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  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 720
  • April 2013, pp. 104-139

The internal gravity wave field emitted by a stably stratified turbulent wake

  • Ammar M. Abdilghanie (a1) and Peter J. Diamessis (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.640
  • Published online: 27 February 2013
Abstract
Abstract

The internal gravity wave (IGW) field emitted by a stably stratified, initially turbulent, wake of a towed sphere in a linearly stratified fluid is studied using fully nonlinear numerical simulations. A wide range of Reynolds numbers, $\mathit{Re}= UD/ \nu \in [5\times 1{0}^{3} , 1{0}^{5} ] $ and internal Froude numbers, $\mathit{Fr}= 2U/ (ND)\in [4, 16, 64] $ ($U$, $D$ are characteristic body velocity and length scales, and $N$ is the buoyancy frequency) is examined. At the higher $\mathit{Re}$ examined, secondary Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities and the resulting turbulent events, directly linked to a prolonged non-equilibrium (NEQ) regime in wake evolution, are responsible for IGW emission that persists up to $Nt\approx 100$. In contrast, IGW emission at the lower $\mathit{Re}$ investigated does not continue beyond $Nt\approx 50$ for the three $\mathit{Fr}$ values considered. The horizontal wavelengths of the most energetic IGWs, obtained by continuous wavelet transforms, increase with $\mathit{Fr}$ and appear to be smaller at the higher $\mathit{Re}$, especially at late times. The initial value of these wavelengths is set by the wake height at the beginning of the NEQ regime. At the lower $\mathit{Re}$, consistent with a recently proposed model, the waves propagate over a narrow range of angles that minimize viscous decay along their path. At the higher $\mathit{Re}$, wave motion is much less affected by viscosity, at least initially, and early-time wave propagation angles extend over a broader range of values which are linked to increased efficiency in momentum extraction from the turbulent wake source.

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Email address for correspondence: pjd38@cornell.edu
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