. H. 1958 Forces on cylinders and plates in an oscillating fluid. J. Res. Natl Bur. Stand. 2857, 423440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, B., Park, S. G., Huang, W.-X. & Sung, H. J. 2017 An autonomous flexible propulsor in a quiescent flow. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow 68, 151157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasny, R. 1986 Desingularization of periodic vortex sheet roll-up. J. Comput. Phys. 65, 292313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mivehchi, A., Dahl, J. & Licht, S. 2016 Heaving and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect. J. Fluids Struct. 63, 174187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moored, K. W. 2018 Unsteady three-dimensional boundary element method for self-propelled bio-inspired locomotion. Comput. Fluids 167, 324340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moored, K. W. & Quinn, D. B. 2018 Inviscid scaling laws of a self-propelled pitching airfoil. AIAA J. 0 (0), 115.Google Scholar
Nowroozi, B. N., Strother, J. A., Horton, J. M., Summers, A. P. & Brainerd, E. L. 2009 Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the northern spearnose poacher (Agonopsis vulsa). Zoology 112 (5), 393402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, Y., Dong, X., Zhu, Q. & Yue, D. K. P. 2012 Boundary-element method for the prediction of performance of flapping foils with leading-edge separation. J. Fluid Mech. 698, 446467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, H. & Choi, H. 2010 Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight. J. Expl Biol. 213 (19), 32693279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, S. G., Kim, B. & Sung, H. J. 2017 Hydrodynamics of a self-propelled flexible fin near the ground. Phys. Fluids 29 (5), 051902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkins, M., Elles, D., Badlissi, G., Mivehchi, A., Dahl, J. & Licht, S. 2018 Rolling and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect. Bioinspir. Biomim. 13, 016003.Google Scholar
Quinn, D. B., Lauder, G. V. & Smits, A. J. 2014a Flexible propulsors in ground effect. Bioinspir. Biomim. 9 (3), 036008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, D. B., Moored, K. W., Dewey, P. A. & Smits, A. J. 2014b Unsteady propulsion near a solid boundary. J. Fluid Mech. 742, 152170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rayner, J. M. V. 1991 On the aerodynamics of animal flight in ground effect. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 334 (1269), 119128.Google Scholar
Rozhdestvensky, K. V. 2006 Wing-in-ground effect vehicles. Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 42 (3), 211283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanida, Y. 2001 Ground effect in flight. JSME Intl J. Ser. B Fluids Therm. Engng 44 (4), 481486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Truong, T., Byun, D., Kim, M. J., Yoon, K. J. & Park, H. C. 2013a Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect. Bioinspir. Biomim. 8 (3), 036007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Truong, T., Kim, J., Kim, M. J., Park, H. C., Yoon, K. J. & Byun, D. 2013b Flow structures around a flapping wing considering ground effect. Exp. Fluids 54 (7), 1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, P. W. 1993 The effect of solid and porous channel walls on steady swimming of steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss . J. Expl Biol. 178 (1), 97108.Google Scholar
Webb, P. W. 2002 Kinematics of plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, and cod, Gadus morhua, swimming near the bottom. J. Expl Biol. 205 (14), 21252134.Google Scholar
Wie, S. Y., Lee, S. & Lee, D. J. 2009 Potential panel and time-marching free-wake-coupling analysis for helicopter rotor. J. Aircraft 46 (3), 10301041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willis, D. J.2006 An unsteady, accelerated, high order panel method with vortex particle wakes. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
Zhang, C., Huang, H. & Lu, X.-Y. 2017 Free locomotion of a flexible plate near the ground. Phys. Fluids 29 (4), 041903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Swimming freely near the ground leads to flow-mediated equilibrium altitudes
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Swimming freely near the ground leads to flow-mediated equilibrium altitudes
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Swimming freely near the ground leads to flow-mediated equilibrium altitudes
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *