Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Surface and basal boundary conditions at the Southern McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves, Antarctica

  • C. GRIMA (a1), I. KOCH (a2) (a3), J. S. GREENBAUM (a1), K. M. SODERLUND (a1), D. D. BLANKENSHIP (a1), D. A. YOUNG (a1), D. M. SCHROEDER (a4) (a5) and S. FITZSIMONS (a3)...

Abstract

We derive the surface and basal radar reflectance and backscatter coefficients of the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf (SMIS) and part of the nearby Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, from radar statistical reconnaissance using a 60-MHZ airborne survey. The surface coefficients are further inverted in terms of snow density and roughness, providing a spatial distribution of the processes contributing to the surface boundary conditions. We disentangle the basal coefficients from surface transmission losses, and we provide the basal coherent content, an indicator of the boundary geometric disorder that is also self-corrected from englacial attenuation. The basal radar properties exhibit sharp gradients along specific iso-depths, suggesting an abrupt modification of the ice composition and geometric structure. We interpret this behavior as locations where the pressure-melting point is reached, outlining fields of freezing and melting ice. Basal steps are observed at both SMIS and RIS, suggesting a common geometric expression of widespread basal processes. This technique offers a simultaneous view of both the surface and basal boundary conditions to help investigate the ice-shelf stability, while its application to airborne data significantly improves coverage of the difficult-to-observe ice–ocean boundary. It also provides constraints on thermohaline circulation in ice shelves cavities, which are analogs for ice-covered ocean worlds.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Surface and basal boundary conditions at the Southern McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Surface and basal boundary conditions at the Southern McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Surface and basal boundary conditions at the Southern McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the same Creative Commons licence is included and the original work is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.

Corresponding author

Correspondence: C. Grima <cgrima@ig.utexas.edu>

References

Hide All
Akkermans, E, Wolf, PE and Maynard, R (1986) Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape. Phys. Rev. Lett., 56(14), 14711474 (doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.1471)
Alley, KE, Scambos, TA, Siegfried, MR and Fricker, HA (2016) Impacts of warm water on Antarctic ice shelf stability through basal channel formation. Nat. Geosci., 9, 290293 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo2675)
Arcone, SA and 5 others (2016) Ground-penetrating radar profiles of the Mcmurdo shear zone, Antarctica, acquired with an unmanned rover: interpretation of crevasses, fractures, and folds within firn and marine ice. Geophysics, 81(1), WA21WA34 (doi: 10.1190/geo2015-0132.1)
Banwell, AF and Macayeal, DR (2015) Ice-shelf fracture due to viscoelastic flexure stress induced by fill/drain cycles of supraglacial lakes. Antarct. Sci., 27, 587597 (doi: 10.1017/S0954102015000292)
Berger, S, Favier, L, Drews, R, Derwael, JJ and Pattyn, F (2016) The control of an uncharted pinning point on the flow of an Antarctic ice shelf. J. Glaciol., 62, 3745 (doi: 10.1017/jog.2016.7)
Bevan, SL and 9 others (2017) Centuries of intense surface melt on Larsen C ice shelf. Cryosphere, 11, 27432753 (doi: 10.5194/tc-11-2743-2017)
Bindschadler, R and 8 others (2008) The landsat image mosaic of Antarctica. Rem. Sens. Environ., 112, 42144226.
Bindschadler, R and 17 others (2011) Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the international polar year. Cryosphere, 5, 569588 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5-569-2011)
Blankenship, DD, Young, DY, Moore, WB and Moore, JC (2009) Radar sounding of Europa's subsurface properties and processes: the view from Earth, 631–653. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Clifford, AE (2005) The physiography, flow characteristics and vulnerability of the Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Ph.D. thesis, University of Otago, New Zealand.
Cook, S, Galton-Fenzi, BK, Ligtenberg, SRM and Coleman, R (2018) Brief communication: widespread potential for seawater infiltration on Antarctic ice shelves. Cryosphere Discussions, 12, 38533859 (doi: 10.5194/tc-2018-146)
Cook, AJ and Vaughan, DG (2010) Overview of areal changes of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past 50 years. Cryosphere, 4(1), 7798 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-77-2010)
Craven, M and 7 others (2005) Borehole imagery of meteoric and marine ice layers in the amery ice shelf, East Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 51(172), 7584 (doi: 10.3189/172756505781829511)
Craven, M, Allison, I, Fricker, HA and Warner, R (2009) Properties of a marine ice layer under the amery ice shelf, East Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 55, 717728 (doi: 10.3189/002214309789470941)
Daly, SF (1984) Frazil ice dynamics. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab Hanover NH.
De Angelis, H and Skvarca, P (2003) Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse. Science, 299(5579), 15601563 (doi: 10.1126/science.1077987)
Depoorter, MA and 6 others (2013) Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. Nature, 502(7469), 8992 (doi: 10.1038/nature12567)
De Rydt, J, Hilmar Gudmundsson, G, Nagler, T, Wuite, J and King, EC (2018) Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the brunt ice shelf, East Antarctica. Cryosphere, 12, 505520 (doi: 10.5194/tc-12-505-2018)
Destrempes, F and Cloutier, G (2010) A critical review and uniformized representation of statistical distributions modeling the ultrasound echo envelope. Ultrasound. Med. Biol., 36(7), 1037–51 (doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.04.001)
Dierckx, M and Tison, JL (2013) Marine ice deformation experiments: an empirical validation of creep parameters. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 134138 (doi: 10.1029/2012GL054197)
Dinniman, MS, Klinck, JM and Smith, WO (2007) Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross sea, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans., 112, C11013 (doi: 10.1029/2006JC004036)
Dow, CF and 8 others (2018) Basal channels drive active surface hydrology and transverse ice shelf fracture. Sci. Adv., 4(6), eaao7212 (doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao7212)
Dupont, TK and Alley, RB (2005) Assessment of the importance of ice-shelf buttressing to ice-sheet flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04503 (doi: 10.1029/2004GL022024)
Dutrieux, P and 6 others (2014) Basal terraces on melting ice shelves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 55065513 (doi: 10.1002/2014GL060618)
Fitzsimons, S, Mager, S, Frew, R, Clifford, A and Wilson, G (2012a) Formation of ice-shelf moraines by accretion of sea water and marine sediment at the southern margin of the Mcmurdo ice shelf, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 53(60), 211220 (doi: 10.3189/2012AoG60A155)
Fitzsimons, S, Mager, S, Frew, R, Clifford, A and Wilson, G (2012b) Formation of ice-shelf moraines by accretion of sea water and marine sediment at the southern margin of the Mcmurdo ice shelf, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 53, 211220 (doi: 10.3189/2012AoG60A155)
Fricker, HA, Popov, S, Allison, I and Young, N (2001) Distribution of marine ice beneath the amery ice shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(11), 22412244 (doi: 10.1029/2000GL012461)
Fürst, JJ and 6 others (2016) The safety band of Antarctic ice shelves. Nat. Clim. Chang., 6, 479482 (doi: 10.1038/nclimate2912)
Galton-Fenzi, BK, Hunter, JR, Coleman, R, Marsland, SJ and Warner, RC (2012) Modeling the basal melting and marine ice accretion of the amery ice shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C09031 (doi: 10.1029/2012JC008214)
Grima, C and 6 others (2016) Radar detection of the brine extent at mcmurdo ice shelf, Antarctica, and its control by snow accumulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(13), 70117018 (doi: 10.1002/2016GL069524)
Grima, C and 7 others (2017) Surface roughness of titan's hydrocarbon seas. Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 474, 2024 (doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.06.007)
Grima, C, Blankenship, DD, Young, DA and Schroeder, DM (2014a) Surface slope control on firn density at thwaites glacier, West Antarctica: results from airborne radar sounding. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(19), 67876794 (doi: 10.1002/2014GL061635)
Grima, C, Kofman, W, Herique, A, Orosei, R and Seu, R (2012) Quantitative analysis of mars surface radar reflectivity at 20 MHz. Icarus, 220, 84 (doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.017)
Grima, C, Schroeder, DM, Blankenship, DD and Young, DA (2014b) Planetary landing-zone reconnaissance using ice-penetrating radar data: concept validation in Antarctica. Planet. Space. Sci., 103, 191204 (doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2014.07.018)
Gudmundsson, GH (2013) Ice-shelf buttressing and the stability of marine ice sheets. Cryosphere, 7, 647655 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-647-2013)
Gwyther, DE, Galton-Fenzi, BK, Dinniman, MS, Roberts, JL and Hunter, JR (2015) The effect of basal friction on melting and freezing in ice shelf-ocean models. Ocean Modelling, 95, 3852 (doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.09.004)
Gwyther, DE, O'Kane, TJ, Galton-Fenzi, BK, Monselesan, DP and Greenbaum, JS (2018) Intrinsic processes drive variability in basal melting of the totten glacier ice shelf. Nat. Commun., 9(1) (doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05618-2)
Herraiz-Borreguero, L, Lannuzel, D, van der Merwe, P, Treverrow, A and Pedro, JB (2016) Large flux of iron from the amery ice shelf marine ice to prydz bay, East Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans., 121, 60096020 (doi: 10.1002/2016JC011687)
Howell, SM and Pappalardo, RT (2018) Band formation and ocean-surface interaction on Europa and Ganymede. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 47014709 (doi: 10.1029/2018GL077594)
Hubbard, B and 12 others (2016) Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds. Nat. Commun., 7, 11897 (doi: 10.1038/ncomms11897)
Jakeman, E (1980) On the statistics of k-distributed noise. J. Phys. A: Math. General, 13(1), 3148 (doi: 10.1088/0305-4470/13/1/006)
Jakeman, E and Tough, RJA (1987) Generalized k distribution: a statistical model for weak scattering. J. Optical Soc. Am. A, 4(9), 1764 (doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.4.001764)
Jansen, D and 6 others (2015) Brief communication: newly developing rift in Larsen C ice shelf presents significant risk to stability. Cryosphere, 9, 12231227 (doi: 10.5194/tc-9-1223-2015)
Jansen, D, Luckman, A, Kulessa, B, Holland, PR and King, EC (2013) Marine ice formation in a suture zone on the Larsen C ice shelf and its influence on ice shelf dynamics. J. Geophys. Res. Earth. Surf., 118, 16281640 (doi: 10.1002/jgrf.20120)
Kaspers, KA and 5 others (2004) Model calculations of the age of firn air across the Antarctic continent. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4(5), 13651380 (doi: 10.5194/acp-4-1365-2004)
Kellogg, TB, Kellogg, DE and Stuiver, M (1991) Oxygen isotope data from the mcmurdo ice shelf, Antarctica: implications for debris band formation and glacial history. Antarct. J. US, 26(5), 7376.
Kendrick, AK and 12 others (2018) Surface meltwater impounded by seasonal englacial storage in west greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(19), 10,47410,481 (doi: 10.1029/2018GL079787)
King, EC, De Rydt, J and Hilmar Gudmundsson, G (2018) The internal structure of the brunt ice shelf from ice-penetrating radar analysis and implications for ice shelf fracture. Cryosphere, 12, 33613372 (doi: 10.5194/tc-12-3361-2018)
Koch, I (2016) Marine ice formation and deformation at the Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf. Ph.D. thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Koch, I, Fitzsimons, S, Samyn, D and Tison, JL (2015) Marine ice recycling at the southern mcmurdo ice shelf, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 61, 689701 (doi: 10.3189/2015JoG14J095)
Kovacs, A, Gow, AJ and Morey, RM (1995) The in-situ dielectric constant of polar firn revisited. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 23(3), 245256 (doi: 10.1016/0165-232X(94)00016-Q)
Kuipers Munneke, P and 15 others (2017) Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica. Cryosphere, 11, 24112426 (doi: 10.5194/tc-11-2411-2017)
Lewis, EL and Perkin, RG (1986) Ice pumps and their rates. J. Geophys. Res., 91(C10), 11756 (doi: 10.1029/JC091iC10p11756)
Ligtenberg, SRM, Helsen, MM, van den Broeke, MR (2011) An improved semi-empirical model for the densification of Antarctic firn. Cryosphere, 5, 809 (doi: 10.5194/tc-5-809-2011)
Liu, Y and 7 others (2015) Ocean-driven thinning enhances iceberg calving and retreat of Antarctic ice shelves. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112(11), 3263–8 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1415137112)
Martin, S (1981) Frazil ice in rivers and oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech., 13(1), 379397 (doi: 10.1146/annurev.fl.13.010181.002115)
Matsuoka, K and 19 others (2015) Antarctic ice rises and rumples: their properties and significance for ice-sheet dynamics and evolution. Earth-Sci. Rev., 150, 724745 (doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.09.004)
Matsuoka, K, MacGregor, JA and Pattyn, F (2012) Predicting radar attenuation within the Antarctic ice sheet. Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 359, 173183 (doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.10.018)
McGrath, D and 6 others (2014) The structure and effect of suture zones in the Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Earth. Surf., 119, 588602 (doi: 10.1002/2013JF002935)
Medley, B and 12 others (2013) Airborne-radar and ice-core observations of annual snow accumulation over thwaites glacier, West Antarctica confirm the spatiotemporal variability of global and regional atmospheric models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 36493654 (doi: 10.1002/grl.50706)
Moholdt, G, Padman, L and Fricker, HA (2014) Basal mass budget of ross and filchner-ronne ice shelves, Antarctica, derived from lagrangian analysis of ICESat altimetry. J. Geophys. Res. Earth. Surf., 119, 23612380 (doi: 10.1002/2014JF003171)
Mouginot, J and 5 others (2009) MARSIS surface reflectivity of the south residual cap of mars. Icarus, 201, 454 (doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.009)
Oerter, H and 6 others (1992) Evidence for basal marine ice in the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf. Nature, 358(6385), 399401 (doi: 10.1038/358399a0)
Peters, ME (2005) Analysis techniques for coherent airborne radar sounding: application to West Antarctic ice streams. J. Geophys. Res., 110(B6), B06303 (doi: 10.1029/2004JB003222)
Pettinelli, E (2015) Dielectric properties of jovian satellite ice analogs for subsurface radar exploration: a review. Rev. Geophys., 53(3), 593641 (doi: 10.1002/2014RG000463)
Phillips, CB and Pappalardo, RT (2014) Europa clipper mission concept: exploring jupiter's ocean moon. Eos, 95, 165167 (doi: 10.1002/2014EO200002)
Pritchard, HD and 5 others (2012) Antarctic ice-sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves. Nature, 484(7395), 502505 (doi: 10.1038/nature10968)
Putzig, NE and 6 others (2017) Radar-derived properties of the insight landing site in western Elysium Planitia on mars. Space. Sci. Rev., 211(1–4), 135146 (doi: 10.1007/s11214-016-0322-8)
Rack, W, King, MA, Marsh, OJ, Wild, CT and Floricioiu, D (2017) Analysis of ice shelf flexure and its inSAR representation in the grounding zone of the Southern Mcmurdo ice shelf. Cryosphere, 11, 24812490 (doi: 10.5194/tc-11-2481-2017)
Rack, W and Rott, H (2004) Pattern of retreat and disintegration of the Larsen B ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Ann. Glaciol., 39, 505510 (doi: 10.3189/172756404781814005)
Reynolds, RT, Squyres, SW, Colburn, DS and McKay, CP (1983) On the habitability of Europa. Icarus, 56(2), 246254 (doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(83)90037-4)
Riger-Kusk, M (2011) Ice dynamics of the Darwin-Hatherton glacial system, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury.
Rignot, E, Jacobs, S, Mouginot, J and Scheuchl, B (2013a) Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica. Science, 341(6143), 266–70 (doi: 10.1126/science.1235798)
Rignot, E, Mouginot, J, Larsen, CF, Gim, Y and Kirchner, D (2013b) Low-frequency radar sounding of temperate ice masses in southern alaska. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 53995405 (doi: 10.1002/2013GL057452)
Rignot, E, Mouginot, J and Scheuchl, B (2011) Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet. Science, 333(6048), 1427–30 (doi: 10.1126/science.1208336)
Rosier, SHR and 5 others (2017) On the interpretation of ice-shelf flexure measurements. J. Glaciol., 63, 783791 (doi: 10.1017/jog.2017.44)
Rutishauser, A and 6 others (2016) Characterizing near-surface firn using the scattered signal component of the glacier surface return from airborne radio-echo sounding. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(24), 12,50212,510 (doi: 10.1002/2016GL071230)
Ryan, MR (2016) Characteristics of the Ross and Southern McMurdo ice shelves as revealed from ground-based radar surveys. Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury.
Ryan, AJ and Christensen, PR (2012) Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca valles region, mars, as evidence for a volcanic history. Science, 336(6080), 449–52 (doi: 10.1126/science.1219437)
Scambos, T and 7 others (2009) Ice shelf disintegration by plate bending and hydro-fracture: satellite observations and model results of the 2008 wilkins ice shelf break-ups. Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 280, 5160 (doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.027)
Scambos, TA, Bohlander, JA, Shuman, CA and Skvarca, P (2004) Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the larsen b embayment, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18402 (doi: 10.1029/2004GL020670)
Scambos, T, Hulbe, C and Fahnestock, M (2003) Climate-induced Ice Shelf disintegration in the Antarctic Peninsula, 79–92. Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union (doi: 10.1029/AR079p0079)
Schmidt, BE, Blankenship, DD, Patterson, GW and Schenk, PM (2011) Active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ over shallow subsurface water on Europa. Nature, 479(7374), 502–5 (doi: 10.1038/nature10608)
Schroeder, DM, Blankenship, DD and Young, DA (2013) Evidence for a water system transition beneath thwaites glacier, West Antarctica. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110(30), 12225–8 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302828110)
Schroeder, DM, Grima, C and Blankenship, DD (2015) Evidence for variable grounding-zone and shear-margin basal conditions across thwaites glacier, West Antarctica. GEOPHYSICS, 81(1), WA35WA43 (doi: 10.1190/GEO2015-0122.1)
Schroeder, DM, Seroussi, H, Chuw, W and Young, DA (2016) Adaptively constraining radar attenuation and temperature across the Thwaites glacier catchment using bed echoes. J. Glaciol., 62(236), 10751108 (doi: 10.1017/jog.2016.100)
Soderlund, KM, Schmidt, BE, Wicht, J and Blankenship, DD (2013) Ocean-driven heating of Europa's icy shell at low latitudes. Nat. Geosci., 7(1), 1619 (doi: 10.1038/NGEO2021)
Tison, JL, Ronveaux, D and Lorrain, RD (1993) Low salinity frazil ice generation at the base of a small Antarctic ice shelf. Antarct. Sci., 5, 309 (doi: 10.1017/S0954102093000409)
Treverrow, A, Warner, RC, Budd, WF and Craven, M (2010) Meteoric and marine ice crystal orientation fabrics from the amery ice shelf, East Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 56, 877890 (doi: 10.3189/002214310794457353)
Ulaby, FT, Moore, RK and Fung, AK (1981) Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, volume 1–3. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, Advanced Book Program.
van den Broeke, M, Smeets, P and Ettema, J (2009) Surface layer climate and turbulent exchange in the ablation zone of the west greenland ice sheet. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 23092323 (doi: 10.1002/joc.1815)
Vaughan, DG and 8 others (2012) Subglacial melt channels and fracture in the floating part of pine island glacier, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Earth. Surf., 117, F03012 (doi: 10.1029/2012JF002360)
Wild, CT, Marsh, OJ and Rack, W (2018) Unravelling inSAR observed Antarctic ice-shelf flexure using 2-d elastic and viscoelastic modelling. Front. Earth. Sci., 6, 28 (doi: 10.3389/feart.2018.00028)
Yeh, P (1998) Optical Waves in Layered Media. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Zotikov, IA, Zagorodnov, VS and Raikovsky, JV (1980) Core drilling through the ross ice shelf (Antarctica) confirmed basal freezing. Science (New York, NY), 207(4438), 1463–5 (doi: 10.1126/science.207.4438.1463)

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed