The purpose of this study is to analyse the transport and stirring of fluid that occurs owing to the formation and growth of a laminar vortex ring. Experimental data was collected upstream and downstream of the exit plane of a piston-cylinder apparatus by particle-image velocimetry. This data was used to compute Lagrangian coherent structures to demonstrate how fluid is advected during the transient process of vortex ring formation. Similar computations were performed from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data, which showed qualitative agreement with the experimental results, although the CFD data provides better resolution in the boundary layer of the cylinder. A parametric study is performed to demonstrate how varying the piston-stroke length-to-diameter ratio affects fluid entrainment during formation. Additionally, we study how regions of fluid are stirred together during vortex formation to help establish a quantitative understanding of the role of vortical flows in mixing. We show that identification of the flow geometry during vortex formation can aid in the determination of efficient stirring. We compare this framework with a traditional stirring metric and show that the framework presented in this paper is better suited for understanding stirring/mixing in transient flow problems. A movie is available with the online version of the paper.
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Shadden et al. supplementary movie
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