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    de Hoog, Brigitte E. Langereis, Margreet C. van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn Keuning, Jos Knoors, Harry and Verhoeven, Ludo 2016. Auditory and verbal memory predictors of spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants. Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 57, p. 112.

    de Hoog, Brigitte E. Langereis, Margreet C. van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn Knoors, Harry and Verhoeven, Ludo 2015. Lexical access in children with hearing loss or specific language impairment, using the cross-modal picture–word interference paradigm. Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 37, p. 81.

    Crowe, Kathryn and McLeod, Sharynne 2014. A systematic review of cross-linguistic and multilingual speech and language outcomes for children with hearing loss. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 287.

    Huysmans, E. de Jong, J. van Lanschot-Wery, J.H. Festen, J.M. and Goverts, S.T. 2014. Long-term effects of congenital hearing impairment on language performance in adults. Lingua, Vol. 139, p. 102.


Receptive (aural) vocabulary development in children with permanent bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment

  • C Kiese-Himmel (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2008

The receptive (aural) vocabulary development of children with binaural-aided residual hearing was investigated in a prospective longitudinal analysis (repeated measures).

Patient and methods:

Thirty-three children with sensorineural hearing loss, without major co-morbidities (mean age at the first testing point, 56.2 months, standard deviation 19.0 months) were recruited from the 1994 German Goettinger Hearing Language Register. Their receptive vocabulary was measured using standardised tests (with reference to normal hearing child performance) on three separate test points (mean follow up, 18.7 months, standard deviation 5.0 months).


On average, the study group scored below the normal range at the first and second tests and made a significant improvement at the last test. The degree of hearing loss was found to be significantly correlated to vocabulary performance at all time points, with increasing correlation coefficients. At the third test, significant predictive variables for successful receptive vocabulary outcome were found to be: degree of hearing loss (t = 5.43; p < 0.0001); age at diagnosis (t = 2.29; p = 0.03); and nonverbal intelligence (t = 2.82; p = 0.009).


If permanent childhood hearing impairment is mild and/or is detected early, and if the child grows up in a monolingual environment, the development of receptive vocabulary within the normal range is possible.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence to: Professor Dr rer nat Dipl-Psych Christiane Kiese-Himmel, Clinical Psychologist, Department of Phoniatrics/Pedaudiology, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Robert Koch Str 40, D-37075 Goettingen, Germany. Fax: 0049 551/392812 E-mail:
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The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
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  • EISSN: 1748-5460
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