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The expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain in 1609–1614: the destruction of an Islamic periphery

  • Már Jónsson (a1)

The Moriscos were nominally Christian after enforced conversions at the beginning of the sixteenth century, but they mainly clung to their Islamic ancestral faith, and they were expelled from Spain in 1609–14. This was a huge operation, as 300,000 Moriscos were expelled, most of them in the space of a few months. For it to succeed, the Spanish authorities deemed it necessary to resort to lies and subterfuges. Not many Moriscos resisted expulsion, even though few of them wanted to leave. The majority settled in North Africa, adapted quickly to new circumstances, and did not attempt to avenge their expulsion, for instance by resorting to corsair activities. Despite its scale, the event did not have major immediate political consequences, but it can now be seen as a tragic tale of mistaken assumptions and enmity on the Spanish side, an unexpected socio-economic opportunity for North Africa, and an enduring element in Christian-Muslim perceptions of each other’s faiths.

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1 For contemporary conditions there are many websites available, for example: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (; The Refugee Studies Centre in Oxford (; International Association for the Study of Forced Migration ( On the aftermath of the Second World War, see Rieber, Alfred J., ed., Forced migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939–1950, London: Frank Cass, 2000; Ther, Philipp and Siljak, Ana, eds., Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001. I wish to thank Patricia Pires Boulhosa and Matthew Koch for reading a draft of this paper and offering valuable suggestions and corrections.

2 Braudel, Fernand, La Méditérranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II, 4th edition, Paris: Armand Colin, 1979, vol. 2, pp. 118, 137.

3 Pierre de Cenival and Philippe de Cossé Brissac, eds., Les sources inédites de l'histoire du Maroc de 1530 à 1845; première série – dynastie saadienne 1530–1660; archives et bibliothèques d'Angleterre, vol. 3, Paris: Geuthner, 1936, pp. 141–2; cf. vol. 2, p. 469.

4 Echevarria, Ana, The fortress of faith; the attitude towards Muslims in fifteenth-century Spain. Leiden: Brill, 1999, pp. 24–6, 171–210; Meyerson, Mark D., The Muslims of Valencia in the age of Fernando and Isabel; between coexistence and crusade, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, pp. 61–98 (available digitally at

5 Suárez Fernández, Luis, La expulsión de los judíos de España. Madrid: MAPFRE, 1992, pp. 295–6, 318–24; Suárez Fernández, Luis,Documentos acerca de la expulsión de los judíos, Valladolid: CSIC, 1964, pp. 35–6, 47–8, 55–6; Hillgarth, J.N., The mirror of Spain, 1500–1700: the formation of a myth, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003, pp. 161–2.

6 Harvey, L.P., Muslims in Spain, 1500–1614, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005, pp. 15–20 (citation on p. 17).

7 Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 21–37, 56–8; Gaignard, Catherine, Maures et Chrétiens à Grenade, 1492–1570, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1997, pp. 131–9; Coleman, David, Creating Christian Granada: society and religious culture in an old-world frontier city, 1492–1600, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003, pp. 5–6, 38–9, 52–4.

8 Sánchez-Blanco, Rafael Benítez, Heroicas decisiones. La Monarquía Católica y los moriscos valencianos, Valencia: Diputación Provincial de Valencia, 2001, pp. 39–101; Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 93–4.

9 Temimi, Abdeljelil, Bibliographie générale d’études morisques, Zaghouan: Fondation Temimi, 1995; ‘Bibliografía General de Moriscos’, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes:

10 de Cervantes, Miguel, Don Quijote de la Mancha, Madrid: Real Academia Española, 2005, p. 86 (1, 9): ‘y no fue muy dificultoso hallar intérprete semejante’.

11 Vincent, Bernard, ‘L’expulsion des morisques du royaume de Grenade et leur répartition en Castille’, Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez, 6, 1970, pp. 211–46; Vincent, Bernard, ‘Combien de morisques ont été expulsés du royaume de Grenade?’, Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez, 7, 1971, pp. 397–8; Domínguez Ortiz, Antonio and Vincent, Bernard, Historia de los moriscos, Madrid: Alianza, 1997, pp. 50–6, 68–9; Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 205–6, 217–37; Barrios Aguilera, Manuel, Granada morisca, la convivencia negada, Albolote, Granada: Comares, 2002, pp. 391–404.

12 Bénitez Sánchez-Blanco, Heroicas decisiones, pp. 264–81, 330–48. On the agreements made between August 1580 and February 1581, see Braudel, La Méditerannée, vol. 2, pp. 448–9; Hess, Andrew C., ‘The battle of Lepanto and its place in Mediterranean history’, Past and Present, 57, 1972, pp. 68–9; Hess, Andrew C.,The forgotten frontier: a history of the sixteenth-century Ibero-African frontier, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978, pp. 99–104.

13 Ehlers, Benjamin, Between Christians and Moriscos: Juan de Ribera and religious reform in Valencia, 1568–1614, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, pp. 126–50; Bénitez Sánchez-Blanco, Heroicas decisiones, pp. 355–69; Domínguez Ortiz and Vincent, Historia de los moriscos, pp. 165–9; Márquez Villanueva, Francisco, El problema morisco (desde otras laderas), Madrid: Libertarias, 1991, pp. 196–231.

14 Feros, Antonio, Kingship and favouritism in the Spain of Philip III, 1598–1621, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 202; García García, Bernardo José, La pax hispanica; política exterior del Duque de Lerma, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1996, pp. 77–8.

15 Bénitez Sánchez-Blanco, Heroicas decisiones, pp. 369–73, 382–90; Domínguez Ortiz and Vincent, Historia de los moriscos, pp. 170–1. The text was published by y Barrachina, Pascual Boronat, Los moriscos españoles y su expulsión, Valencia: Imprenta de Francisco Vives y Mora, 1901 (facsimile edition with an introduction by Ricardo García Cárcel, Granada: Universidad de Granada, 1992), vol. 2, pp. 457–74.

16 Charles Lea, Henry, The Moriscos of Spain: their conversion and expulsion, New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2002, p. 315 (1st edition, Philadelphia 1901); cf. Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 308–9; Elizabeth Perry, Mary, The handless maiden: Moriscos and the politics of religion in early modern Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 146; Ehlers, Betweeen Christians and Moriscos, pp. 143–5.

17 Boronat y Barrachina, Los moriscos españoles, vol. 2, p. 191; Martinez, François, ‘La permanence morisque en Espagne après 1609: discours et réalités’, Lille: Atelier national de reproduction des thèses, 2003, p. 479.

18 Martinez, La permanence morisque, pp. 481–2.

19 Janer, Florencio, Condición social de los moriscos de España, Madrid: Imprenta de la Real Academia de la Historia, 1857 (facsimile edition, Barcelona: Editorial Alta Fulla, 1987), pp. 339–40; Martinez, La permanence morisque, pp. 480–1. An English translation of this decree is in Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 322–3.

20 Boronat y Barrachina, Los moriscos españoles, vol. 2, pp. 287–8.

21 Lapeyre, Henri, Géographie de l’Espagne morisque, Paris: SEVPEN, 1959, pp. 148, 159; translated as Geografía de la España morisca, Valencia: Diputación Provincial de Valencia, 1986, pp. 178–9, 193.

22 Domínguez Ortiz and Vincent, Historia de los moriscos, p. 190. The first edition of this outstanding book was published in 1978. Recent local studies either do not discuss the decree of 28 December 1609, or barely mention it; see Sierro Malmierca, Feliciano, Judíos, moriscos e inquisición en Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca: Diputación de Salamanca, 1990, pp. 64–6; Gómez Renau, Mar, Comunidades marginadas en Valladolid: mudéjares y moriscos (s. XV–XVI), Valladolid: Diputación Provincial de Valladolid, 1993, pp. 123–7; Tapia Sánchez, Serafín de, ‘Los moriscos de la Corona de Castilla: propuestas metodológicas y temáticas’, in VII Simposio Internacional de Mudejarismo. Actas, Teruel: Centro de Estudios Mudéjares, 1999, pp. 199–214; Gómez Vozmediano, Miguel Fernando, Mudéjares y moriscos en el Campo de Calatrava, Ciudad Real: Diputación de Ciudad Real, 2000, pp. 168–72; Martín Benito, José Ignacio, Los moriscos en el obispado de Zamora, Zamora: Editorial Semuret, 2003, p. 69.

23 Lapeyre, Géographie, p. 147, and Geografía, p. 177.

24 Julio Fernández Nieva, ‘Los moriscos en Extremadura (1570–1614): aspectos demográficos, socio-económicos y religiosos’, Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 1975, vol. 2, pp. 135–7. The letter cited is in Archivo General de Simancas (AGS). Estado 2639, s/f. On Hornachos, see Nieva, Fernández, ‘El enfrentamiento entre moriscos y cristianos viejos: el caso de Hornachos en Extremadura’, in Cardaillac, Louis, ed., Les morisques et leur temps: table ronde internationale, Paris: Éditions du CNRS, 1983, pp. 271–95; Cardaillac, Louis, ‘L’Inquisition de Llerena’, in Cardaillac, Louis, ed., Les morisques et l’inquisition, Paris: Publisud, 1990, pp. 258–75; Rodríguez, Alberto González, Hornachos, enclave morisco: peculiaridades de una población distinta, Mérida: Asamblea de Extremadura, 1990, pp. 55–84.

25 Fernández Nieva, ‘Los moriscos en Extremadura’, p. 118.

26 y Collado, Manuel Danvila, La expulsión de los moriscos españoles, Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fé, 1889, pp. 274–5.

27 Danvila y Collado, La expulsión, p. 277. On Ribera’s proposal, see Benítez Sánchez-Blanco, Heroicas decisiones, pp. 363–9; and pp. 390–5 for this meeting.

28 Danvila y Collado, La expulsión, pp. 280–3; cf. Sánchez-Blanco, Rafael Benítez, ‘Las relaciones moriscos-cristianos viejos: entre la asimilación y el rechazo’, in Mestre Sanchís, Antonio and Giménez López, Enrique, eds., Disidencias y exilios en la España moderna, Alicante: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, 1997, pp. 336–7, 342–4.

29 Salvador Esteban, Emilia, ‘La expulsión de los moriscos en el marco de la política internacional’, in Salvador Esteban, Emilia, ed., Conflictos y represiones en el antiguo régimen, Valencia: Departamento de Historia Moderna, 2000, pp. 209–22; Elliott, John H., Imperial Spain 1469–1716, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970, p. 305; Harvey, Muslims in Spain, p. 308; Perry, The handless maiden, p. 146; Feros, Kingship, p. 203.

30 Allen, Paul C., Felipe III y la pax hispanica 1598–1621, Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 2001, pp. 314–15.

31 Feros, Kingship, p. 204; Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, Mss. 5570, Pareceres del Duque de Lerma, ff. 164r–v: ‘y como lo fue en lo de la tregua de Olanda la ocupazion de la expulsion de los Moriscos podria ser agora buena salidad de los rumores presentes’.

32 AGS, Estado 218, s/f. Meeting of the State Council, 1 June 1609.

33 AGS, Estado 218, s/f. Pedro de Toledo to Philip III, 7 June 1609.

34 Benítez Sánchez-Blanco, Heroicas decisiones, pp. 396–401.

35 Boronat y Barrachina, Los moriscos españoles, vol. 2, p. 162.

36 AGS, Estado 219, s/f. Andrés de Prada to Antonio de Aróztegui, 21 August 1609.

37 AGS, Estado 218, s/f. Meeting of the State Council, 23 August 1609.

38 AGS, Estado 2639, no. 42. Meeting of the State Council, 1 October 1609.

39 AGS, Estado 2639, no. 48. Meeting of the State Council, 5 October 1609; no. 160. Meeting of the State Council, 8 October 1609.

40 Janer, Condición social de los moriscos, pp. 338–9; also AGS, Estado 219, s/f. Duke of Lerma to the President of the Council of Castile, 13 October 1609.

41 Lapeyre, Géographie, pp. 55–7, 60–1, and Geografía, pp. 70–3, 78–80; Catalá Sanz, Jorge Antonio and García, Pablo Pérez, ed., Los moriscos de Cortes y los Pallás: documentos para su estudio, Valencia: Departamento de Historia Moderna, 2002, pp. 25–30; Boronat y Barrachina, Los moriscos españoles, vol. 2, pp. 219–31.

42 AGS, Estado 218, s/f. Meeting of the State Council, 7 November 1609.

43 AGS, Estado 2639, nos. 93 and 94; 102 and 105.

44 AGS, Estado 219, s/f. Philip III to Juan de Idiáquez, 10 November 1609; Janer, Condición social de los moriscos, p. 339; cf. Gómez Vosmediano, Mudéjares y moriscos, p. 227.

45 AGS, Estado 2704, s/f. Philip III to the Corregidor de Ávila, 22 November 1609; Serafín de Tapia Sánchez, La comunidad morisca de Ávila, Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1991, p. 347.

46 AGS, Estado 227, s/f; Aurelio García López, Moriscos en tierras de Uceda y Guadalajara (1502–1610),Guadalajara: Diputación Provincial de Guadalajara, 1992, p. 236, provides an erroneous transcription.

47 AGS, Estado 227, s/f (the first letter); a rather flawed transcription in García López, Moriscos, p. 156.

48 AGS, Estado 227, s/f.

49 AGS, Estado 227, s/f; a transcription of the letter from Mondéjar is in García López, Moriscos, pp. 236–7.

50 AGS, Estado 220, s/f; a transcription is in Fernández Nieva, ‘Los moriscos en Extremadura’, p. 145.

51 AGS, Estado 227, s/f.

52 Lapeyre, Géographie, pp. 159–60; Geografía, pp. 193–5.

53 Martinez, La permanence morisque en Espagne, pp. 323, 487–8; Lapeyre, Géographie, p. 162, and Geografia, p. 197; Tapia Sánchez, La comunidad morisca de Ávila, p. 351.

54 The best account of the expulsion as a whole still is Lapeyre, Géographie, pp. 51–113, 147–71, 203–7, and Geografía, pp. 65–128, 177–209, 251–6; see also Domínguez Ortiz and Vincent, Historia de los moriscos, pp. 177–200; Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 308–28.

55 Georges S. Colin, ‘Projet de traité entre les morisques de la Casba de Rabat et le roi d’Espagne en 1631’, Hesperis, 42, 1955, pp. 18–19.

56 Antonio Vespertino Rodríguez, ‘La literatura aljamiado-morisca del exilio’, in L'expulsió dels moriscos: conseqüències en el món islàmic i el món cristià, Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, 1994, p. 188; cf. Perry, The handless maiden, pp. 134, 155–6.

57 Fuchs, Barbara, Mimesis and empire: the New World, Islam, and European identities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 152–3.

58 Harvey, Muslims in Spain, p. 361.

59 Friedman, Ellen G., Spanish captives in North Africa in the early modern age, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983, p. xxiv. This section is partly based on my article, ‘La faible participation des morisques expulsés dans la course barbaresque’, Revue d’histoire maghrébine, 32, 119, 2005, pp. 7–16.

60 Friedman, Spanish captives, p. 23.

61 Friedman, Spanish captives, pp. 6, 15; Martínez Torres, José Antonio, Prisioneros de los infideles: vida y rescate de los cautivos cristianos en el Mediterráneo musulmán (siglos XVI–XVII), Barcelona: Bellaterra, 2004, pp. 42–3, 48, 137–40.

62 Bachrouch, Taoufik, ‘Rachat et libération des esclaves chrétiens à Tunis au XVIIe siècle’, Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, 12, 40–43, 1975, pp. 152–3; Sebag, Paul, Tunis au XVIIe siècle: une cité barbaresque au temps de la course, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1989, p. 141.

63 Braudel, La Méditerranée, vol. 2, p. 206; Hebb, David D., Piracy and the English government, 1616–1642, Aldershot: Scolar Press, p. 17.

64 Friedman, Spanish captives, pp. 14–15.

65 Bennassar, Bartoloméand Bennassar, Lucile, Les chrétiens d'Allah: l'histoire extraordinaire des renégats, Paris: Perrin, 1989, p. 169.

66 Senior, C. M., A nation of pirates:English piracy in its heyday, New York: Crane, 1976, pp. 9–11, 87–8; Milford, Elizabeth, ‘The navy at peace: the activities of the early Jacobean navy, 1603–1618’, Merchant Mariner, 76, 1990, pp. 3031.

67 Senior, A nation of pirates, pp. 48–50; Bruce Weiner, Jerome, ‘Fitna, corsairs, and diplomacy: Morocco and the maritime states of Western Europe, 1603–1672’, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1976, p. 189; Oury Moore, Ronald, ‘Some aspects of the origin and nature of English piracy, 1603–1625’, Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, 1960, pp. 167–8.

68 Moore, ‘Some aspects’, pp. 168–9; Senior, A nation of pirates, p. 90.

69 Senior, A nation of pirates, pp. 78–106.

70 Weiner, ‘Fitna, corsairs and diplomacy’, pp. 134, 190. On Larache, see García-Arenal, Mercedes, Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando, and el Hour, Rachid, eds., Cartas marruecas: documentos de Marruecos en archivos españoles (siglos XVI–XVII), Madrid: CSIC, 2002, p. 128.

71 Mercedes García-Arenal and Gerard Wiegers, Entre el Islam y Occidente: vida de Samuel Pallache, judío de Fez, Madrid: Siglo XXI, 1999, pp. 118–20; cf. English translation, A man of three worlds: Samuel Pallache, a Moroccan Jew in Catholic and Protestant Europe, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, pp. 86–7; Senior, A nation of pirates, pp. 76–77; Weiner, ‘Fitna, corsairs, and diplomacy’, pp. 191–2.

72 Hossain Buzineb, ‘Plática en torno a la entrega de la alcazaba de Salé en el siglo XVII’, Al-Qantara, 15, 1994, pp. 55–6.

73 Hebb, Piracy, p. 2.

74 Hebb, Piracy, p. 20; Oppenheim, Michael, A history of the administration of the royal navy and of merchant shipping in relation to the navy from 1509 to 1660, London: J. Lane, 1896, p. 198.

75 Weiner, ‘Fitna, corsairs, and diplomacy’, p. 268.

76 Friedman, Spanish captives, pp. 17, 43; Anaya Hernández, Luis Alberto, ‘La invasión de 1618 en Lanzarote y sus repercusiones socio-económicas’, in Morales Padron, Francisco, ed., VI Coloquio de historia canario-americana, Las Palmas: Ediciones del Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1984, pp. 197–8, 211–12.

77 Bennassar and Bennassar, Les chrétiens d'Allah, pp. 169–70, 180, 207; Oppenheim, A history of the administration of the royal navy, p. 199; Senior, A nation of pirates, p. 75; Helgason, Thorsteinn, ‘Historical narrative as collective therapy: the case of the Turkish raid in Iceland’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 22, 1997, pp. 275–89; Lamborn Wilson, Peter, Pirate utopias: Moorish corsairs and European renegadoes, New York: Autonomedia, 2003, pp. 119, 130.

78 Turki, Abdelmajid, ‘Documents sur le dernier exode des andalous vers la Tunisie’, in de Epalza, Mikel and Petit, Ramón, eds., Recueil d'études sur les moriscos Andalous en Tunisie, Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Árabe de Cultura, 1973, p. 127.

79 Bennassar and Bennassar, Les chrétiens d'Allah, p. 119.

80 Paul Sebag, Tunis au XVIIe siècle, p. 51; Fethi Marzouki, ‘Les morisques et la course en Tunisie et au Maroc au XVIIe siècle: étude comparative’, in Abdeljelil Temimi, Morisques, Méditerranée, et manuscrits aljamiado: actes du Xe congrès international d'études morisques, Zaghouan: Fondation Temimi, 2003, p. 221. For a general view, see Mikel de Epalza, ‘Moriscos y Andalusies en Túnez en el siglo XVII’, Al-Andalus, 34, 1969, pp. 247–327; Latham, John D., ‘Towards a study of Andalucian immigration and its place in Tunisian history’, Cahiers de Tunisie, 5 , 1957, pp. 203–52.

81 Friedman, Spanish captives, pp. 24–5; cf. Míkel de Epalza, Los moriscos antes y después de la expulsión, Madrid: MAPFRE, 1992, pp. 246–7.

82 Friedman, Spanish captives, pp. 11–12.

83 Ismael Diadié Haïdara, El Bajá Yawdar y la conquista saadí del Songhay (1591–1599), Cuevas del Almanzora: Instituto de Estudios Almerienses, 1993, pp. 56–9; cf. Hunwick, John O., Timbuktu and the Songhay empire: al-Sadi’s Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613, and other contemporary documents, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999.

84 Friedman, Spanish captives, p. 174, n. 58.

85 Lapeyre, Géographie, p. 207, and Geografía, p. 256; cf. Guillermo Gozalbes Busto, Los moriscos en Marruecos, Maracena (Granada): Author, 1992, pp. 97, 212–14.

86 Andrés Sánchez Pérez, ‘Los moriscos de Hornachos, corsarios de Salé’, Revista de Estudios Extremeños, 20, 1969, p. 130; Weiner, ‘Fitna, corsairs, and diplomacy’, p. 193.

87 Weiner, ‘Fitna, corsairs, and diplomacy’, pp. 144, 187.

88 Luis Alberto Anaya Hernández, ‘Repercusiones del corso berberisco en Canarias durante el siglo XVII: cautivos y renegados canarios’, in Francisco Morales Padrón, ed., V Coloquio de historia canario-americana, vol. 2, Las Palmas: Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1985, pp. 126, 136.

89 Miguel Ángel de Bunes Ibarra and José A. Martínez Torres, ‘La república de Salé y el Duque de Medina Sidonia: notas sobre la política atlántica en el siglo XVII’, in Antonio de Béthencourt Massieu, ed., IV Centenario del ataque de Van der Does a Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (1999); coloquio internacional Canarias y el Atlántico 1580–1648, Las Palmas: Ediciones del Cabildo de Gran Canaria, 2001, p. 193.

90 Friedman, Spanish captives, p. 26.

91 Anaya Hernández, ‘La invasión de 1618’, p. 197; Anaya Hernández, ‘Repercusiones del corso berberisco’, p. 158.

92 Anaya Hernández, ‘Repercusiones del corso berberisco’, pp. 128–9, 158.

93 Henry de Castries, ed., Sources inédites de l’histoire du Maroc de 1530 à 1845; première série – dynastie saadienne 1530–1660; archives et bibliothèques d'Angleterre, vol. 2, Paris: Geuthner, 1925, p. 512.

94 Goffman, Daniel, The Ottoman empire and early modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 170–2.

95 Temimi, Abdeljelil, Le gouvernement ottoman et le problème morisque, Zaghouan: CEROMDI, 1989, pp. 32–7; Temimi, Abdeljelil, Études d’histoire morisque, Zaghouan: CEROMDI, 1993, pp. 9–39; Temimi, Abdeljelil, Nouvelles études d’histoire morisque, Zaghouan: Fondation Temimi, 2000, pp. 19–45; cf. Harvey, Muslims in Spain, pp. 356–8.

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