Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Effect of Processing Conditions on the Piezoelectric Properties of Sol-gel Derived Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Films for Micromechanical Applications

  • J. Pérez (a1), P.M. Vilarinho (a1), A.L. Kholkin (a1), J. Manuel Herrero (a2) and C. Zaldo (a2)...
Abstract

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films of composition close to the morphotropic phase boundary were deposited onto standard Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt substrates using a modified sol-gel process. The preparation conditions were optimized to obtain high-quality films at sufficiently low temperature (Ta - 500 °C). The dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the films were then measured as a function of the annealing temperature and the number of distillations to evaluate their suitability for micromechanical applications. The maximum values of the longitudinal charge and voltage piezoelectric coefficients were d33 ∼ 65 pm/V and g33 ∼ 4 × 10−3 Vm/N, respectively. The results indicate that the piezoelectric properties improved and became saturated with increasing number of distillations and are almost independent on Ta. Only moderate decrease of the piezoelectric response with frequency suggests that the investigated PZT films can be used in high-frequency piezoelectric applications. The results are discussed in terms of the microstructure and interface effects on the piezoelectric deformation in ferroelectric thin films.

Copyright
Corresponding author
a) Address all correspondance to this author. e-mail: paulas@cv.ua.pt
References
Hide All
1Auciello, O., Scott, J.F. and Ramesh, R.: The physics of the ferroelectric memories. Phys. Today 51, 22 (1998).
2Jones, R.E. and Desu, S.B.: Process integration for nonvolatile ferroelectric: Memory fabrication. MRS Bull. 21, 55 (1996).
3de Araujo, C.A. Paz, Cuchiaro, J.D., McMillan, L.D., Scott, M.C. and Scott, J.F.: Fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitors with platinum-electrodes. Nature 374, 627 (1995).
4Boucinha, M., Chu, V. and Conde, J.P.: Thin film micromachined structures for large-area applications. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266, 1340 (2000).
5Tuttle, B.A. and Schwartz, R.W.: Solution deposition of ferroelectric thin films. MRS Bull. 21, 49 (1996).
6Maki, K., Soyama, N., Nagamine, K., Mori, S. and Ogi, K.: Low temperature crystallization of sol-gel derived Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 thin films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5533 (2001).
7Wu, A., Vilarinho, P.M., Reaney, I.M., Salvado, I.M. and Baptista, J.L.: Kinetic aspects of the formation of seeded lead zirconate titanate thin films. Integr. Ferroelectr. 30, 261 (2000).
8Ren, T.L., Zhang, L.T., Liu, L.T. and Li, Z.J.: Silicon based PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/PbTiO3 sandwich structure. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2363 (2001).
9Maki, K., Liu, B.T., Vu, H., Nagarajan, V., Ramesh, R., Fujimori, Y., Nakamura, T. and Takasu, H.: Controlling crystallization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films on IrO2 electrodes at low temperature through interface engineering. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1263 (2003).
10Kim, I.D. and Kim, H.G.: Characterization of highly preferred Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films on La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 and LaNi0.6Co0.4O3 electrodes prepared at low temperature. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2357 (2001).
11Suzuki, H., Koizumi, T., Kondo, Y. and Kaneko, S.: Low-temperature processing of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 thin film from stable precursor sol. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 19, 1397 (1999).
12Asano, G., Morioka, H. and Funakubo, H.: Fatigue-free RuO2/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/RuO2 capacitor prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 395°C. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5506 (2003).
13Pérez, J., Vilarinho, P.M. and Kholkin, A.L.: High-quality PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films prepared by modified sol-gel route at low temperature. Thin Solid Films 449, 20 (2004).
14Budd, K., Dey, S. and Payne, D.: Sol-gel processing of PbTiO3, PbZrO3, PZT, and PLZT thin films. Br. Ceram. Proc. 36, 107 (1985).
15Pan, W.Y. and Cross, L.E.: A sensitive double beam laser interferometer for studying high-frequency piezoelectric and electrostrictive strains. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2701 (1989).
16Kholkin, A.L., Wütchrich, Ch., Taylor, D.V. and Setter, N.: Interferometric measurements of electric field-induced displacements in piezoelectric thin films. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1935 (1996).
17Gerber, P., Roelofs, A., Lohse, O., Kügeler, C., Tiedke, S., Böttger, U. and Waser, R.: Short-time piezoelectric measurements in ferroelectric thin films using a double-beam laser interferometer. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2613 (2003).
18Tuttle, B.A., Garino, T.J., Voight, J.A., Headley, T.J., Dimos, D. and Eatough, M.O.: In Science and Technology of Electroceramic Thin Films, edited by Auciello, O. and Waser, R., (Kluwer, Netherlands), p. 117.
19Xu, F., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Ren, W., Xu, B., Xie, Z.L. and Hemker, K.J.: Domain wall motion and its contribution to the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate films. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1336 (2001).
20Burmistrova, P.V., Sigov, A.S., Vasiliev, A.L., Vorotilov, K.A. and Zhigalina, O.M.: Effect of lead content on the microstructure and electrical properties of sol-gel PZT thin films. Ferroelectrics 271, 1641 (2002).
21Kholkin, A.L., Akdogan, E.K., Safari, A., Chauvy, P-F. and Setter, N.: Characterization of the effective electrostriction coefficients in ferroelectric thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 8066 (2001).
22Kholkin, A.L., Tagantsev, A.K., Colla, E.L., Taylor, D.V. and Setter, N.: Piezoelectric and dielectric aging in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films and bulk ceramics. Integr. Ferroelectr. 15, 317 (1997).
23Bruchhaus, R., Pitzer, D., Primig, R., Wersing, W. and Xu, Y.: Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering. Integr. Ferroelectr. 14, 141 (1997).
24Kholkin, A.L., Brooks, K.G., Taylor, D.V., Hiboux, S. and Setter, N.: Self-polarization effect in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films. Integr. Ferroelectr. 22, 1045 (1998).
25Itoh, T. and Saga, T.: Self-excited force-sensing microcantilevers with piezoelectric thin films for dynamic scanning force microscopy. Sens. Actuators A 54, 477 (1996).
26Kholkin, A.L., Colla, E.L., Tagantsev, A.K. and Setter, N.: Fatigue of piezoelectric properties in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2577 (1996).
27Kholkin, A.L., Tagantsev, A.K., Colla, E.L., Taylor, D.V. and Setter, N.: Piezoelectric and dielectric aging in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films and bulk ceramics. Integr. Ferroelectr. 15, 317 (1997).
28Kholkin, A., Colla, E., Brooks, K., Muralt, P., Kohli, M., Maeder, T., Taylor, D. and Setter, N.: Interferometric study of piezoelectric degradation in ferroelectric thin films. Microelectron. Eng. 29, 261 (1995).
29Kholkin, A.L., Taylor, D.V. and Setter, N.Poling effect on the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Appl. Ferroelectrics (1998), p. 69.
30Shepard, J.F., Chu, F., Kanno, I. and Trolier-McKinstry, S.: Characterization and aging response of the d31 piezoelectric coefficient of lead zirconate titanate thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6711 (1999).
31Lefki, K. and Dormans, G.J.M.: Measurement of piezoelectric coefficients of ferroelectric thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1764 (1994).
32Selvaraj, U., Brooks, K., Prasadarao, A.V., Komarnemi, S., Roy, R. and Cross, L.E.: Sol-gel fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin-films using lead acetylacetonate as the lead source. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1441 (1993).
33Olowalafe, J.O., Jones, R.E., Campbell, A.C., Hedge, R.I., Mogab, C.J. and Gregory, R.B.: Effects of anneal ambients and Pt thickness on Pt/Ti and Pt/Ti/TiN interfacial reactions. J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1764 (1993).
34Kwok, C.K. and Desu, S.B.: Formation kinetics of PbZr x Ti1−x O3 thin-films. J. Mater. Res. 9, 1728 (1994).
35Gardeniers, J.G.E., Rittersma, Z.M. and Burger, G.J.: Preferred orientation and piezoelectricity in sputtered ZnO films. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7844 (1998).
36Li, J-F., Viehland, D., Lakeman, C.D.E. and Payne, D.A.: Frequencydependent electromechanical properties for sol-gel deposited ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate thin-layers- thickness and processing effects. J. Mater. Res. 10, 1435 (1995).
37Damjanovic, D.: Stress and frequency dependence of the direct piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric ceramics. J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1788 (1997).
38Yamagouchi, T. and Hamano, K.: Piezoelectric relaxation in ferroelectric AGNA(NO2)2. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3956 (1981).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed