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  • Cited by 6
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  • The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 128
  • 2008, pp. 72-91

Chaironeia 338: topographies of commemoration*

  • John Ma (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2010

This article examines two funerary monuments associated with the battle of Chaironeia in 338: first, the mound, covering a mass cremation, by the Kephissos; second, near the town of Chaironeia, the mass burial surrounded by a stone enclosure and topped by a colossal stone lion. The accepted identifications are confirmed (the mound is that of the Macedonian dead, the lion monument that of Theban dead, in all probability the Sacred Band), and two propositions developed: the mound does not relate to the tactical dispositions of the battle, and hence the generally accepted reconstruction of the battle must be discarded; the lion monument must date to much later than 338. In developing these propositions, I examine material which has been long known, but never considered in depth; I notably present what I believe are the first photographs of some of the osteological material from the mass burial under the lion monument. More generally, the two monuments, located at different points of the battlefield, set up by different actors and at different moments, offer the opportunity for considerations on the different functions of ‘memory’ surrounding an historical event: the Macedonian mound reflected the needs and self-imagining of the victorious army, imposing a trace in the landscape; the lion monument embeds itself in preexisting topographies, for a more reflective, and more troubled, effect.

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J.K. Anderson (1991) ‘Hoplite weapons and offensive arms’, in V.D. Hanson (ed.), Hoplites: the Classical Greek Battle Experience (London) 1537

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J. Buckler (2003) Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century BC (Leiden)

J. Camp , M. Ierardi , J. McInerney , K. Morgan and G. Umholtz (1992) ‘A trophy from the battle of Chaironeia of 86 BC’, AJA 96, 443–55

H. Hettner (1853) Griechische Reiseskizzen (Braunschweig)

P. Low (2003) ‘Remembering war in fifth-century Greece: ideologies, societies and commemoration beyond democratic Athens’, World Archaeology 35, 98111

J.M. Mayo (1988) ‘War memorials as political memory’, Geographical Review 78, 6275

P.A. Rahe (1981) ‘The annihilation of the Sacred Band at Chaeronea’, AJA 85, 84–7

P. Rainbird (2003) ‘Representing nation, dividing community: the Broken Hill War Memorial, New South Wales, Australia’, World Archaeology 35.1, 2234

J. Roger (1939) ‘Le monument au Lion d'Amphipolis’, BCH 63, 442

H.A. Thompson (1954) ‘Excavations in the Athenian Agora: 1953’, Hesperia 23, 3167

C. Vermeule (1972) ‘Greek Funerary Animals, 450–300 B.C.’, AJA 76, 4959

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The Journal of Hellenic Studies
  • ISSN: 0075-4269
  • EISSN: 2041-4099
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-hellenic-studies
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