Skip to main content
×
Home

Applications of graphite intercalation compounds

  • M. Inagaki (a1)
Abstract

The properties of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's) are discussed with respect to possible applications. Five families of intercalates give high electrical conductivity to GIC's: pentafluorides leading to high conductivity, 108 S/m (higher than metallic copper); metal chlorides; fluorine and alkali metals with bismuth giving relatively high conductivity of the order of 107 S/m plus stability in air; and residual halogens showing extremely high stability under severe conditions, though the conductivity is only of the order of 106 S/m. Electrodes of different GIC's have been tried in primary and secondary batteries, where their characteristics are high electrical conductivity and easy diffusion of electrochemically active species between the graphite layers. Primary lithium batteries of a covalent graphite fluoride are now widely used commercially. Secondary batteries using different host graphites and intercalates give interesting results. Large amounts of hydrogen can be stored in the functional space in alkali metal-GIC's. The same GIC's show high coefficients of isotope separation of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature. The structure and texture of the host graphite play a decisive role in the absorption and separation behaviors of GIC's. Exfoliated graphite prepared by rapid heating of GIC's or their residue compounds leads to flexible graphite sheets which have great industrial applications. Some problems connected with the production and use of these sheets are discussed.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1Inagaki M. “Chemical Physics of Intercalation”, NATO-ASI series, edited by Legrand A. P. and Flandrois S. (Elsevier, 1987), p. 105; M. Inagaki “Graphite Intercalation Compounds”, Advanced Carbon Series II (Rearaizu-sha, Tokyo, 1989) (in press).
2Inagaki M.TANSO 1988 [No. 133], 127 (1988).
3Setton R.Synth. Met. 23, 467 (1988); ibid., 23, 511 (1988).
4Setton R.Preparative Chemistry Using Supported Reagents, edited by Laszlo P. (Academic Press, 1987), p. 255.
5Setton R.Synth. Met. 23, 511 (1988).
6Vogel F.L.Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 262 (1976); J. Mater. Sci. 12, 982 (1977).
7Inagaki M.Hyoumen 20, 130 (1982).
8Shioya J.Yamaguchi Y.Matsubara H. and Murakami S.Nihon Kagaku Kaishi 1986, 238 (1986).
9Matsubara H.Yamaguchi Y.Shioya J. and Murakami S.Synth. Met. 18, 503 (1987).
10Kalnin I.L. and Goldberg H. A.Synth. Met. 8, 277 (1983).
11Oshima H. and Woollam J. A.J. Appl. Phys. 53, 9220 (1982); H. Os-hima, J. A. Woollam A. Yavrouian and M. B. Dowell Synth. Met. 5, 113 (1983).
12Chieu T.C.Dresselhaus M.S. and Endo M.Phys. Rev. B26, 5867 (1982); T. C. Chieu G. Timp M. S. Dresselhaus and M. Endo ibid., 27, 3686 (1983); M. Endo T.C. Chieu G. Timp and M.S. Dressel-haus, Synth. Met. 8, 251 (1983).
13Flandrois S.Masson J. M.Rouillon J. C.Gaultier J. and Hauw C.Synth. Met. 3, 1 (1981).
14Inagaki M.Wang Z. D.Okamoto Y. and Ohira M.Synth. Met. 20, 9 (1987).
15Ansart A.Meschi C. and Flandrois S. 4th Int. Symp. on GICs (1987), Jerusalem.
16Gaier J.R. and Jaworske D. A.Synth. Met. 12, 525 (1985).
17Sugiura T.Iijima T.Sato M. and Fujimoto K.4th Int. Symp. on GICs (1987), Jerusalem.
18Inagaki M. and Wang Z.D.Synth. Met. 20, 1 (1987).
19Wang Z.D. and Inagaki M.ibid., 25, 181 (1988).
20Inagaki M. and Wang Z. D.Colloq. Intl. sur les Composes Lamelaires (1988), Pont-a-Mousson, p. 35.
21Inagaki M.Wang Z.D. and Sakakibara J. Synth. Met. (in press).
22Nakajima T.Kawaguchi M. and Watanabe N.Z. Naturforsch. 36, 1419 (1981); Carbon 20, 287 (1982).
23Nakajima T.Kawaguchi M. and Watanabe N.Synth. Met. 7, 117 (1983).
24Nakajima T.Watanabe N.Kameda I. and Endo M.Carbon 24, 343 (1985).
25Nakajima T.Ino T.Watanabe N. and Takenaka H.Carbon 26, 397 (1988).
26McRae E.Mareche J. F.Bendriss-Rerhrhaye A., Lagrange P. and Herold A.Ann. Phys. C-2 11, 13 (1986).
27Lagrange P. and Bendriss-Rerhrhaye A., Carbon 26, 283 (1988).
28Gaier J.R.Slabe M.E. and Shaffer N.ibid., 26, 381 (1988).
29Endo M.Yamanashi H.Doll G.L. and Dresselhaus M.S.J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2995 (1988).
30Gaier J.R. MRS Fall Meeting (1988), Boston, MA, Extended Abstracts, p. 149.
31Okazaki R.Aoki A.Tsubaki K.Iijima T. and Morita A.National Tech. Rep. 24, 281 (1978).
32Kita Y.Watanabe N. and Fujii Y.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 3832 (1979).
33Armand M. and PTouzain h.Mater. Sci. Engr. 31, 319 (1977).
34Touzain PH.Yazami R. and Maire J.J. Power Source 14, 99 (1985).
35Nakajima T.Electrochemica. Acta 27, 1535 (1982).
36Touhara H.Fujimoto H.Watanabe N. and Tressaud A.Solid State Ionics 14, 163 (1984).
37Dunning J. S.Tiedemen W. H.Hsuch L. and Bennion D. N.J. Elec-trochem. Soc. 118, 1886 (1971).
38Fujii R.Denki-Kagaku 41, 52 (1973).
39Beck F. and Krohn H.Synth. Met. 7, 193 (1983).
40Endo M.Nakamura J. and Touhara H. MRS Fall Meeting (1988), Boston, MA, Extended Abstracts, p. 157.
41Flandrois S.Masson J.M. and Rouillon J. C.Synth. Met. 3, 195 (1981).
42Flandrois S. and Herran J.Synth. Met. 14, 103 (1986).
43Ohtani S.Phung H.L.Kubota T.Sakaniwa H. and Suzuki M.Denki-Kagaku 44, 27 (1976); S. Ohtani K. Matsumoto and F. Mogi ibid., 50, 684 (1982).
44Tagusagawa H. and Ontani S. (private communication).
45Lalancette J. M. and Roussel R.Can. J. Chem. 54, 3541 (1976).
46Endo M.Koyama T. and Inagaki M.Oyo-Buturi 49, 563 (1980); Synth. Met. 3, 177 (1981); M. Endo and M. Inagaki ibid., 7, 203 (1983).
47Inagaki M.Uchida K.Sakai M. and Maeda Y.Nihon-Kagaku-Kaishi 1983, 309 (1983); Y. Maeda H. Kitamura E. Itoh and M. Inagaki Synth. Met. 7, 211 (1983); Y. Maeda E. Itoh and M. Inagaki ibid., 20, 73 (1987).
48Inagaki M.Itoh E. and Maeda Y.TANSO 1985 [No. 122], 134 (1985); M. Inagaki E. Itoh Y. Maeda and I. Tanaka Synth. Met. (to be published).
49Huffman F.N. and Haq Z.Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion, Univ. Texas (1988), p. 1.
50Watanabe K.Soma M.Ohishi T. and Tamaru K.Nature 233, 160 (1971); K. Watanabe T. Kondow M. Soma T. Onishi and K. Tamaru Proc. Roy. Soc. A 333, 51 (1973).
51Lagrange P.Metrot A. and Herold A.Compt. Rend. 275, C-765 (1972); P. Lagrange and A. Herold ibid., 281, C-381 (1975).
52Akuzawa N.Katano K.Ohmura Y.Konishi T.Amemiya T.Terai T. and Takahashi Y.TANSO 1988 [No. 133], 100 (1988).
53Terai T. and Takahashi Y.J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 18, 643 (1981); Synth. Met. 7, 49 (1983); Carbon 22, 91 (1984).
54Akuzawa N.Amemiya T.Terai T. and Takahashi Y.Science and New Applications of Carbon Fibers, Toyohashi, 113 (1984).
55Terai T. Thesis, Tokyo Univ. (1983), p. 206.
56Berger D. and Maire J.Mater. Sci. Engr., 31, 335 (1977).
57Inagaki M.Muramatsu K. and Maeda Y.Synth. Met. 8, 335 (1983).
58Inagaki M.Shiwachi Y. and Maeda Y.J. Chem. Phys. 84, 847 (1984).
59Inagaki M.Mine H. and Sakai M.Zairyo 37, 51 (1988).
60Jimenez-Gonzalez H., Speck J. S.Roth G. and Dresselhaus M.S.Carbon 24, 627 (1986).
61Yoshida A.Hishiyama Y. and Inagaki M. Carbon (to be published).
62Takada Y. and Fujii R. 11th Annual Meeting of Carbon Society of Japan (1984).
63Touzain Ph.Michel J. and Blum P.Synth. Met. 8, 313 (1983).
Pfluger W.P.Kunzi H. V. and Guntherodt H.J.Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 771 (1979).
65Yoshino K. and Ueno H.TANSO 1989 [No. 136], 29 (1989).
66Inagaki M.TANSO 1985 [No. 122], 114 (1985).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 160 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 564 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.