Acheson, J. (2003), Capturing the Commons: Devising Institutions to Manage the Maine Lobster Industry, Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Acheson, J. and Gardner, R. (2004), ‘Strategies, conflict, and the emergence of territoriality: the case of the Maine lobster industry’, American Anthropologist, 106 (2): 296–307.
Agrawal, A. and Gupta, K. (2005), ‘Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal's terai’, World Development, 33 (7): 1101–1114.
Araral, E. (2005), ‘Bureaucratic incentives, foreign aid, and path dependence’, Policy Studies, 38 (2): 131–157.
Araral, E. (2009), ‘The strategic games that donors and bureaucrats play: an institutional rational choice analysis’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19 (4): 853–871; published online 3 December 2008.
Arthur, W. B. (1989), ‘Competing technologies, increasing returns, and lock-in by historical events’, Economic Journal, 99: 116–131.
Basurto, X. (2005), ‘How locally designed access and use controls can prevent the tragedy of the commons in a Mexican small-scale fishing community’, Society and Natural Resources, 18: 643–659.
Basurto, X. and Coleman, E. (2010), ‘Institutional and ecological interplay for successful governance of community-based fisheries’, Ecological Economics, 69 (5): 1094–1103.
Basurto, X., Kingsley, G., McQueen, K., Smith, M., and Weible, C. M. (2009), ‘A systematic approach to institutional analysis: applying Crawford and Ostrom's grammar’, Political Research Quarterly, OnlineFirst, 14 April 2009, doi:10.1177/1065912909334430.
Basurto, X. and Ostrom, E. (2009), ‘Beyond the tragedy of the commons’, Economia delle fonti di energia e dell'ambiente, 52 (1): 35–60.
Benjamin, P., Lam, W. F., Ostrom, E., and Shivakoti, G. (1994), ‘Institutions, incentives, and irrigation in Nepal’, Decentralization: Finance and Management Project Report, Associates in Rural Development, Burlington, VT.
Berkes, F. (2007), ‘Community-based conservation in a globalized world’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (39): 15188–15194.
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. (eds.) (1998), Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. R. (2006), Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 4th edn, Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.
Blomquist, W. (1992), Dividing the Waters: Governing Groundwater in Southern California, Oakland, CA: ICS Press.
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. (1985), Culture and the Evolutionary Process, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brown, M. and Feldman, W. (2009), ‘Sociocultural epistasis and cultural exaptation in footbinding, marriage form, and religious practices in early 20th-century Taiwan’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (52): 22130–22144.
Campbell, D. T. (1965), ‘Variation and selective retention in socio-cultural evolution’, in Barringer, H. R., Blanksten, G. I., and Mack, R. W. (eds.), Social Change in Developing Areas: A Reinterpretation of Evolutionary Theory, Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, pp. 19–49.
Campbell, D. T. (1975), ‘On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition’, American Psychologist, 30 (11): 1103–1126.
Coleman, E. (2009), ‘Institutional factors affecting ecological outcomes in forest management’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28 (1): 122–146.
Commons, J. R. (1924), Legal Foundations of Capitalism, New York: Macmillan.
Crawford, S. E. S. and Ostrom, E. (2005), ‘A grammar of institutions’, in Ostrom, E., Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 137–174. Originally published in American Political Science Review, 89(3) (1995): 582–600.
Dennett, D. C. (1995), Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life, London: Allen Lane.
Dopfer, K., Foster, J., and Potts, J. (2004), ‘Micro-meso-macro’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14: 263–279.
Easterly, W. (2001), The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists’ Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Evans, P. (2004), ‘Development as institutional change: the pitfalls of monocropping and the potentials of deliberation’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 39 (4): 30–52.
Foster, J. (2001), ‘Competition, competitive selection and economic evolution’, in Garrouste, P. and Ioannides, S. (eds.), Evolution and Path Dependence in Economic Ideas: Past and Present, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 107–132.
Gardner, R. and Ostrom, E. (1991), ‘Rules and games’, Public Choice, 70 (2): 121–149.
Gautam, U., Agrawal, N. K., and Subedi, R. (eds.) (1992), Nepal: Managing Large Surface Irrigation Projects: A Participatory Review, Study Document NEP/89/006, Kathmandu, Nepal: Department of Irrigation and Consolidated Management Services.
Gibson, C., Andersson, K., Ostrom, E., and Shivakumar, S. (2005a), The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Gibson, C., McKean, M., and Ostrom, E. (eds.) (2000), People and Forests: Communities, Institutions, and Governance, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gibson, C., Williams, J. T., and Ostrom, E. (2005b), ‘Local enforcement and better forests’, World Development, 33 (2): 273–284.
Greif, A. and Laitin, D. D. (2004), ‘A theory of endogenous institutional change’, American Political Science Review, 98 (4): 633–652.
Hardin, G. (1968), ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162: 1243–1248.
Hayes, T. M. and Ostrom, E. (2005), ‘Conserving the world's forests: are protected areas the only way?’, Indiana Law Review, 38 (3): 595–617.
Henry, A. D. (2009), ‘The challenge of learning for sustainability: a prolegomenon to theory’, Research in Human Ecology, 16 (2): 131–141.
Hilpinen, R. (ed.) (1981), New Studies in Deontic Logic: Norms, Actions, and the Foundations of Ethics, Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel.
Hilton, R. (1990), Cost Recovery and Local Resource Mobilization: An Examination of Incentives in Irrigation Systems in Nepal, Decentralization: Finance and Management Project Report, Burlington, VT: Associates in Rural Development.
Hodgson, G. M. (2002), ‘Darwinism in economics: from analogy to ontology’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 12: 259–281.
Hodgson, G. M. (2004), The Evolution of Institutional Economics: Agency, Structure, and Darwinism in American Institutionalism, London: Routledge.
Hodgson, G. M. (2008), ‘How Veblen generalized Darwinism’, Journal of Economic Issues, 42 (2): 399–405.
Hodgson, G. M. (2009), ‘The ontology of institutional evolution’, prepared for the workshop on ‘Do Institutions Evolve?’, Schumann Center in the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 8–9 May 2009.
Hodgson, G. M. and Knudsen, T. (2006), ‘Why we need a generalized Darwinism, and why a generalized Darwinism is not enough’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 61 (1): 1–19.
Holling, C. S. (1973), ‘Resilience and stability of ecological systems’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4: 1–23.
Janssen, M. (2007), ‘Coordination in irrigation systems: an analysis of the Lansing-Kremer model of Bali’, Agricultural Systems, 93: 170–190.
Janssen, M., Goldstone, R., Menczer, F., and Ostrom, E. (2008), ‘Effect of rule choice in dynamic interactive spatial commons’, International Journal of the Commons, 2 (2): 288–312.
Janssen, M., Holahan, R., Lee, A., and Ostrom, E. (2010), ‘Lab experiments for the study of social-ecological systems’, Science 328 (5978): 613–617.
Janssen, M. and Ostrom, E. (2006a), ‘Governing social-ecological systems’, in Judd, K. L. and Tesfatsion, L. (eds.), Handbook of Computational Economics II: Agent-Based Computational Economics, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1465–1509.
Janssen, M. and Ostrom, E. (2006b), ‘Adoption of a new regulation for the governance of common-pool resources by a heterogeneous population’, in Baland, J.-M., Bardhan, P., and Bowles, S. (eds.), Inequality, Cooperation, and Environmental Sustainability, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 60–96.
Joshi, N. N., Ostrom, E., Shivakoti, G., and Lam, W. F. (2000), ‘Institutional opportunities and constraints in the performance of farmer-managed irrigation systems in Nepal’, Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development, 10 (2): 67–92.
King, G., Keohane, R. O., and Verba, S. (1994), Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kofinas, G. P. (2005), ‘Caribou hunters and researchers at the co-management interface: emergent dilemmas and the dynamics of legitimacy in power sharing’, Anthropologica, 47: 179–196.
Lam, W. F. (1998), Governing Irrigation Systems in Nepal: Institutions, Infrastructure, and Collective Action, Oakland, CA: ICS Press.
Lam, W. F., Lee, M., and Ostrom, E. (1994), ‘An institutional analysis approach: findings from the NIIS on irrigation performance’, in Sowerwine, J., Shivakoti, G., Pradhan, U., Shukla, A., and Ostrom, E. (eds.), From Farmers’ Fields to Data Fields and Back: A Synthesis of Participatory Information Systems for Irrigation and Other Resources, Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Irrigation Management Institute, and Rampur, Nepal: IAAS, pp. 69–93.
Lam, W. F. and Ostrom, E. (2010), ‘Analyzing the dynamic complexity of development interventions: lessons from an irrigation experiment in Nepal’, Policy Sciences, 43 (1): 1–25; published online 5 May 2009.
Lansing, J. S. (1991), Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lansing, J. S. (2006), Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lansing, J. S. and Kremer, J. (1993), ‘Emergent properties of landscape’, American Anthropologist, 95 (1): 97–115.
Levin, S. A. (1998), ‘Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems’, Ecosystems, 1: 431–436.
Lustick, I. S. (2009), ‘Evolution and historical institutionalism: tropes without theory’, prepared for the workshop on ‘Do Institutions Evolve?’, Schumann Center in the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 8–9 May 2009.
Meinzen-Dick, R. (2007), ‘Beyond panaceas in water institutions’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (39): 15200–15206.
Nelson, R. R. (2009), ‘How do institutions evolve?’, prepared for the workshop on ‘Do Institutions Evolve?’, Schumann Center in the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 8–9 May 2009.
Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (1982), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (2002), ‘Evolutionary theorizing in economics’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (2): 23–46.
Netting, R. McC. (1974), ‘The system nobody knows: village irrigation in the Swiss Alps’, in Downing, T. E. and Gibson, M. (eds.), Irrigation's Impact on Society, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 67–75.
Netting, R. McC. (1981), Balancing on an Alp: Ecological Change and Continuity in a Swiss Mountain Community, New York: Cambridge University Press.
North, D. C. (2005), Understanding the Process of Institutional Change, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Orebech, P., Bosselman, F., Bjarup, J., Callies, D., Chanock, M., and Petersen, H. (2005), The Role of Customary Law in Sustainable Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (1995), ‘Self-organization and social capital’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (1): 131–159.
Ostrom, E. (1999), ‘Coping with tragedies of the commons’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2: 493–535.
Ostrom, E. (2005), Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2007a), ‘A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (39): 15181–15187.
Ostrom, E. (2007b), ‘Institutional rational choice: an assessment of the institutional analysis and development framework’, in Sabatier, P. A. (ed.), Theories of the Policy Process, 2nd edn, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 21–64.
Ostrom, E., Gardner, R., and Walker, J. (1994), Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Ostrom, E. and Nagendra, H. (2006), ‘Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (51): 19224–19231.
Ostrom, E., Walker, J., and Gardner, R. (1992), ‘Covenants with and without a sword: self-governance is possible’, American Political Science Review, 86 (2): 404–417.
Ostrom, V. (1980), ‘Artisanship and artifact’, Public Administration Review, 40 (4): 309–317.
Ostrom, V. (1991), The Meaning of American Federalism: Constituting a Self-Governing Society, Oakland, CA: ICS Press.
Ostrom, V. (1997), The Meaning of Democracy and the Vulnerability of Democracies: A Response to Tocqueville's Challenge, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Ostrom, V. (2008a), The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration, 3rd edn, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Ostrom, V. (2008b), The Political Theory of a Compound Republic: Designing the American Experiment, 3rd edn, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Pitman, G. (2002), Bridging Troubled Waters: Assessing the WB Water Resources Strategy, Washington, DC: WP-Operations Evaluation Department.
Poteete, A., Janssen, M., and Ostrom, E. (2010), Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ragin, C. C. (2000), Fuzzy-Set Social Science, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Regmi, A. (2007), ‘Water security and farmer managed irrigation systems of Nepal’, in Rotberg, F. and Swain, A. (eds.), Natural Resources Security in South Asia: Nepal's Water, Stockholm, Sweden: Institute for Security and Development Policy, pp. 67–109.
Richerson, P. J. and Boyd, R. (2005), Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Runciman, W. G. (2009), The Theory of Cultural and Social Selection, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schlager, E. and Ostrom, E. (1992), ‘Property-rights regimes and natural resources: a conceptual analysis’, Land Economics, 68 (3): 249–262.
Schmid, A. A. (2004), Conflict and Cooperation: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Shivakoti, G. (1992), ‘Farmers’ perceptions of system effectiveness, level of participation and equity in farmer and agency managed irrigation systems in Nepal’, presented at the third annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Washington, DC, September, pp. 17–20.
Shivakoti, G. and Ostrom, E. (2001), Improving Irrigation Governance and Management in Nepal, Oakland, CA: ICS Press.
Shivakoti, G., Varughese, G., Ostrom, E., Shukla, A., and Thapa, G. (eds.) (1997), ‘People and participation in sustainable development: understanding the dynamics of natural resource systems’, Bloomington: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis; Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal: Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science.
Shivakoti, G., Vermillion, D., Lam, W. F., Ostrom, E., Pradhan, U., and Yoder, R. (eds.) (2005), Asian Irrigation in Transition: Responding to Challenges, New Delhi, India: Sage.
Spiertz, H. L. J. (1991), ‘The transformation of traditional law: a tale of people's participation in irrigation management on Bali’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 20: 189–196.
Stake, J. (2005), ‘Evolution of rules in a common law system: differential litigation of the fee tail and other perpetuities’, Florida State University Law Review, 32 (2): 401–424.
Tang, S. Y. (1992), Institutions and Collective Action: Self-Governance in Irrigation, San Francisco, CA: ICS Press.
Turral, H. (1995), ‘Recent trends in irrigation management: changing directions for the public sector’, no. 5, September, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Veblen, T. (1898), ‘The instinct of workmanship and the irksomeness of labor’, American Journal of Sociology (September): 187–201. Reprinted in Veblen (1934).
von Wright, G. H. (1951), ‘Deontic logic’, Mind, 60: 1–15.
von Wright, G. H. (1963), Norm and Action: A Logical Enquiry, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Wasserman, S. and Faust, K. (1994), Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weissing, F. and Ostrom, E. (1991), ‘Irrigation institutions and the games irrigators play: rule enforcement without guards’, in Selten, R. (ed.), Game Equilibrium Models II: Methods, Morals, and Markets, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 188–262.
Weissing, F. and Ostrom, E. (1993), ‘Irrigation institutions and the games irrigators play: rule enforcement on government- and farmer-managed systems’, in Scharpf, F. W. (ed.), Games in Hierarchies and Networks: Analytical and Empirical Approaches to the Study of Governance Institutions, Frankfurt: Campus Verlag; Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 387–428.
Wilson, J. (2002), ‘Scientific uncertainty, complex systems, and the design of common-pool institutions’, in Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolšak, N., Stern, P. C., Stonich, S., and Weber, E. (eds.), The Drama of the Commons, National Research Council, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Washington, DC: National Academies Press, pp. 327–359.
Wilson, J., Yan, L., and Wilson, C. (2007), ‘The precursors of governance in the Maine lobster fishery’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (39): 15212–15217.
Winpenny, J. T. (1994), Managing Water as an Economic Resource, New York: Routledge.