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Chile During the First Months of the War of the Pacific

  • William F. Sater
Extract

Charles Darwin once described the Atacama as the world' most desolate desert, and it is hardly surprising that its ownership was not vigorously contested before the 1860s. The discovery, however, first of guano and then of nitrates, made the Atacama the object of a diplomatic dispute between Chile and Bolivia, both of which now coveted this once undesirable land.

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1 Carlos, Dellepiane, Historia Militar del Perú (3rd ed., Buenos Aires, 1941), II, 2730, 65;Edmundo, H. Civati Bernasconi, Guerra del Paclfico (Buenos Aires, 1946), I, 117–34;Mariano, Felipe Paz Soldán, Narraciòn històrica de la Guerra con Chile contra el Perú y Bolivia (Buenos Aires, 1884), pp. 104–13;Robert, N. Burr, By Reason or Force (Los Angeles & Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1965), p. 143;Clements, R. Markham, The War between Peru and Chile (London, 1883), pp. 93–9;Alcides, Argüedas, Historia General de Bolivia (La Paz, 1922), pp. 379–80;Wilde, M. Fernando, Historia Miitar de B livia (La Paz, 1963), pp. 137–8;Mecham, J. Lloyd, A Survey of United States–Latin American Relations (Boston, 1965), p. 413.

2 La Revista dcl Sur (Concepciòn) 13, 15 02, 11, 25 03 1879 (hereafter cited as RVS); La Discusiòn (Chillán), 9, 13 02, 8 04 (hereafter cited as DIS); El Sufragio (Curicò), 15 02 (hereafter cited as SUF); El Lautaro (Rancagua), 12 05 (hereafter cited as LAU); El Constituycnte (Copiapò), 3 03 (hereafter cited as CONS); La Libcrtad (Valdivia), 26 04 (hereafter cited as LIBER); El Corrco de la Serena (La Serena), 12 05 (hereafter cited as CLS). Unless otherwise noted all newspapers cited were published in 1879.

3 LAU, 22 02 See also El Diario de Avisos (Santiago), 5 03; RVS, 10 05; El Independiente (Santiago), 30 03, 25 04 (hereafter cited as INDEP); El Mercurio (Valparaíso), 17 04 (hereafter cited as MER).

4 El Estandarte Catòlico (Santiago), 8 03 (hereafter cited as ESTAN).

5 MER, 1, 21 03; see also RVS, 5, 18 02, 4, 11 03 15, 19 04; The Chilian Times (Valparaíso), 3 05 (hereafter cited as CHT); CONS, 7 03, 10 06 INDEP, 5 03; La Semana (Parral), 10 05 (hereafter cited as SEM); CLS, 22 03., 20 03; El Progreso (Melipilla), 20 02 (hereafter cited as PRO); El Ferrocarril (Santiago), 25 02, 3 03 (hereafter cited as FERR); La Patria (Valparasíso), 27 02 (hereafter cited as LAP); ESTAN, 20 03.

6 INDEP, 19, 20 03; El Correo de Quillota (Quillota), 14 04, 1 05 (hereafter cited as CQ); MER, 6 04; Las Noticias (Talca). 3 04 (hereafter cited as LN); RVS, 6 05; CHT, 15 03.

7 Memoria de Guerra i Marina presentado al Congreso nacional pot el Ministro del ramo (Santiago, 1876), ix, xxxi, Memoria de Guerra… (Santiago, 1877), xi, xvii, xxii, xxviii; Memoria de Guerra… (Santiago, 1878), xviii, 100, 187–8, 221, 232–3, 241.

8 CHT, 22 02; MER, 13, 16 05.

9 El Maipo (San Bernardo), 15 03, 26 04 (hereafter cited as MP); see also LIBER, 9, 16 04; LAU, 12 03; DIS, 7, 11 05 CLS, 8 05 El Elector (Copiapò), 15 02.; PRO, 8 05.

10 CONS, 3 03.

11 DIS, 3 07; El Liberal (Vallenar), 17 05.

12 Inspecciòn Jeneral de la Guardia Nacional, Num. 4 in Memoria de Guerra de 1878; LN, 18, 19, 23 April, 1, 2, 9, 15, 22 May, 10 June, 15 July; CLS, 23 May 25 Septmber.; MER, 3 May ESTAN, 15 May; MP, 26 April; RVS, 14 Aug.; PRO, 18 May.

13 Memoria de Guerra de 1878, pp. 100, 102–3; RVS, 26 06, 14 08.; CONS, 6 05, 10 06, 14 07; La Uniòn (Parral), 7 06, 16 07 (hereafter cited as UN); LN, 22 05, 15 07; SUF, 10 06; CLS, 24 08.; MER, 10 03.

14 PRO, 8 06; El Mensajero del Pueblo (Santiago), 12 07 (hereafter cited as MEN); CONS, 29 04.

15 RVS, 22 05 14 08.; DIS, 14 07.

16 Justo, Arteaga to Aníbal, Pinto, 9, 16, 24 05 6 06, 1 07, Correspondencia de Pinto, vol. 1; see also: Cornelio, Saavedra to Aníbal, Pinto, 15, 57 03, Fondos Varios, vol. 414 (hereafter cited as FV). Saavedra was a professional army officer: Roberto Souper to Cornelio Saavedra, 4, 26 06, FV, vol. 559. Souper was a landowner from Talca who volunteered for the war.

17 CONS, 14 07; DIS, 05, 30 08.; RVS, 22 05.

18 Hipòlito, Gutiérrez, Crònica de on soldado de la Guerra del Pacifico (Santiago, n.d.), p.17;Arturo, Benavides Santo, Seis años de vacaciones (3rd ed., Buenos Aires, 1967), pp. 1618;Alberto, del Solar, Diario de Campaña (3rd ed., Buenos Aires, 1967), pp. 1516.

19 RVS, 19 04, 22 05, 14 08.

20 CLS, 20 03.

21 CLS, 1 03; CQ, 12 06; LN, 27 07; DIS, 15 04; CONS, 20 05; CHT, 14 06; MER, 12 05.

22 CONS, 54 03, 1, 20 05; El Comercio (San Felipe), 1 05 (hereafter cited as COM); DIS, 26 04.

23 LN, 2 07; DIS, 19 04.

24 CLS, 22 05.

25 El Curicano (Curicò), 28 06 (hereafter cited as CUR).

26 ESTAN, 3 04; CQ, 25 05; CHT, 5 04; CONS, 6 05 CLS, 20 03.

27 FERR, 3 03; CQ, 19 06; LN, 22, 24 06; CHT, 10 05; Eulogio Altamirano to Antonio Varas, 4 07 1879, in Correspondencia tie don Antonio Varas sobre la Guerra dcl Pacifico (Santiago, 1928), pp. 168–9 (hereafter cited as Varas). Altamirano was a lawyer and later a judge. He had earlier been both a Deputy and a Minister of Justice in the government of Federico Errázuriz. During the war he was Secretary of the Field Army.

28 CHT, 5 04.

29 MEN, 7 06; LN, 6 05; MER, 20 05; RVS, 24 08.

30 CHT, 19 04.

31 CLS, 17 06 CQ, 12 06; CONS, 29 04, 20 05; DIS, 18 04, 12 07.

32 MEN, 4 06; LN, 11, 12 06; MER, is 06; Diario de Guerra (Santiago), 9 06 (hereafter cited as DG); CONS, 23 05 CLS, 15, 26 07.

33 RVS, 2 04; ESTAN, 17 04; SEM, 7 03; CQ, 11, 19 06; MER, 11, 14 06; Sesiòn del 22 de Abril de 1879 in Varas, p. 261.

34 CQ, 19 06, 20 07; COM, 12 03; PRO, or 05; UN, 10 05.

35 LN, 29 03 1, 3, 19 07; DIS, 26 04.

36 COM, 12 03; CLS, 57 07.

37 UN, 6 07.

38 DIS, 18 04; LB, 19 07.

39 Los Tiempos (Santiago), 29 07 (hereafter cited as LOT).

40 FERR, 28 02; DIS, 18 04, 9 05, 4 09; CONS, 8 05; LN, 20 07; CLS, 1 05; MEN, 29 03; RVS, 12 04; ESTAN, 20 03.

41 RVS, 27 05; MEN, 24 05; CQ, II 05; CONS, 8 05; Altamirano to Varas, 7, II 07 in Varas, pp. 171, 173.

42 DIS, 15, 18, 26 041, 9 05, II 10.; LAU, 29 03, 3 05; LN, I 05, 3 06; CLS, 8 05; MP, 15 03; LIBER, 3 05; CONS, 6 05; RVS, 15 04; MEN, 22 03, 19 04, 24 05.

43 CHT, 21 06; CUR, 28 06; CQ, 22 05; DIS, 9 05; PRO, 7 07; UN, 26 07. See also LI, 18, 19 07; CLS, 13 05.

44 CONS, 29 04, 14 05, 14 06.

45 RVS, 15 04.

46 LN, 23, 24, 30 04, 19 07.

47 CHT, 24 05.

48 CUR, 28 06. See also CQ, I 05; CONS, 23 05; DG, 19 08; UN, 28 06.

49 Logan, C. A. to Secretary of State, 6 03 1876, in United States Diplomatic Reports, Chile.

50 Félix, Garmendia, Las elecciones infames (Santiago, 1876), pp. 67;Ramòn, 2° Harriet, La verdad de hoi (Valparaíso, 1875), p. II;De un nuevo partido politico en Chile (Talca, 1875), pp. 26, 33, 37, 42.

51 DA, 17 01.

52 Discurso de S. E. el Presidente dc la República en la apertura del Congreso Constituyente de 1891 (Santiago de Chile, 1891), pp. 7–8; PRO, 30 03, 5 04; COM, 12 03; INDEP, 15 04; CQ, 23, 30 03; RVS, 20 02; DIS, 18 04; LN, 9 04; CUR, 16 02; LIBER, 9, 16 04.

53 MER, 24 03; CHT, 15 02; INDEP, 14, 18 02, 5 03; LAP, 20, 21 01, 3, 10, 13 02, 5 03; Las Novedades (Santiago), 22 01, 17, 18 02 (herafter cited as NOV).

54 ESTAN, 11, 24, 29 03; INDEP, I, 3, 4, 6, 21 03; RVS, 22, 25 02, 13, 18 03; FERR, 23, 28 02, 8, 16 03; LAP, 20, 22, 26 02; NOV, 20 03; CLS, 29 03; LAU, 15, 22 03; SEM, 55 03; SUF, 18 03; PRO, 30 03; CQ, 6, 9 03; MEN, 22 03; DA, 24 01, 29 03.

55 MER, 20, 28 02, I, II, 13 03; ESTAN, I, 4, 5, 11 03; RVS, 13 03; INDEP, 28 03; LAP, 28 02; FERR, 20, 26 03.

56 COM, 16 02, 22 03, 8 04; CONS, 4 04; LAU, 15, 18 03; LIBER, 26 04; SEM, 28 04.

57 DA, 19 03; LAU, 12 03; INDEP, 5, 22 03; FERR, 3 03; MER, 20 03; ESTAN, 27 02; LAP, 18, 21 02.

58 CHT, 22 03.

59 Arteaga to Pinto, 9, 16 May, Correspondencia de Pinto, Vol. 1.

60 INDEP, 20 03; MER, 17 04.

61 DG, 16 05; FERR, I, 12, 13 04, 8 05; LAP, 22, 26 03, 5, 8, 9, 16 04; NOV, 23 04.

62 Juan, Williams Rebolledo, Operaciones de la escuadra mientras estuvo a las òrdenes del contra-almirante Williams Rebolledo (Valparaíso, 1882), pp. 2021.

63 LAP, 16 04. See also FERR, 6, 12 04; CHT, 19 04; DG, 16 05; NOV, 6, 22 05.

64 Rafael Sotomayor to Anibal Pinto, 7, 9, 24, 27 April in ‘Correspondencia de don Rafael Sotomayor con don Aníbal Pinto durante la Guerra del Pacífico’, Revista Chilena de Historia y Geografia, XV (1922), 179–80, 583–4, 588–9, 590–3 (hereafter the article is cited as CRS). In civilian life a judge, Sotomayor served as civilian secretary to Williams Rebolledo during the first months of the war.

65 Williams, Rebolledo to Anibal, Pinto, 15 05, Correspondencia de Aníbal Pinto a General D. J. M. de la Cruz.

66 FERR, 24, 28 05; LAP, 24, 30 05; NOV, 23 05; MER, 24 05; ESTAN, 23 05; INDEP, 28 05; DG, 6 06; SUP, 19 06; LN, 17 06; El Centinela (San Carios), 5, 12 06 (hereafter cited as CEN).

67 Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 5 May in CRS, 286–8;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , Junio de 1879, ‘Correspondencia de don Rafael Sotomayor con el General don Justo Arteaga y don Aníbal Pinto sobre la Guerra del Pacífico’, Revista Chilena, 17 (1924), 425 (hereafter cited as CRSJA). See also Domingo, Santa María to Antonio, Varas, 27 06, in Varas, p. 155.

68 José, Alfonso to Aníbal, Pinto, 27 05, FV, vol. 559. Alfonso was a lawyer who served as Auditor de Gucrra, a liaison position between the military and civilian authorities.

69 Altamirano, to Varas, , 27, 29 05, 2, 7 06, in Varas, pp. 107–8; 118, 536. See also Varas, to Altamirano, , 3 06, in Varas, p. 121.

70 DG, 24 05; Cámara de Diputados, sesiones ordinarias, 28 07, p. 330.

71 INDEP, 27 05.

72 NOV, 27 05.

73 La Opiniòn (Talca), 30 07 (hereafter cited as OP).

74 LOT, 25, 27, 29 05; see also DG, 30 05.

75 LAP, 30 05; FERR, 24 05.

76 MER, 28, 30 05, 6 06. See also ESTAN, 23 05; NOV, 23 05; INDEP, II, 14 06; RVS, 28, 30 05; LN, 25 05; CLS, 27 05; CONS, 7 07.

77 Santa, María to Varas, , 27 06, in Varas, p. 155.

78 Alfonso, to Pinto, , 13 06, FV, vol. 414. Sec also: Alfonso, to Pinto, , 23 05, FV, vol. 414; Santa, María to Varas, , 27 06, in Varas, pp. 155–6. In a letter dated 28 April 1879, Sotomayor stated that the Peruvian fleet was expected to sail south within, twenty to thirty days. This is approximately when they did leave Callao for Arica; Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 28 04, CRS, 194.

79 Williams, , p. 44.

80 Santa, María to Pinto, , 25 06, FV, vol. 416.

81 DIS, 19 04; CQ, 20 04; CLS, 15, 17 05.

82 Sotomayor, to Pinto, , Junio de 1879, CRSJA, 415.

83 Sotomayor, to Varas, , 5 06, in Varas, p. 128;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 4 06, CRS, pp. 292–3.

84 Altamirano, to Varas, , 5 06, in Varas, p. 125;Sotomayor, to Varas, , 13 06, in Varas, p. 142;Santa, María to Lastarria, J. V., ‘Cartas de don Domingo Santa María a don José Victorino Lastarria’, Revista Chilena, 6 (1918), 254–60;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , Junio de 1879, 16 06, CRSJA, pp. 415, 420;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 4 06 CRS, pp. 292–3.

85 MER, 14 05.

86 INDEP, 17 06.

87 Cámara de Diputados, sesiones estraordinarias (sesiones secretas), 19 06, pp. 131–2.

88 Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 4 06, CRS, pp. 292–3;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 16 06, Junio de 1879, CRSJA, pp. 415, 420.

89 Santa, María to Pinto, , 25 06, FV, vol. 416; Santa, María to Varas, , 27 06, in Varas, p. 156;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 16 06, CRSJA, p. 420.

90 Santa, María to Varas, , 20 07, in Varas, p. 191.

91 LOT, II, 16, 20 07; DG, 19 07; CQ, 5 07; CLS, 14 06; MER, 15, 18, 19 07; ESTAN, 18 07; FERR, 16 07; LAP, 4 07; INDEP, 8, 11, 18, 22, 27 07; CHT, 12 07; LN. 22 07.

92 CHT, 26 07; ESTAN, 21 07; CLS, 17 07; LN, 22 07; MER, 21, 22 07; LAP, 9 07; CEN, 26 07.

93 Aníbal, Pinto, ‘Apuntes’, Revista Chilena, 13 (1921), 367;CONS, 8 08; El Nuevo Ferrocarril, 21 07 (hereafter cited as NFERR'); DG, 17 07.

94 LN, 22, 26 07; FERR, 16 07; MER, 19 06.

95 NFERR, 21 07; INDEP, 5, 15 07; CQ, 13, 15 07; LN, 8 07.

96 INDEP, 5, 7, 8 06; CEN, 26 07; CLS, 13, 17 07; CQ, 13 07; LN, 27 07.

97 CQ, 29 06, 24 07; CLS, 12, 17 07.

98 INDEP, 17, 18 07; LOT, 3 07; MER, 18 07; CQ, 15, 17, 24 07; LN, 22 07.

99 LAP, 10 07.

100 FERR, 5 03; LAP, 20 03; INDEP, 16 03; MER, 19 03, 20 06; LAU, 12 05; DG, 19 07; CQ, 17 07; CLS, 10 06.

101 MER, 15 07.

102 CEN, 12 07.

103 CHT, 26 07.

104 José, Velásquez to Jovino, Novoa, 31 05, in Varas, p. 117; DIS, 19 08; ESTAN, 12, 05;Alfonso, to Pinto, , 13 06, FV, vol. 454;Souper, to Saavedra, , II, 29 05, 26 06, FV, vol. 559; CQ, 7 09; LN, 17 06;Sotomayor, to Varas, , 4 05, 5 06, in Varas, pp. 63, 131;Santa, María to Varas, , 27 06, in Varas, p. 156;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , Junio de 1879, CR5JA 414.

105 Santa, María to Pinto, , 25 06, FV, vol. 416.

106 Alfonso, to Pinto, , 27 05, FV, vol. 414.

107 ‘Apuntes’, 11 07, p. 363.

108 Souper, to Saavedra, , 26 06, FV, vol. 559;Alfonso, to Pinto, 6 06, FV, vol. 414.

109 Ignacio, Santa Maria, Guerra del Pacifico (Santiago de Chile, 1920), 11, 293302, 305–7.

110 Ibid. pp. 377–83.

111 Santa, María to Pinto, , 19 07, FV, vol. 416.

112 LOT, 24, 27, 29, 30 07, 28 08; CQ, 27 07; MER, 28 07; CONS, 1 08; CEN, 2 08.

113 Santa, María to Pinto, , 26 07, FV, vol. 416.

114 Souper, to Saavedra, , Julio, FV, vol. 559.

115 Souper, to Saavedra, , 4 06, FV, vol. 559;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 12 05, 4 06, CRS, pp. 289–93;Sotomayor, to Pinto, , Junio de 1879, 3 08, CRSJA, pp. 415, 424–5;Sotomayor, to Saavedra, , 9 04, FV, vol. 559;Sotomayor, to Varas, , 6 06, in Varas, p. 148;Santa, María to Varas, , 27 06, 20 07, in Varas, pp. 156, 189–90;Santa, María to Pinto, , 25 06, 26 07, FV, vol. 416;Santa, María to Lastarria, , ‘Correspondencia …’, pp. 255–60.

116 CQ, 3 08; CLS, 2, 7 08; OP, 30 07; LN, I 08; RVS, 2 08.

117 LOT. 31 07, I 08.

118 Ibid.. 31 07.

119 LAP, 1 08; LOT, 1 08.

120 OP, 30, 31 07.

121 INDEP, 2 08; LN, I 08.

122 X, La patria esaá en peligro (1879). This was also published in various newspapers. See, for example, LN, 26 07.

123 LAP, 1, 2, 8 08; RVS, 31 07, 21 08; LOT, 15 07, 10 08; MEN, 16 08; CQ, 10 08.

124 CLS, 7 08; LN, 1 08; DIS, 7 08.

125 RVS, 2 08; UN, 26 07; CONS, 1 08; MEN, 2 08; LAP, 1 08; DIS, 7 08.

126 INDEP, 18, 30, 31 08; LAP, 30 08; CLS, 28 08; CQ, 3, 17 08; CEN, 2 08.

127 LOT, 29 07; CLS, 28 08; CONS, 1 08.

128 CQ, 3 08; NFERR, 11 08, I 09; DC, 19 08; OP, 20 07.

129 OP, 31 07; RVS, 31 07, 30 08.

130 FERR, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 08; LAP, 1 08; RVS, 19 08; DIS, 19, 21 08; CUR, 23 08; LIBER, 30 08; CHT, 9 08. See also Cámara de Senado, sesiones ordinarias, 9, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24 07; Cámara de Diputados, sesiones ordinarias, 26, 28 06, 1, 2, 10, 12, 16, 17, 19 July. These sessions were devoted almost exclusively to the discussion of political issues.

131 CUR, 23 08; MEN, 9 08; DG, 23 08.

132 CONS, 1 08;DG, 19 08; INDEP, 8 08; DG, 29 09.

133 CHT, 9 08.

134 LAP, 2 08; DIS, 4 09.

135 CONS, 7 08.

136 DIS, 4 09; NFERR, 18 08.

137 LAP, 1, 8 08; CQ, 10, 24 08; DIS, 4 09; FERR, 9 08; RVS, 21, 30 08; DG, 23 08; MER, 8 08.

138 ‘Apuntes’, 24, 25 07, pp. 364–6. For the Congressional debates, see Cámara de Diputados, sesiones ordinarias, 26 07, pp. 321–3; Cámara de Diputados, sesiones secretas, 14, 16, 19, 20 08, pp. 133–46; Senado, scsiones ordinarias, 22 08, p. 149; Senado, sesiones secretas, 23, 24, 31 07, 1, 2 08, pp. 27–52.

139 ‘Apuntes’, 15, 16 08, pp. 368–9, 370–2. See also Jorge, Huneeus, ‘Memoria sobre Ia crisis ministerial que diò por resultado la admisiòn de Ia renuncia de los señores Varas, Urrutia y la mía el 20 de Agosto de 1879’, Revista Chilena, 7 (1919), 153–64.

140 Varas, to Altamirano, , 29 07, in Varas, pp. 208, 210.

141 LAP, 14 08.

142 ESTAN, 21 07; LN, 22 07; CQ, 24 07; CONS, 12 07; CHT, 21 06.

143 Williams, , op. cit., pp. 113–14.

144 Altamirano, to Pinto, , 6 08, FV, vol. 515;Sotomayor, to Varas, , 5 06, in Varas, p. 128;Santa, María to Pinto, , 26 07, FV, vol. 416;Alfonso, to Pinto, , 1 08, FV, vol. 414.

145 Alfonso, to Pinto, , 1 08, FV, vol. 414;Sotomayor, to Varas, , 5 06, in Varas, p. 529;Altamirano, to Varas, , 11 08, in Varas, p. 235.

146 Altamirano, to Varas, , 31 07, 4, 5 08, in Varas, p. 219.

147 NFERR, 18 08, 1 09.

148 LOT, 17 08.

149 DIS, 8 08; CLS, 7 08, 2 09; RVS, 26 08.

150 ‘Apuntes’, 27 08, p. 373; ‘Apuntes’, 26, 29 08, Revista Chilena, XVI (1922), 113–15.

151 Sotomayor, to Pinto, , 11 08, CRSJA, pp. 424–5.

152 DIS, 9 10; LOT, 9, 10 10; FERR, 9, 10 10; NFERR, 13 10; INDEP, 9 10; ESTAN, 8 10; MER, 9 10.

153 DIS, 9 10.

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