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A Celtic Cult and Two Sites in Roman Galatia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 December 2013

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Eleven years ago I contributed to the Journal an account of exploration in Galatia, and in summarizing the evidence which it supplied as to the civilization of Galatia, I pointed out that the Celtic conquerors assimilated the culture of the conquered Phrygians without seriously modifying its character. And more particularly in the religious sphere I observed that the evidence indicated that the religion prevailing in the Imperial period was ‘purely Phrygian: there is no trace of any Celtic cult…The new settlers perforce adopted the native cultus: for it was always necessary to “know the manner of the god of the land” (2 Kings, xvii. 26). Doubtless they identified their gods with the Phrygian, and did not keep up any separate cult: otherwise it would be incredible that no trace of it should have remained.’

A similar view was expressed in the following year by Sir W. M. Ramsay. ‘Few traces,’ he says, ‘of the old Gaulish religion can be detected in Galatia. It would be difficult to mention any except the sacrifice of captives, which was practised as late as B.C. 160, and presumably the rites at Drynemeton. It is hardly probable that the Gaulish religion was wholly disused or forgotten in the last century B.C. But certainly almost all the references—unfortunately very few—to Galatic religion point to the rapid adoption of the ancient and impressive cult of Cybele… The Galatians may perhaps have modified to some degree the character of the Phrygian ritual by their own nature and customs, as both the Phryges and the Greeks did. But we have no evidence on this point.’ His survey ends with the observation that in the inscriptions of the Roman period no allusion is made to any religion except that of the old Phrygian gods and that of the Emperors.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies 1910

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References

1 Vol. xix. (1899), pp. 313, 316.

2 Introduction to Historical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, Sect. 9, pp. 86 ff.

3 C.I.G. 4102.

4 The Roman road Angora-Kalejik is proved by milestones published from my copies in C.I.L. iii. Suppl. 1418455 ff. (cf. iii. 309, 310). For the section Kalejik-Sungurlu no evidence was known till M. Cagnat communicated to the Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France a copy sent to M. Perrot of a milestone found at Sungurlu (falsely attributed to Bithynia): it was set up in A.D. 97–98 by Pomponius Bassus, governor of the province Galatia-Cappadocia, , A.D. 95–100 (Bulletin, 1903, p. 193Google Scholar; repeated in Rev. Arch. 1903, ii. p. 445, No 261).

5 Cf. Cumont, s.v. ‘Bussuritios,’ in Pauly-Wissowa, iii. col. 1077.

6 C.I.L. iii. 1033; Suppl. 1421515 (= Dessau, , Inscr. Scl. 4621)Google Scholar.

7 C.I.L. iii. Suppl. 12403, where [et c]is Samarie ? is read. Tlie true restoration is due to Dessau.

8 Cf. Zeuss-Ebel, , Gramm. Celt. p. 16Google Scholar.

9 Holder, Altcelt. Sprachschatz, s.v.; Dessau on No. 4621.

9a This particular name is interesting as occurring on coins of the Phrygian Eumeneia (Head, , B.M. Catal. of Phrygia, pp. 215 f.)Google Scholar: Zmerton, in Galatia, , J.H.S. xix. p. 82Google Scholar.

10 Zeuss-Ebel, op. cit. p. 20. In German names the termination appears as -rîcus.

11 Cf. Mommsen, , Rom. Prov., E. T., i. p. 341Google Scholar; Mitteis, , Reichsrccht u. Volksrecht, pp. 23 f.Google Scholar; Ramsay, op. cit. pp. 130 ff.

12 To this road belongs the milestone at Keui, Orta; see J. H. S. xix. pp. 98 ff.Google Scholar, and the Map, Plate IV. The road is quite wrongly drawn in the map attached to C.I.L. iii. Suppl. Pars. II. Cf. my map of Asia Minor.

13 Hist. Geogr. pp. 258 f. He assigned it to the Ancyra-Gangra road, but a milestone which I found during this same journey (C.I.L. iii. Suppl. 1418458) proves that this road did not go by Kalejik, but diverged from the Ancyra-Kalejik road about two miles south of Balik-Assar (perhaps ancient Bolegasgus).

14 Cf. C.I.L. iii. Suppl. 1418456.

15 Hist. Geogr. p. 251.

16 (corr. ), (p. 154). Stadia in the sense of miles is not infrequent in later Greek: cf. Hist. Geogr. pp. 190, 251, 258.

17 Handbook io Asia Minor, p. 10.

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