Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Effect of thermal cycles on the laser beam welded joint of AA2060 alloys

  • Ling Mao (a1), Huijin Jin (a2), Fan Ye (a1), Feifei Wang (a1), Gang Zheng (a3) and Sujun Wu (a1)...
Abstract

The effects of the thermal cyclic aging treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2060 Al–Li alloy laser beam welded joints were investigated. Aging treatments were conducted at different temperatures and for different cycles. Test results showed that the tensile strength of the weld joints increased and the elongation slightly decreased after the thermal cycling treatment. It was also found that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welds exhibited a significant increase in microhardness, whilst the microhardness variation of the nondendrite equiaxed zone (EQZ) can be neglected. The strengthening effect of the thermal cycling became more obvious as the temperature and cycles increased. The highest strength of around 513 MPa (96% of the base metal) was obtained at the temperature of 180 °C. Reprecipitation of strengthening phases such as T1 in the HAZ at 180 °C was observed by TEM, which can be considered as the main reason for the strengthening effect of the aging treatment.

Copyright
Corresponding author
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: wusj@buaa.edu.cn
References
Hide All
1.Dursun, T. and Soutis, C.: Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys. Mater. Des. 56, 862 (2014).
2.Williams, J.C. and Starke, E.A.: Progress in structural materials for aerospace systems. Acta Mater. 51, 5775 (2003).
3.Lavernia, E.J., Srivatsan, T.S., and Mohamed, F.A.: Strength, deformation, fracture behaviour and ductility of aluminium–lithium alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 25, 1137 (1990).
4.Ravindra, A., Dwarakadasa, E.S., Srivatsan, T.S., Ramanath, C., and Iyengar, K.V.V.: Electron-beam weld microstructures and properties of aluminium–lithium alloy 8090. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3173 (1993).
5.Magnusen, P.E., Mooy, D.C., Yocum, L.A., and Rioja, R.J.: Development of high toughness sheet and extruded products for airplane fuselage structures. In ICAA13 Pittsburgh, Weiland, H., ed. (Springer, Cham, Germany, 2012 ); p. 353.
6.Srivatsan, T.S. and Sudarshan, T.S.: Welding of lightweight aluminum–lithium alloys. Weld. Res. Suppl. 70, 173 (1991).
7.Xiao, R. and Zhang, X.: Problems and issues in laser beam welding of aluminum–lithium alloys. J. Manuf. Process. 16, 166 (2014).
8.Shi, Y., Zhong, F., Li, X., Gong, S., and Chen, L.: Effect of laser beam welding on tear toughness of a 1420 aluminum alloy thin sheet. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 465, 153 (2007).
9.Cui, L., Li, X., He, D., Chen, L., and Gong, S.: Effect of Nd:YAG laser welding on microstructure and hardness of an Al–Li based alloy. Mater. Charact. 71, 95 (2012).
10.Ghaini, F.M., Sheikhi, M., Torkamany, M.J., and Sabbaghzadeh, J.: The relation between liquation and solidification cracks in pulsed laser welding of 2024 aluminium alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 519, 167 (2009).
11.Hou, K.H. and Baeslack, W.A.: Effect of solute segregation on the weld fusion zone microstructure in CO2 laser beam and gas tungsten arc welds in Al–Li–Cu alloy 2195. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 208 (1996).
12.Fu, B., Qin, G., Meng, X., Ji, Y., Zou, Y., and Lei, Z.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 welded by fiber laser. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 617, 1 (2014).
13.Zhang, X., Yang, W., and Xiao, R.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam welded Al–Li alloy 2060 with Al–Mg filler wire. Mater. Des. 88, 446 (2015).
14.Tao, W., Han, B., and Chen, Y.: Microstructural and mechanical characterization of aluminum–lithium alloy 2060 welded by fiber laser. J. Laser Appl. 28, 22 (2016).
15.Molian, P.A. and Srivatsan, T.S.: Weldability of aluminium–lithium alloy 2090 using laser welding. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 25, 3347 (1990).
16.Zhang, Y., Lu, F., Wang, H., Wang, X., Cui, H., and Tang, X.: Reduced hot cracking susceptibility by controlling the fusion ratio in laser welding of dissimilar Al alloys joints. J. Mater. Res. 30, 993 (2015).
17.Ishchenko, A.Y.: High-strength aluminium alloys for welded structures in the aircraft industry. Weld. Int. 19, 173 (2005).
18.Chen, K., Yang, W.X., and Xiao, R.S.: Direct laser welding of an Al–Li alloy plate without prior surface cleaning. Lasers Eng. 22, 361 (2011).
19.Xiao, R., Yang, W., and Kai, C.: Porosity characterization in laser welds of Al–Li alloy1420. Appl. Laser 27, 13 (2007).
20.Fridlyander, I.N., Kolobnev, N.I., Khokhlatova, L.B., Rendigs, K.H., Tempus, G., Haszler, A., Keidel, C., Pfannenmüller, T., and Berezina, A.L.: Structure and properties of sheets of 1424 alloy. Mater. Sci. Forum 331–337, 1393 (2000).
21.Yong, W.D., Cai, F.J., and Wei, X.U.: Effect of heat treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–Li–Cu alloy TIG welded joint. Rare Metal Mater. Eng. 42, 579 (2013).
22.Ahmad, R. and Bakar, M.A.: Effect of a post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructure properties of AA6061 joints welded by the gas metal arc welding cold metal transfer method. Mater. Des. 32, 5120 (2011).
23.Srinivasan, L., Deepan, B.K.T., Sathiya, P., and Biju, S.: Effect of heat input, heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of GTA welded aerospace material 15CDV6. J. Mater. Res. 32, 1361 (2017).
24.Wang, K.Y.S., Chen, C., and Xing, L.: Influence of post-weld heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Li alloy electron beam welding joint. Rare Metal Mater. Eng. 42, 579 (2013).
25.Malarvizhi, S., Raghukandan, K., and Viswanathan, N.: Investigations on the influence of post weld heat treatment on fatigue crack growth behaviour of electron beam welded AA2219 alloy. Int. J. Fatigue 30, 1543 (2008).
26.Aydın, H., Bayram, A., and Durgun, İ.: The effect of post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of 2024-T4 friction stir-welded joints. Mater. Des. 31, 2568 (2010).
27.Li, C., Ding, H.Y., Li, C., En-Guang, H.E., and Chang-Shi, G.U.: Effects of post-weld heat treatment on microstructure of laser welded joints in an Al–Li alloy. Trans. Mater. Heat Treat. 35, 58 (2014).
28.Xu, L., Tian, Z., Peng, Y., and Zhang, X.: Laser-MIG hybrid welding on high strength aluminum alloy. Chin. J. Rare Met. 29, 773 (2005).
29.Su Diyao, W.S. and Huijin, J.: Effects of aging treatments on microstructure and micro-hardness of 2219-T87 welds. J. Aeronaut. Mater. 35, 49 (2015).
30.Li, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, P., and University, C.S.: Influence of non-isothermal aging on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–Li alloy. Rare Met. Mater. Eng. 46, 183 (2017).
31.Gutierrez, A. and Lippold, J.C.: A proposed mechanism for equiaxed grain formation along the fusion boundary in aluminum–copper–lithium alloys. Weld. J. 77, 123 (1998).
32.Zhang, S.F., Zeng, W.D., Yang, W.H., Shi, C.L., and Wang, H.J.: Ageing response of a Al–Cu–Li 2198 alloy. Mater. Des. 63, 368 (2014).
33.Ahmadi, S., Arabi, H., and Shokuhfar, A.: Formation mechanisms of precipitates in an Al–Cu–Li–Zr alloy and their effects on strength and electrical resistance of the alloy. J. Alloys Compd. 484, 90 (2009).
34.Huang, J.C. and Ardell, A.J.: Addition rules and the contribution of δ′ precipitates to strengthening of aged Al–Li–Cu alloys. Acta Metall. 36, 2995 (1988).
35.Kumar, K.S., Brown, S.A., and Pickens, J.R.: Microstructural evolution during aging of an Al–Cu–Li–Ag–Mg–Zr alloy. Acta Mater. 44, 1899 (1996).
36.Zhao, Z., Li, X., Xu, L., and Han, D.: Strengthening effect of T1 precipitates and influence of minor cerium in 2090 Al–Li alloys. Chin. J. Nonferrous Met. 9, 546 (1999).
37.Sidhar, H. and Mishra, R.S.: Aging kinetics of friction stir welded Al–Cu–Li–Mg–Ag and Al–Cu–Li–Mg alloys. Mater. Des. 110, 60 (2016).
38.Lequeu, P., Smith, K.P., and Daniélou, A.: Aluminum–copper–lithium alloy 2050 developed for medium to thick plate. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 19, 841 (2010).
39.Yoshimura, R., Konno, T.J., Abe, E., and Hiraga, K.: Transmission electron microscopy study of the early stage of precipitates in aged Al–Li–Cu alloys. Acta Mater. 51, 2891 (2003).
40.Chen Zheng, W.Y., Zhanlai, D., and Zhilong, Z.: Mechanism of extrinsic strengthening and instrinsic toughening for aluminium–lithium alloy containing rare earth element. J. Chin. Soc. Rare Earths. 19, 23 (1998).
41.Han, B., Tao, W., Chen, Y., and Li, H.: Double-sided laser beam welded T-joints for aluminum–lithium alloy aircraft fuselage panels: Effects of filler elements on microstructure and mechanical properties. Opt. Laser Technol. 93, 99 (2017).
42.Kostrivas, A. and Lippold, J.C.: Weldability of Li-bearing aluminum alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 44, 217 (1999).
43.Kostrivas, A. and Lippold, J.C.: Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminium alloys. Weld. World 50, 24 (2006).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed