Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

  • M.-J. Thoraval (a1), K. Takehara (a2), T. G. Etoh (a2) and S. T. Thoroddsen (a1)
Abstract

We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within $50~\mathrm{\mu} \mathrm{s} $ after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number $Re$ above ${\sim }12\hspace{0.167em} 000$ , up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is ${\sim }20\hspace{0.167em} \% $ of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: sigurdur.thoroddsen@kaust.edu.sa
References
Hide All
Agbaglah, G., Delaux, S., Fuster, D., Hoepffner, J., Josserand, C., Popinet, S., Ray, P., Scardovelli, R. & Zaleski, S. 2011 Parallel simulation of multiphase flows using octree adaptivity and the volume-of-fluid method. C. R. Mec. 339 (2–3), 194207.
Ashmore, J. & Stone, H. A. 2004 Instability of a rotating thread in a second immiscible liquid. Phys. Fluids 16 (1), 2938.
Castrejón-Pita, A. A., Castrejón-Pita, J. R. & Hutchings, I. M. 2012 Experimental observation of von Kármán vortices during drop impact. Phys. Rev. E 86 (4), 045301(R).
Chandrasekhar, S. 1961 Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. Dover.
Czerski, H., Twardowski, M., Zhang, X. & Vagle, S. 2011 Resolving size distributions of bubbles with radii less than with optical and acoustical methods. J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00H11.
Davidson, M. R. 2002 Spreading of an inviscid drop impacting on a liquid film. Chem. Engng Sci. 57 (17), 36393647.
Driscoll, M. M. & Nagel, S. R. 2011 Ultrafast interference imaging of air in splashing dynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (15), 154502.
Eggers, J. & Villermaux, E. 2008 Physics of liquid jets. Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 (3), 036601.
Etoh, T. G., Poggemann, D., Kreider, G., Mutoh, H., Theuwissen, A. J. P., Ruckelshausen, A., Kondo, Y., Maruno, H., Takubo, K., Soya, H., Takehara, K., Okinaka, T. & Takano, Y. 2003 An image sensor which captures 100 consecutive frames at 1 000 000 frames/s. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50 (1), 144151.
Gunn, R. & Kinzer, G. D. 1949 The terminal velocity of fall for water droplets in stagnant air. J. Meteorol. 6 (4), 243248.
Hicks, P. D. & Purvis, R. 2010 Air cushioning and bubble entrapment in three-dimensional droplet impacts. J. Fluid Mech. 649, 135163.
Howison, S. D., Ockendon, J. R., Oliver, J. M., Purvis, R. & Smith, F. T. 2005 Droplet impact on a thin fluid layer. J. Fluid Mech. 542, 123.
Josserand, C. & Zaleski, S. 2003 Droplet splashing on a thin liquid film. Phys. Fluids 15 (6), 16501657.
Kiger, K. T. & Duncan, J. H. 2012 Air-entrainment mechanisms in plunging jets and breaking waves. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 563596.
Kolinski, J. M., Rubinstein, S. M., Mandre, S., Brenner, M. P., Weitz, D. A. & Mahadevan, L. 2012 Skating on a film of air: drops impacting on a surface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (7), 074503.
Korobkin, A. A., Ellis, A. S. & Smith, F. T. 2008 Trapping of air in impact between a body and shallow water. J. Fluid Mech. 611, 365394.
Lamb, H. 1975 Hydrodynamics, 6th edn. Dover.
Lasheras, J. C. & Choi, H. 1988 Three-dimensional instability of a plane free shear layer: an experimental study of the formation and evolution of streamwise vortices. J. Fluid Mech. 189, 5386.
Liow, J. L. & Cole, D. E. 2007 Bubble entrapment mechanisms during the impact of a water drop. In 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conf., pp. 866–869. School of Engineering, The University of Queensland.
Mani, M., Mandre, S. & Brenner, M. P. 2010 Events before droplet splashing on a solid surface. J. Fluid Mech. 647, 163185.
Oguz, H. N. & Prosperetti, A. 1989 Surface-tension effects in the contact of liquid surfaces. J. Fluid Mech. 203, 149171.
Peck, B. & Sigurdson, L. 1994 The three-dimensional vortex structure of an impacting water drop. Phys. Fluids 6 (2), 564576.
Popinet, S. 2003 Gerris: a tree-based adaptive solver for the incompressible Euler equations in complex geometries. J. Comput. Phys. 190 (2), 572600.
Popinet, S. 2009 An accurate adaptive solver for surface-tension-driven interfacial flows. J. Comput. Phys. 228 (16), 58385866.
Pumphrey, H. C., Crum, L. A. & Bjørnø, L. 1989 Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85 (4), 15181526.
Rayleigh, Lord 1879 On the capillary phenomena of jets. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 29 (196–199), 7197.
Roisman, I., Gambaryan-Roisman, T., Kyriopoulos, O., Stephan, P. & Tropea, C. 2007 Breakup and atomization of a stretching crown. Phys. Rev. E 76 (2), 026302.
Rosenthal, D. K. 1962 The shape and stability of a bubble at the axis of a rotating liquid. J. Fluid Mech. 12 (3), 358366.
Saylor, J. R. & Grizzard, N. K. 2004 The optimal drop shape for vortices generated by drop impacts: the effect of surfactants on the drop surface. Exp. Fluids 36 (5), 783790.
Thoraval, M.-J., Takehara, K., Etoh, T. G., Popinet, S., Ray, P., Josserand, C., Zaleski, S. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2012 von Kármán vortex street within an impacting drop. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (26), 264506.
Thoroddsen, S. T. 2002 The ejecta sheet generated by the impact of a drop. J. Fluid Mech. 451, 373381.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Etoh, T. G. & Takehara, K. 2003 Air entrapment under an impacting drop. J. Fluid Mech. 478, 125134.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Etoh, T. G. & Takehara, K. 2008 High-speed imaging of drops and bubbles. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 40, 257285.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Takehara, K. & Etoh, T. G. 2012 Micro-splashing by drop impacts. J. Fluid Mech. 706, 560570.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Thoraval, M.-J., Takehara, K. & Etoh, T. G. 2011 Droplet splashing by a slingshot mechanism. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (3), 034501.
van der Veen, R. C. A., Tran, T., Lohse, D. & Sun, C. 2012 Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry. Phys. Rev. E 85 (2), 026315.
Wanninkhof, R., Asher, W. E., Ho, D. T., Sweeney, C. & McGillis, W. R. 2009 Advances in quantifying air–sea gas exchange and environmental forcing. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 213244.
Watanabe, Y., Saeki, H. & Hosking, R. J. 2005 Three-dimensional vortex structure under breaking waves. J. Fluid Mech. 545, 291328.
Weiss, D. A. & Yarin, A. L. 1999 Single drop impact onto liquid films: neck distortion, jetting, tiny bubble entrainment, and crown formation. J. Fluid Mech. 385, 229254.
Williamson, C. H. K. 1988 The existence of two stages in the transition to three-dimensionality of a cylinder wake. Phys. Fluids 31 (11), 31653168.
Williamson, C. H. K. 1992 The natural and forced formation of spot-like ‘vortex dislocations’ in the transition of a wake. J. Fluid Mech. 243, 393441.
Williamson, C. H. K. 1996 Vortex dynamics in the cylinder wake. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 28, 477539.
Yarin, A. L. 2006 Drop impact dynamics: splashing, spreading, receding, bouncing Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 159192.
Zhang, L. V., Toole, J., Fezzaa, K. & Deegan, R. D. 2012 Evolution of the ejecta sheet from the impact of a drop with a deep pool. J. Fluid Mech. 690, 515.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
MathJax

JFM classification

Type Description Title
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 13.a

 Video (2.6 MB)
2.6 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 7(e).

 Video (934 KB)
934 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 16.

 Video (872 KB)
872 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 10(c).

 Video (755 KB)
755 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 11(c).

 Video (1.2 MB)
1.2 MB
VIDEO
Supplementary materials

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 10(d).

 Video (746 KB)
746 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 19.a

 Video (533 KB)
533 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 14

 Video (759 KB)
759 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 7(f).

 Video (826 KB)
826 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 11.a

 Video (1.7 MB)
1.7 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 10(a).

 Video (748 KB)
748 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 13.b

 Video (6.8 MB)
6.8 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 4(e).

 Video (643 KB)
643 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 19.b

 Video (716 KB)
716 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 13.c

 Video (652 KB)
652 KB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Thorval et al. supplementary movies
Zipped up avi and mp4 movie files

 Unknown (44.8 MB)
44.8 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 4(f).

 Video (494 KB)
494 KB
VIDEO
Supplementary materials

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 11(b).

 Video (2.1 MB)
2.1 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 7(d) and 10(b).

 Video (567 KB)
567 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 4(d).

 Video (669 KB)
669 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 18a.b

 Video (813 KB)
813 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 18.c

 Video (8.0 MB)
8.0 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 18.c zoom.

 Video (12.5 MB)
12.5 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 20.

 Video (1.1 MB)
1.1 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Thoraval et al. supplementary movie
Movie with Figure 5.

 Video (466 KB)
466 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed