Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Mass changes of alpine glaciers at the eastern margin of the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields between 2000 and 2012

  • DANIEL FALASCHI (a1), TOBIAS BOLCH (a2), PHILIPP RASTNER (a2), MARÍA GABRIELA LENZANO (a1), LUIS LENZANO (a1), ANDRÉS LO VECCHIO (a1) and SILVANA MORAGUES (a1)...
Abstract

Despite renewed efforts to better understand glacier change and recognize glacier change trends in the Andes, relatively large areas in the Andes of Argentina and Chile are still not investigated. In this study, we report on glacier elevation and mass changes in the outer region of the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields in the Southern Patagonian Andes. A newly-compiled Landsat ETM+ derived glacier inventory (consisting of 2253 glaciers and ~1314 ± 66 km2 of ice area) and differencing of the SRTM and SPOT5 DEMs were used to derive glacier-specific elevation changes over the 2000–12 period. The investigated glaciers showed a volume change of −0.71 ± 0.55 km3 a−1, yielding a surface lowering of 0.52 ± 0.35 m a−1 on average and an overall mass loss of 0.46 ± 0.37 m w.e. a−1. Highly variable individual glacier responses were observed and interestingly, they were less negative than previously reported for the neighboring Patagonian Icefields.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Mass changes of alpine glaciers at the eastern margin of the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields between 2000 and 2012
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Mass changes of alpine glaciers at the eastern margin of the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields between 2000 and 2012
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Mass changes of alpine glaciers at the eastern margin of the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields between 2000 and 2012
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Daniel Falaschi <dfalaschi@mendoza-conicet.gov.ar>
References
Hide All
Abermann, J, Kuhn, M and Fischer, A (2011) Climatic controls of glacier distribution and changes in Austria. Ann. Glaciol., 52(59), 8390
Aniya, M (1988) Glacier inventory for the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, and variations 1944/45 to 1985/86. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 20(2), 179187
Aniya, M (1999) Recent glacier variations of the Hielos Patagónicos, South America, and their contribution to sea-level change. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 31(2), 165173 (doi: 10.2307/1552604)
Aniya, M (2001) Glacier variations of Hielo Patagónico Norte, Chilean Patagonia, since 1944/45, with special reference to variations between 1995/96 and 1999/2000. Bull. Glacier Res., 18, 5563
Aniya, M, Sato, H, Naruse, R, Skvarca, P and Casassa, G (1997) Recent glacier variations in the Southern Patagonia Icefield, South America. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 29(1), 112 (doi: 10.1191/0959683602hl526rr)
Bakke, J and Nesje, A (2011) Equilibrium-line-altitude. In Singh, V, Singh, P and Haritashya, U, eds. Encyclopedia of snow, ice and glaciers. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 272 pp
Benn, DI and Evans, DJA (2010) Glaciers and glaciation, 2nd edn. Hodder Education, London
Berthier, E, Arnaud, Y, Vincent, C and Remy, F (2006) Biases of SRTM in high-mountain areas: implications for the monitoring of glacier volume changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(8), L08502 (doi: 10.1029/2006GL025862)
Berthier, E and 5 others (2007) Remote sensing estimates of glacier mass balances in the Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalaya, India). Remote Sens. Environ., 108, 327338 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2006.11.017)
Berthier, E, Schiefer, E, Clarke, GKC, Menounos, B and Remy, F (2010) Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery. Nat. Geosci., 3(2), 9295 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo737)
Berthier, E, Cabot, V, Vincent, C and Six, D (2016) Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area. Frontiers Earth Sci., 4(63) (doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00063)
Bhattachayra, A and 5 others (2016) Overall recession and mass budget of Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalayas, from 1965 to 2015 using remote sensing data. J. Glaciol., 62(236), 11151133 (doi: 10.1017/jog.2016.96)
Bolch, T, Buchroithner, M, Pieczonka, T and Kunert, A (2008a) Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data. J. Glaciol., 54(187), 592600 (doi: 10.3189/002214308786570782)
Bolch, T, Buchroitner, M, Peters, J, Baessler, M and Bajracharya, S (2008b) Identification of glacier motion and potentially dangerous glacial lakes in the Mt. Everest region/Nepal using spaceborne imagery. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 13291340
Bolch, T, Menounos, B and Wheate, RD (2010a) Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 1985–2005. Remote Sens. Environ., 114(1), 127137 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.08.015)
Bolch, T and 7 others (2010b) A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976–2009. Cryosphere, 4, 419433 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-419-2010)
Bolch, T, Pieczonka, T and Benn, DI (2011) Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal. Himalaya). Cryosphere, 5, 349358 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5-349-2011)
Bown, F, Rivera, A, Zenteno, P, Bravo, C and Cackwell, F (2014) First glacier inventory and recent glacier variations of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and adjacent islands in southern Chile. In Kargel, JS, Leonard, GJ, Bishop, MP, Kääb, A and Raup, B, eds. Global land ice measurements from space. Praxis-Springer, Heidelberg, 661674
Braithwaite, RJ and Raper, SCB (2007) Glaciological conditions in seven contrasting regions estimated with the degree-day model. Ann. Glaciol., 46, 297302
Braithwaite, RJ and Raper, SCB (2009) Estimating equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) from glacier inventory data. Ann. Glaciol., 50(53), 127132
Buttstädt, M, Möller, M, Iturraspe, R and Schneider, C (2009) Mass balance evolution of Martial Este Glacier, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) for the period 1960–2099. Adv. Geosci., 22, 117124
Carturan, L and 10 others (2013) Area and volume loss of the glaciers in the Ortles-Cevedale group (Eastern Italian Alps): controls and imbalance of the remaining glaciers. Cryosphere, 7, 13391359 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-1339-2013)
Cogley, JG (2009) Geodetic and direct mass-balance measurements: comparison and joint analysis. Ann. Glaciol., 50(50), 96100 (doi: 10.3189/172756409787769744)
Condom, T, Coudrain, A, Sicart, JE and Théry, S (2007) Computation of the space and time evolution of equilibrium-line altitudes on Andean glaciers (10°N–55°S). Global Planet. Change, 59, 189202 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.11.021)
Chen, JL, Wilson, CR, Tapley, BD, Blankenship, DD and Ivins, ER (2007) Patagonia ice field melting observed by gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE). Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22501 (doi: 10.1029/2007GL031871)
Davies, BJ and Glasser, NF (2012) Accelerating shrinkage of Patagonian glaciers from the Little Ice Age (~AD 1870) to 2011. J. Glaciol., 58(212), 10631084 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG12J026)
Falaschi, D, Bravo, C, Masiokas, M, Villalba, R and Rivera, A (2013) First glacier inventory and recent changes in glacier area in the Monte San Lorenzo Region (47°S), Southern Patagonian Andes, South America. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 45(1), 1928 (doi: 10.1657/1938-4246-45.1.19)
Fischer, M, Huss, M and Hoelzle, M (2015) Surface elevation and mass changes of all Swiss glaciers 1980–2010. Cryosphere, 9, 525540 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-525-2015)
Fisher, PF and Tate, NJ (2006) Causes and consequences of error in digital elevation models. Prog. Phys. Geograph., 30(4), 467489
Frey, H and Paul, F (2012) On the suitability of the SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM for the compilation of topographic parameters in glacier inventories. Int. J. Appl. Earth Observ. Geoinfo., 18, 480490 (doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2011.09.020)
Gardelle, J, Berthier, E and Arnaud, Y (2012) Impact of resolution and radar penetration on glacier elevation changes computed from DEM differencing. J. Glaciol., 58(208), 419422 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J175)
Gardelle, J, Berthier, E, Arnaud, Y and Kääb, A (2013) Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011. Cryosphere, 7, 12631286 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-1263-2013)
Gardner, AS and 15 others (2013) A reconciled estimate of glacier contributions to sea-level rise: 2003 to 2009. Science, 340(6134), 852857 (doi: 10.1126/science.1234532)
Garreaud, RD (2009) The Andes climate and weather. Adv. Geosci., 7, 19
Garreaud, R, López, P, Minvielle, M and Rojas, M (2013) Large scale control on the Patagonia climate. J. Clim., 26, 215230 (doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-001.1)
Giessen, RH and Oerlemans, J (2013) Climate-model induced differences in the 21st century global and regional glacier contributions to sea-level rise. Clim. Dynam., 14(11–12), 32833300 (doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1743-7)
Hock, R, de Woul, M, Radić, V and Dyurgerov, M (2009) Mountain glaciers and ice caps around Antarctica make a large sea-level rise contribution. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07501 (doi: 10.1029/2008GL037020)
Hoelzle, M and 5 others (2007) The application of glacier inventory data for estimating past climate change effects on mountain glaciers: a comparison between the European Alps and the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Global Planet. Change, 56, 6982
Huss, M (2013) Density assumptions for converting geodetic glacier volume change to mass change. Cryosphere, 7, 877887 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-877-2013)
Ivins, ER and 5 others (2011) On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003–2009. J. Geophys. Res., 116, B02403 (doi: 10.1029/2010JB007607)
Jaber, WA, Floricioiu, D, Rott, H and Eineder, M (2013) Surface elevation changes of glaciers derived from SRTM and TanDEM-X DEM differences. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2013), Melbourne, Australia, 21–26 July 2013. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ, 1893–1896, ISBN 978-1-4799-1114-1
Jacob, T, Wahr, J, Pfeffer, WT and Swenson, S (2012) Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise. Nature, 482, 514518 (doi: 10.1038/nature10847)
Kääb, A, Treichler, D, Nuth, C and Berthier, E (2015) Contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya. Cryosphere, 9, 557564 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-557-2015)
Kienholz, C, Hock, R and Arendt, AA (2013) A new semi-automatic approach for dividing glacier complexes into individual glaciers. J. Glaciol., 59(217), 925936 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J176)
Koblet, T and 6 others (2010) Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciaren, Sweden (1959–99) – part 1: determination of length, area, and volume changes. Cryosphere, 4, 333343 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-333-2010)
Korona, J, Berthier, E, Bernard, M, Rémy, F and Thouvenot, E (2009) SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar ice: reference images and topographies during the fourth international polar year (2007–2009). ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 64, 204212 (doi: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2008.10.005)
Le Bris, R and Paul, F (2015) Glacier-specific elevation changes in western Alaska. Ann. Glaciol., 56(70), 184192 (doi: 10.3189/2015AoG70A227)
Lenzano, MG (2013) Assesment of ASTER DTM for glaciological applications in Central Andes. Mt. Aconcagua, Argentina. J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Geoinfo. Process., 3, 197208
Lüthje, M, Pedersen, LT, Reeh, N and Greuell, W (2006) Modelling the evolution of supraglacial lakes on the West Greenland ice-sheet margin. J. Glaciol., 52(179), 608618 (doi: 10.3189/172756506781828386)
Marzeion, B, Jarosch, AH and Hofer, M (2012) Past and future sea-level change from the surface mass balance of glaciers. Cryosphere, 6, 12951322 (doi: 10.5194/tc-6-1295-2012)
Masiokas, MH and 12 others (2015) Inventory and recent changes of small glaciers on the northeast margin of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, Argentina. J. Glaciol., 61(227), 511523 (doi: 10.3189/2015JoG14J094)
Möller, M and Schneider, C (2010) Volume change at Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, 1984–2000: a reassessment based on new findings. J. Glaciol., 56(196), 363365
Nuimura, T, Fujita, K, Yamaguchi, S and Sharma, RR (2012) Elevation changes of glaciers revealed by multitemporal digital elevation models calibrated by GPS survey in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, 1992–2008. J. Glaciol., 58(210), 648656 (doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J061)
Nuth, C and Kääb, A (2011) Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change. Cryosphere, 5, 271290 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5-271-2011)
Paul, F (2008) Calculation of glacier elevation changes with SRTM: is there an elevation-dependent bias? J. Glaciol., 54, 945946 (doi: 10.3189/002214308787779960)
Paul, F and Andreassen, LM (2009) A new glacier inventory for the Svartisen region, Norway, from Landsat ETM_data: challenges and change assessment. J. Glaciol., 55, 607619
Paul, F and Haeberli, W (2008) Spatial variability of glacier elevation changes in the Swiss Alps obtained from two digital elevation models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(21), L21502 (doi: 10.1029/2008GL034718)
Paul, F and Mölg, N (2014) Hasty retreat of glaciers in northern Patagonia from 1985 to 2011. J. Glaciol., 60(224), 10331043 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG14J104)
Paul, F and 18 others (2013) On the accuracy of glacier outlines derived from remote sensing data. Ann. Glaciol., 54(63), 171182 (doi: 10.3189/2013AoG63A296)
Paul, F and 24 others (2015) The glaciers climate change initiative: methods for creating glacier area, elevation change and velocity products. Remote Sens. Environ., 162, 408426 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.07.043)
Pfeffer, WT and 19 others (2014) The Randolph Glacier Inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers. J. Glaciol., 60(221), 537552 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J176)
Pieczonka, T and Bolch, T (2015) Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between ~1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery. Global Planet. Change, 128, 113 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.014)
Pieczonka, T, Bolch, T and Buchroithner, M (2011) Generation and evaluation of multitemporal digital terrain models of the Mt. Everest area from different optical sensors. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 66, 927940 (doi: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2011.07.003)
Post, A, O'Neel, S, Motyka, RJ and Streveler, G (2011) A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate. Eos, 97(37), 305306 (doi: 10.1029/2011EO370001)
Quincey, DJ and 6 others (2007) Early recognition of glacial lake hazards in the Himalaya using remote sensing datasets. Global Planet. Change, 56, 137152
Racoviteanu, AE, Paul, F, Raup, B, Khalsa, SJS and Armstrong, R (2009) Challenges and recommendations in mapping of glacier parameters from space: results of the 2008 Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) workshop, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Ann. Glaciol., 50, 5369
Radić, V and Hock, R (2011) Regionally differentiated contribution of mountain glaciers and ice caps to future sea-level rise. Nat. Geosci., 4, 9194 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo1052)
Rastner, P and 5 others (2012) The first complete inventory of the local glaciers and ice caps on Greenland. Cryosphere, 6, 14831495 (doi: 10.5194/tc-6-1483-2012)
Rastner, P, Joerg, PC, Huss, M and Zemp, M (2016) Historical analysis and visualization of the retreat of Findelengletscher, Switzerland, 1859–2010. Global Planet. Change, 145, 6777 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.07.005)
Rignot, E, Echelmeyer, K and Krabill, W (2001) Penetration depth of interferometric synthetic-aperture radar signals in snow and ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(18), 35013504 (doi: 10.1029/2000GL012484)
Rignot, E, Rivera, A and Casassa, G (2003) Contribution of the Patagonian icefields of South America to sea level rise. Science, 302(5644), 434437
Rivera, A, Casassa, G, Bamber, J and Kääb, A (2005) Ice-elevation changes of Glaciar Chico, southern Patagonia, using ASTER DEMs, aerial photographs and GPS data. J. Glaciol., 51(172), 105112
Rivera, A, Benham, T, Casassa, G, Bamber, J and Dowdeswell, JA (2007) Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile. Global Planet. Change, 59, 126137 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.11.037)
Rivera, A, Corripio, J, Bravo, C and Cisternas, S (2012) Glaciar Jorge Montt (Chilean Patagonia) dynamics derived from photos obtained by fixed cameras and satellite image feature tracking. Ann. Glaciol., 53(60), 147155 (doi: 10.3189/2012AoG60A152)
Rolstad, C, Haug, T and Denby, B (2009) Spatially integrated geodetic glacier mass balance and its uncertainty based on geostatistical analysis: application to the western Svartisen ice cap, Norway. J. Glaciol., 55, 666680
Ruiz, L, Berthier, E, Viale, M, Pitte, P and Masiokas, M (2016) Recent geodetic mass balance of Monte Tronador glaciers, North Patagonian Andes. Cryosphere Discuss. (doi: 10.5194/tc-2016-170)
Sagredo, EA and Lowell, TV (2012) Climatology of Andean glaciers: a framework to understand glacier response to climate change. Global Planet. Change, 86–87, 101109 (doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.02.010)
Sakakibara, D and Sugiyama, S (2014) Ice-front variations and speed changes of calving glaciers in the Southern Patagonia Icefield. J. Geophys. Res. F: Earth Surf., 119, 25412554 (doi: 10.1002/2014JF003148)
Sapiano, JJ, Harrison, WD and Echelmeyer, KA (1998) Elevation, volume and terminus changes of nine glaciers in North America. J. Glaciol., 44, 119135
Schaefer, M, Machguth, H, Falvey, M, Casassa, G and Rignot, E (2015) Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield. Cryosphere, 9, 2535 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-25-2015)
Schneider, C, Schnirch, M, Acuña, C, Casassa, G and Kilian, R (2007) Glacier inventory of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap in the Southern Andes and glacier changes observed during recent decades. Global Planet. Change, 59, 87100
Sexton, JO, Bax, T, Siqueira, P, Swenson, JJ and Hensley, S (2009) A comparison of lidar, radar, and field measurements of canopy height in pine and hardwood forests of southeastern North America. Forest Ecol. Manag., 257(3), 11361147 (doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.11.022)
Strelin, JA and Iturraspe, R (2007) Recent evolution and mass balance of Cordón Martial glaciers. Cordillera Fueguina Oriental. Global Planet. Change, 59(1–4), 1726
Villalba, R and 9 others (2003) Large-scale temperature changes across the Southern Andes: 20th-century variations in the context of the past 400 years. Clim. Change, 59, 177232 (doi: 10.1023/A:1024452701153)
Warren, CR and Sugden, DE (1993) The Patagonian icefields: a glaciological review. Arct. Antarct. Alpine Res., 25(4), 316331
WGMS (2013) Glacier mass balance bulletin no. 12 (2010–2011). In Zemp, M and 6 others, eds. ICSU(WDS)/IUGG(IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland (doi: 10.5904/wgms-fog-2013-11)
Willatt, RC, Giles, KA, Laxon, SW and Worby, A (2010) Field investigations of Ku-band radar penetration into snow cover on Antarctic Sea Ice. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 48(1), 365372 (doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2009.2028237)
Willis, MJ, Melkonian, AK, Pritchard, ME and Ramage, JM (2012a) Ice loss rates at the Northern Patagonian Icefield derived using a decade of satellite remote sensing. Remote Sens. Environ., 117, 184198 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.017)
Willis, MJ, Melkonian, AK, Pritchard, ME and Rivera, A (2012b) Ice loss from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, South America, between 2000 and 2012. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L17501 (doi: 10.1029/2012GL053136)
Wilson, R, Carrión, D and Rivera, A (2016) Detailed dynamic, geometric and supraglacial moraine data for Glaciar Pio XI, the only surge-type glacier of the Southern Patagonia Icefield. Ann. Glaciol., 57(73), 119130 (doi: 10.1017/aog.2016.32)
Yde, JC and Paasche, Ø (2010) Reconstructing climate change: not all glaciers suitable. Eos Trans. AGU, 91(21), 189190 (doi: 10.1029/2010EO210001)
Zemp, M and 16 others (2013) Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series. Cryosphere, 7, 12271245 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-1227-2013)
Zemp, M and 38 others (2015) Historically unprecedented global glacier decline in the early 21st Century. J. Glaciol., 61(228), 745762 (doi: 10.3189/2015JoG15J017)
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0022-1430
  • EISSN: 1727-5652
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords