Jacob, Chinthaka and Anderson, William 2017. Conditionally Averaged Large-Scale Motions in the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Insights for Aeolian Processes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 162, Issue. 1, p. 21.
Ouwersloot, H. G. Moene, A. F. Attema, J. J. and de Arellano, J. Vilà-Guerau 2017. Large-Eddy Simulation Comparison of Neutral Flow Over a Canopy: Sensitivities to Physical and Numerical Conditions, and Similarity to Other Representations. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 162, Issue. 1, p. 71.
Antoniadis, Panagiotis D. and Papalexandris, Miltiadis V. 2016. Numerical study of unsteady, thermally-stratified shear flows in superposed porous and pure-fluid domains. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 96, p. 643.
Arnqvist, Johan Bergrström, Hans and Nappo, Carmen 2016. Examination of the mechanism behind observed canopy waves. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 218-219, p. 196.
Castellví, F. Cammalleri, C. Ciraolo, G. Maltese, A. and Rossi, F. 2016. Daytime sensible heat flux estimation over heterogeneous surfaces using multitemporal land-surface temperature observations. Water Resources Research, Vol. 52, Issue. 5, p. 3457.
Devi, Thokchom Bebina Sharma, Anurag and Kumar, Bimlesh 2016. Studies on emergent flow over vegetative channel bed with downward seepage. Hydrological Sciences Journal, p. 1.
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Devi, Thokchom Bebina and Kumar, Bimlesh 2016. Channel Hydrodynamics of Submerged, Flexible Vegetation with Seepage. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 142, Issue. 11, p. 04016053.
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Kuwata, Yusuke and Suga, Kazuhiko 2016. Transport Mechanism of Interface Turbulence over Porous and Rough Walls. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol. 97, Issue. 4, p. 1071.
Marjoribanks, Timothy I. Hardy, Richard J. Lane, Stuart N. and Parsons, Daniel R. 2016. Does the canopy mixing layer model apply to highly flexible aquatic vegetation? Insights from numerical modelling. Environmental Fluid Mechanics,
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Park, Seung-Bu Gentine, Pierre Schneider, Kai and Farge, Marie 2016. Coherent Structures in the Boundary and Cloud Layers: Role of Updrafts, Subsiding Shells, and Environmental Subsidence. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 73, Issue. 4, p. 1789.
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Sullivan, Peter P. Weil, Jeffrey C. Patton, Edward G. Jonker, Harmen J. J. and Mironov, Dmitrii V. 2016. Turbulent Winds and Temperature Fronts in Large-Eddy Simulations of the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 73, Issue. 4, p. 1815.
Vanderwel, Christina and Tavoularis, Stavros 2016. Scalar dispersion by coherent structures in uniformly sheared flow generated in a water tunnel. Journal of Turbulence, Vol. 17, Issue. 7, p. 633.
We compare the turbulence statistics of the canopy/roughness sublayer (RSL) and the inertial sublayer (ISL) above. In the RSL the turbulence is more coherent and more efficient at transporting momentum and scalars and in most ways resembles a turbulent mixing layer rather than a boundary layer. To understand these differences we analyse a large-eddy simulation of the flow above and within a vegetation canopy. The three-dimensional velocity and scalar structure of a characteristic eddy is educed by compositing, using local maxima of static pressure at the canopy top as a trigger. The characteristic eddy consists of an upstream head-down sweep-generating hairpin vortex superimposed on a downstream head-up ejection-generating hairpin. The conjunction of the sweep and ejection produces the pressure maximum between the hairpins, and this is also the location of a coherent scalar microfront. This eddy structure matches that observed in simulations of homogeneous-shear flows and channel flows by several workers and also fits with earlier field and wind-tunnel measurements in canopy flows. It is significantly different from the eddy structure educed over smooth walls by conditional sampling based only on ejections as a trigger. The characteristic eddy was also reconstructed by empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, when only the dominant, sweep-generating head-down hairpin was recovered, prompting a re-evaluation of earlier results based on EOF analysis of wind-tunnel data. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain both the structure of the characteristic eddy and the key differences between turbulence in the canopy/RSL and the ISL above. This model suggests a new scaling length that can be used to collapse turbulence moments over vegetation canopies.
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