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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Alt, Jeremiah A. and Collins, William O. 2012. An objective comparison of leakage between commonly used earplugs. American Journal of Otolaryngology, Vol. 33, Issue. 4, p. 469.

    Chisholm, E.J. Kuchai, R. and McPartlin, D. 2004. An objective evaluation of the waterproofing qualities, ease of insertion and comfort of commonly available earplugs. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 128.

    Lee, Dennis Youk, Ada and Goldstein, Nira A. 1999. A Meta-Analysis of Swimming and Water Precautions. The Laryngoscope, Vol. 109, Issue. 4, p. 536.

    Parker, Gregg S. Tami, Thomas A. Maddox, Michael R. and Wilson, Joseph F. 1994. The effect of water exposure after tympanostomy tube insertion. American Journal of Otolaryngology, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 193.

    Robinson, Philip J. and Prince, Joanna M. 1990. The Dansac mini cap®: A new method of waterproof ear protection. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, Vol. 104, Issue. 10, p. 763.

    Robinson, A. C. 1989. Evaluation for waterproof ear protectors in swimmers. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, Vol. 103, Issue. 12, p. 1154.

    CULLEN, J. R. 1988. SWIMMING WITH EARPLUGS: ARE THEY WORTHWHILE?. Clinical Otolaryngology, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 231.


Ear protection against water-borne infection: an objective evaluation

  • Kyösti Laitakari (a1), Martti Sorri (a1), Tapio Pirilä (a1), Heli Löppönen (a1) and Laila Helisten (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2007

Eight different ear plug materials were tested, in 5 ears each, in artificial shallow underwater conditions for 30 minutes, in order to determine their efficacy in sealing the ear canals to avoid water-borne infections in ear canals and open middle ears. Most of the plugs tested would meet everyday requirements for protection, but the polymeric foam plugs, treated with petroleum jelly, and moldable plastic materials were most effective in protecting both the middle ear and the ear canal skin.

Corresponding author
Kyösti, Laitakari, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oulu, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
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D. W. Johnson and R. H. Maisel (1981) Objective evaluation of earplugs for control of water-borne infection. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 90: 8993.

D. W. Johnson , R. H. Mathog and R. H. Maisel (1977) Tympanostomy protection with earplugs. Archives of Otolaryngology, 103: 377380.

S. D. Kasden and M. Robinson (1974) Fabrication of custom-made ear plugs for swimming. Archives of Otolaryngology, 100: 68.

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The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology
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