Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Calorimetric measurements of structural relaxation and glass transition temperatures in sputtered films of amorphous Te alloys used for phase change recording

  • J.A. Kalb (a1), M. Wuttig (a2) and F. Spaepen (a3)

Abstract

Sputtered amorphous Ge4Sb1Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ag0.055In0.065Sb0.59Te0.29 thin films were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Upon continuous heating, heat release due to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase between 0.5 and 1.0 kJ/mol was observed. This value depends on the thermal history of the sample. Preannealing of the amorphous phase revealed the glass transition temperature Tg within 10 K of the crystallization temperature upon continuous heating at 40 K/min.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: art.tg@kalb.eu
b)This author was Chair of the JMR Advisory Review Board during the review and decision stage.

References

Hide All
1Yamada, N.: Erasable phase-change optical materials. MRS Bull. 21(9), 48 (1996).
2Hudgens, S. and Johnson, B.: Overview of phase-change chalcogenide nonvolatile memory technology. MRS Bull. 29(11), 829 (2004).
3Wamwangi, D., Njoroge, W.K., and Wuttig, M.: Crystallization kinetics of Ge4Sb1Te5 films. Thin Solid Films 408, 310 (2002).
4Friedrich, I., Weidenhof, V., Njoroge, W., Franz, P., and Wuttig, M.: Structural transformations of Ge2Sb2Te5 films studied by electrical resistance measurements. J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4130 (2000).
5Njoroge, W.K. and Wuttig, M.: Crystallization kinetics of sputter-deposited amorphous AgInSbTe films. J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3816 (2001).
6Christian, J.W.: The Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys 2nd ed. (Pergamon, North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1975).
7Herlach, D.M.: Non-equilibrium solidification of undercooled metallic melts. Mater. Sci. Eng., R 12, 177 (1994).
8Turnbull, D.: Phase changes. Solid State Phys. 3, 225 (1956).
9Turnbull, D.: Under what conditions can a glass be formed? Contemp. Phys. 10, 473 (1969).
10Thompson, C.V., Greer, A.L., and Spaepen, F.: Crystal nucleation in amorphous (Au100−yCuy)77Si9Ge14 alloys. Acta Metall. 31, 1883 (1983).
11Thompson, C.V. and Spaepen, F.: Homogeneous crystal nucleation in binary metallic melts. Acta Metall. 31, 2021 (1983).
12Kelton, K.F.: Crystal nucleation in liquids and glasses. Solid State Phys. 45, 75 (1991).
13Peng, C., Cheng, L., and Mansuripur, M.: Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical-recording media. J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4183 (1997).
14Sheila, A.C. and Schlesinger, T.E.: Modeling thermal cross talk and overwrite jitter in growth dominant phase change optical-recording media at high data rates. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2803 (2002).
15Meinders, R., Borg, H.J., Lankhorst, M.H.R., Hellmig, J., and Mijritskii, A.V.: Numerical simulation of mark formation in dual-stack phase-change recording. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9794 (2002).
16Senkader, S. and Wright, C.D.: Models for phase-change of Ge2Sb2Te5 in optical and electrical memory devices. J. Appl. Phys. 95, 504 (2004).
17Elliott, S.R.: Physics of Amorphous Materials (Longman, London, UK, 1984).
18Spaepen, F.: Physics of Defects, Les Houches Lectures XXXV, edited by Balian, R., Kleman, M. and Poirier, J-P. (North–Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981), p. 133.
19Spaepen, F. and Turnbull, D.: Metallic glasses. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 35, 241 (1984).
20Lankhorst, M.H.R.: Modelling glass transition temperatures of chalcogenide glasses. Applied to phase-change optical recording materials. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 297, 210 (2002).
21Kalb, J., Spaepen, F., and Wuttig, M.: Calorimetric measurements of phase transformations in thin films of amorphous Te alloys used for optical data storage. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2389 (2003).
22Yamada, N., Ohno, E., Akahira, N., Nishiuchi, K., Nagata, K., and Takao, M.: High speed overwritable phase change optical disk material. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 26–4, 61 (1987).
23Yamada, N., Ohno, E., Nishiuchi, K., Akahira, N., and Takao, M.: Rapid phase transitions of GeTe–Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory. J. Appl. Phys. 69, 2849 (1991).
24Pedersen, T.P. Leervad, Kalb, J., Njoroge, W.K., Wamwangi, D., Wuttig, M., and Spaepen, F.: Mechanical stresses upon crystallization in phase change materials. Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3597 (2001).
25Morales-Sanchez, E., Prokhorov, E.F., Mendoza-Galvan, A., and Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.: Determination of the glass transition and nucleation temperatures in Ge2Sb2Te5 sputtered films. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 697 (2002).
26Kalb, J.A., Spaepen, F., and Wuttig, M.: Kinetics of crystal nucleation in undercooled droplets of Sb- and Te-based alloys used for phase change recording. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 054910 (2005).
27Friedrich, I., Weidenhof, V., Lenk, S., and Wuttig, M.: Morphology and structure of laser-modified Ge2Sb2Te5 films studied by transmission electron microscopy. Thin Solid Films 389, 239 (2001).
28Kalb, J., Spaepen, F., Pedersen, T.P. Leervad, and Wuttig, M.: Viscosity and elastic constants of thin films of amorphous Te alloys used for optical data storage. J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4908 (2003).
29Gan, F.X., Xue, S.S., and Fan, Z.X.: Metastable phase formation and structural change characteristics of vapor deposited semiconductor films. Ann. Phys. 1, 391 (1992).
30Kalb, J.A., Wen, C.Y., Spaepen, F., Dieker, H., and Wuttig, M.: Crystal morphology and nucleation in thin films of amorphous Te alloys used for phase change recording. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 054902 (2005).
31Kalb, J., Spaepen, F., and Wuttig, M.: Atomic force microscopy measurements of crystal nucleation and growth rates in thin films of amorphous Te alloys. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5240 (2004).
32Wu, T-W. and Spaepen, F.: The relation between enbrittlement and structural relaxation in an amorphous metal. Philos. Mag. B 61, 739 (1990).
33Moynihan, C.T., Macedo, P.B., Montrose, C.J., Gupta, P.K., DeBolt, M.A., Dill, J.F., Dom, B.E., Drake, P.W., Easteal, A.J., Elterman, P.B., Moeller, R.P., Sasabe, H., and Wilder, J.A.: Structural relaxation in vitreous materials. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 279, 15 (1976).
34Stephens, R.B.: The viscosity and structural relaxation rate of evaporated amorphous selenium. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5855 (1978).
35Roorda, S., Doorn, S., Sinke, W.C., Scholte, P.M.L.O., and van Loenen, E.: Calorimetric evidence for structural relaxation in amorphous silicon. Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1880 (1989).
36Donovan, E.P., Spaepen, F., Turnbull, D., Poate, J.M., and Jacobson, D.C.: Calorimetric studies of crystallization and relaxation of amorphous Si and Ge prepared by ion implantation. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1795 (1985).
37Donovan, E.P., Spaepen, F., Poate, J.M., and Jacobson, D.C.: Homogeneous and interfacial heat releases in amorphous silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1516 (1989).
38Jeong, T.H., Kim, M.R., Seo, H., Kim, S.J., and Kim, S.Y.: Crystallization behavior of sputter-deposited amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 86, 774 (1999).
39Njoroge, W.K.: Phase change optical recording–preparation and x-ray characterization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe films. Ph.D. Thesis, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany (2001).
40Pedersen, T.P. Leervad: Mechanical stresses upon phase transitions. Ph.D. Thesis, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany (2003).
41Seo, H., Jeong, T-H., Park, J-W., Yeon, C., Kim, S-J., and Kim, S-Y.: Investigation of crystallization behavior of sputter-deposited nitrogen-doped amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 745 (2000).
42Chiang, D., Jeng, T-R., Huang, D-R., Chang, Y-Y., and Liu, C-P.: Kinetic crystallization behavior of phase-change medium. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1649 (1999).
43Park, J., Kim, M.R., Choi, W.S., Seo, H., and Yeon, C.: Characterization of amorphous phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change optical recording material on their crystallization behavior. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4775 (1999).
44Kissinger, H.E.: Reaction kinetics in differential thermal analysis. Anal. Chem. 29, 1702 (1957).
45Iwasaki, H., Harigaya, M., Nonoyama, O., Kageyama, Y., Takahashi, M., Yamada, K., Deguchi, H., and Ide, Y.: Completely erasable phase change optical disc II: Application of Ag–In–Sb–Te mixed-phase system for rewritable compact disc compatible with CD-velocity and double CD-velocity. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Pt. 1), 5241 (1993).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed