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How phenotype guides management of the neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx

  • F López (a1) (a2) (a3), J L Hunt (a4), I J Nixon (a5), A Rinaldo (a6), M D Williams (a7), A Cardesa (a8) and A Ferlito (a9)...

This review aimed to critically analyse data pertaining to the clinical presentation and treatment of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx.


A PubMed search was performed using the term ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’. English-language articles on neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx were reviewed in detail.

Results and conclusion

While many historical classifications have been proposed, in contemporary practice these tumours are sub-classified into four subtypes: carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. These tumours exhibit a wide range of biological behaviour, ranging from the extremely aggressive nature of small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which usually have a fatal prognosis, to the less aggressive course of carcinoid tumours. In small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, a combination of irradiation and chemotherapy is indicated, while carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumour management entails conservation surgery.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Dr Fernando López, Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Avenida de Roma s/n, 33011 – Oviedo (Asturias), Spain E-mail:
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Dr F López takes responsibility for the integrity of the content of the paper


This article was written by members of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group (

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