Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Andure, Dhananjay Pote, Kiran Khatri, Vishal Amdare, Nitin Padalkar, Ramchandra and Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami 2016. Immunization with Wuchereria bancrofti Glutathione-S-transferase Elicits a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type of Protective Immune Response Against Filarial Infection in Mastomys. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry,

    Anugraha, Gandhirajan Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam Jeya Prita, Parasurama Jawaharlal and Kaliraj, Perumal 2015. Biodegradable poly-l-lactide based microparticles as controlled release delivery system for filarial vaccine candidate antigens. European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 747, p. 174.

    Anugraha, G. Madhumathi, J. Prince, P. R. Jeya Prita, P. J. Khatri, V. K. Amdare, N. P. Reddy, M. V. R. and Kaliraj, P. 2015. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Vol. 82, Issue. 4, p. 380.

    Verma, Richa Joseph, Sujith K. Kushwaha, Vikas Kumar, Vikash Siddiqi, M.I. Vishwakarma, Preeti Shivahare, Rahul Gupta, Suman and Murthy, P.K. 2015. Cross reactive molecules of human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi inhibit Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters. Acta Tropica, Vol. 152, p. 103.

    Wedrychowicz, Halina 2015. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century. Acta Parasitologica, Vol. 60, Issue. 2,

    Hess, Jessica A. Zhan, Bin Bonne-Année, Sandra Deckman, Jessica M. Bottazzi, Maria Elena Hotez, Peter J. Klei, Thomas R. Lustigman, Sara and Abraham, David 2014. Vaccines to combat river blindness: expression, selection and formulation of vaccines against infection with Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 44, Issue. 9, p. 637.

    Mahalakshmi, N. Aparnaa, R. and Kaliraj, P. 2014. Evaluation of Immune Response Elicited by Inulin as an Adjuvant with Filarial Antigens in Mice Model. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Vol. 80, Issue. 4, p. 261.

    Shrivastava, Nidhi Singh, Prashant Kumar Nag, Jeetendra Kumar Kushwaha, Susheela and Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja 2013. Immunization with a multisubunit vaccine considerably reduces establishment of infective larvae in a rodent model of Brugia malayi. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Vol. 36, Issue. 5, p. 507.

    BABAYAN, S. A. ALLEN, J. E. and TAYLOR, D. W. 2012. Future prospects and challenges of vaccines against filariasis. Parasite Immunology, Vol. 34, Issue. 5, p. 243.

    Lustigman, Sara Abraham, David and Klei, Thomas R. 2012. Parasitic Helminths.


A combination of two Brugia malayi filarial vaccine candidate antigens (BmALT-2 and BmVAH) enhances immune responses and protection in jirds

  • S.B. Anand (a1), K.N. Kodumudi (a2), M.V. Reddy (a2) and P. Kaliraj (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 January 2011

In this study filarial recombinant protein or DNA vaccine constructs encoding BmALT-2 and BmVAH as single or as cocktail antigens were evaluated. Male jirds were immunized intramuscularly with DNA vaccine constructs or were immunized intraperitoneally with protein vaccine. The single and bicistronic DNA constructs induced substantial interferon-γ responses in spleen cells; antigen-specific responses were higher following immunization with the bicistronic cocktail construct and evoked a significant protective response of 57% in jirds challenged with Brugia malayi that was similar in the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay and micropore chamber experiment. The cocktail protein vaccines induced a mixture of IgG2a (Th1) and IgG1 (Th2) responses with 80% protective response when challenged with B. malayi infective larvae. However, the single protein vaccine rALT-2 induced Th2 (IgG1/IgG3) with a 70% protective response and rVAH induced Th1 (IgG2a) with a lower proliferative response with 60% protection following challenge with B. malayi infective larvae. These results suggest that filarial cocktail protein vaccines are able to elicit substantial immune and protective responses when compared with single antigen vaccination in suitably vaccinated jirds.

Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S.B. Anand , G. Munirathinam , T. Mani , P.R. Prabhu , P. Kaliraj & K. Ramaswamy (2007) Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti Vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology Research 101, 981988.

S.B. Anand , V. Murugan , P.R. Prabhu , V. Anandharaman , M.V. Reddy & P. Kaliraj (2008) Comparison of immunogenicity, protective efficacy of single and cocktail DNA vaccine of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) in mice. Acta Tropica 107, 106112.

S. Babu , L.M. Ganley , T.R. Kliei , L.D. Shultz & T.V. Rajan (2000) Role of gamma Interferon and Interleukin-4 in host defense against the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Infection and Immunity 68, 30343035.

J.M. Burns Jr, P.R. Flaherty , M.M. Romero & W.P. Weidanz (2003) Immunization against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria using combined formulations of apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. Vaccine 21, 18431852.

R. Chandrasekhar , U.R. Rao & D. Subramanyam (1985b) Serum dependent cell mediated reactions to Brugia phangi infective larvae. Parasite Immunology 7, 633642.

V. Chenthamarakshan , K. Cheirmaraj , M.V.R. Reddy & B.C. Harinath (1997) Immunoprophylactic studies with a 43kDa human circulating filarial antigen and a cross reactive 120kDa Brugia malayi sodium dodecyl sulphate soluble antigen in filariasis. Journal of Biosciences 22, 9198.

P. Dabir , K.N. Krithika , K. Goswami & M.V.R. Reddy (2006) Immunoprophylactic evaluation of a 37 kDa Brugia malayi recombinant antigen in lymphatic filariasis. Clinical and Microbiological Infection 12, 361368.

P. de Felipe (2002) Polycistronic viral vectors. Current Gene Therapy 2, 355378.

D.L. Doolan & S.L. Hoffman (2001) DNA based vaccines against malaria: status and promise of the multi-stage malaria DNA vaccine operation. International Journal of Parasitology 31, 753762.

W.F. Gregory , M.L. Blaxter & R.M. Maizels (1997) Differentially expressed, abundant trans-spliced cDNAs from larval Brugia malayi. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 87, 8595.

W.F. Gregory , A.K. Atmadija , J.E. Allen & R.M. Maizels (2000) The abundant larval transcript -1 and -2 genes of Brugia malayi encode stage specific candidate vaccine antigens for filariasis. Infection and Immunity 68, 41744179.

B. Li , R. Chandrasekhar , R.M. Alvarez , F. Lifis & G.J. Weil (1991) Identification of paramyosin as a protective antigen against Brugia malayi infection in jirds. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 49, 315324.

A.J. MacDonald , L. Cao , Y. He , Q. Zhao , S. Jiang & S. Lustigman (2005) rOv-ASP-1, a recombinant secreted protein of the helminth Onchocerca volvulus, is a potent adjuvant for inducing antibodies to ovalbumin, HIV-1 polypeptide and SARS-CoV peptide antigens. Vaccine 23, 34463452.

S. Mendez , B. Zhan , G. Goud , K. Ghosh , A. Dobardzic , W. Wu , S. Liu , V. Deumic , R. Dobardzic , Y. Liu , J. Bethony & P.J. Hotez (2005) Effect of combining the larval antigens Ancylostoma secreted protein 2 (ASP-2) and metalloprotease 1 (MTP-1) in protecting hamsters against hookworm infection and disease caused by Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Vaccine 23, 31233130.

E. Michael & D.A.P. Bundy (1997) Global mapping of lymphatic Filariasis. Parasitology today 13, 472476.

J. Murray , W.F. Gregory , N. Gomez-Escobar , A.K. Atmadja & R.M. Maizels (2001) Expression and immune recognition of Brugia malayi VAL-1, a homologue of vespid venom allergens and Ancylostoma secreted proteins. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 118, 8996.

D.M. Nelson , D. Subrahmanyam , Y.V.B.C. Rao & K. Mehta (1976) Cellular morphology in pleural exudate of albino rats infected with Litomosoides carinii. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70, 254255.

A.A. Onate , S. Cespedes , A. Cabrera , R. Rivers , A. Gonzalez , C. Munoz , H. Folch & E. Andrews (2003) A DNA vaccine encoding Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Infection and Immunity 71, 48574861.

W. Pan , D. Huang , Q. Zhang , L. Qu , D. Zhang , X. Zhang , X. Xue & F. Qian (2004) Fusion of two malaria vaccine candidate antigens enhances product yield, immunogenicity, and antibody-mediated inhibition of parasite growth in vitro. Journal of Immunology 172, 61676174.

M.E. Peralta , K.A. Schmitz & T.V. Rajan (1999) Failure of highly immunogenic filarial proteins to provide host-protective immunity. Experimental Parasitology 91, 334340.

D.R. Pokharel , R. Rai , K.K. Nandakumar , M.V. Reddy & S. Rathaur (2006) Vaccination with Setaria cervi 175 kDa collagenase induces high level of protection against Brugia malayi infection in jirds. Vaccine 24, 62086215.

A. Rainczuk , T. Scorza & T.W. Spithill (2004) A bicistronic DNA vaccine containing apical membrane Antigen 1 and merozoite surface protein 4/5 can prime humoral and cellular immune responses and partially protect mice against virulent Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS malaria. Infection and Immunity 72, 55655573.

S. Ramachandran , P.K. Mishra , M.V.R. Reddy , B.C. Harinath , T.B. Nutman , P. Kaliraj & J. McCarthy (2004) The larval specific lymphatic filarial ALT-2: induction of protection using protein or DNA vaccination. Microbiology and Immunology 48, 945955.

Y.P. Shi , S.E. Hasnanin , J.B. Sacci , B.P. Holloway , H. Fujioka , N. Kumar , R. Wohlhueter , S.L. Hoffman , W.E. Collins & A.A. Lal (1999) Immunogenicity and in vitro protective efficacy of a recombinant multistage Plasmodium falciparum candidate vaccine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96, 16151620.

B.K. Sim , B.H. Kwa & J.W. Mak (1982) Immune responses in human Brugia malayi infections: serum dependent cell mediated destruction of infective larvae in vitro. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 362369.

N. Rout , S. Kumar , S. Jaganmohan & V. Murugan (2007) DNA vaccines encoding viral envelope proteins confer protective immunity against WSSV in black tiger shrimp. Vaccine 25, 27782786.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Helminthology
  • ISSN: 0022-149X
  • EISSN: 1475-2697
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-helminthology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *