Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Graphene oxide nanocomposites for potential wearable solar cells—A review

  • Raul Simões (a1) and Victor Neto (a1)

Abstract

With the emergence of flexible/stretchable electronics, flexible solar cells (SCs) are able to attract much academic and industrial attention due to its advantages of lightweight, foldability, low cost, and extensive applications. Wearable technology has become a hot topic in the tech industry in this few years, shirts that read wearer's biological and physiological information are just beginning to make their way into society and will change the way that we interact with technology. The high strength and good electronic properties of graphene fiber make it a good candidate for some specific applications, such as wearable SCs, since it can be obtained at relatively low cost and it is amongst the strongest commercial yarns in existence. In this review, a summarized state of the art regarding wearable SCs is presented including several applications of graphene and its derivatives with their remarkable unconventional applications.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: raul87@ua.pt

References

Hide All
1.Zou, D., Wang, D., Chu, Z., Lv, Z., and Fan, X.: Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells. Coord. Chem. Rev. 254, 11691178 (2010).
2.Simões, R. and Neto, V.F.: Diamond and other carbon related materials applications in photovoltaic solar cells. IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT), 15 (2013).
3.Barkhouse, D.A.R., Gunawan, O., Gokmen, T., Todorov, T.K., and Mitzi, D.B.: Device characteristics of a 10.1% hydrazine-processed Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 solar cell. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20, 611 (2012).
4.Ellmer, K.: Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes. Nat. Photonics 6, 809817 (2012).
5.Yeh, C-L., Hsu, H-R., Chen, S-H., and Liu, Y-S.: Near infrared enhancement in CIGS-based solar cells utilizing a ZnO: H window layer. Opt. Express 20(Suppl 6), A806A811 (2012).
6.Pern, F.J., Yan, F., Zaunbrecher, K., To, B., Perkins, J., and Noufi, R.: Investigation of some transparent metal oxides as damp heat protective coating for CIGS solar cells. Proc. SPIE 8472, Reliab. Photovolt. Cells, Modul. Components, Syst. V 84720I (2012). doi: 10.1117/12.930539.
7.Zhu, H., Wei, J., Wang, K., and Wu, D.: Applications of carbon materials in photovoltaic solar cells. Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. Cell. 93, 14611470 (2009).
8.Cheng, H., Hu, C., Zhao, Y., and Qu, L.: Graphene fiber: A new material platform for unique applications. NPG Asia Mater. 6, e113 (2014).
9.Lee, M., Lee, K., Kim, S., Lee, H., Park, J., Choi, K., Kim, H., Kim, D., Lee, D., Nam, S., and Park, J.: High-performance, transparent, and stretchable electrodes using graphene-metal nanowire hybrid structures. Nano Lett. 13, 28142821 (2013).
10.Lv, Z., Yu, J., Wu, H., Shang, J., Wang, D., Hou, S., Fu, Y., Wu, K., and Zou, D.: Highly efficient and completely flexible fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube array. Nanoscale 4, 1248 (2012).
11.Pagliaro, M., Palmisano, G., and Ciriminna, R.: Flexible Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, Dresden, 2008); p. 880891.
12.Matsuyama, T., Wakisaka, K., Kameda, M., Tanaka, M., Matsuoka, T., Tsuda, S., Nakano, S., Kishi, Y., and Kuwano, Y.: Preparation of high-quality n-type poly-Si films by the solid phase crystallization (SPC) method. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2327 (1990).
13.Toivola, M., Halme, J., Miettunen, K., Aitola, K., and Lund, P.D.: Nanostructured dye solar cells on flexible substrates—Review. Int. J. Energy Res. 33, 11451160 (2009).
14.He, Y., Chen, W., Gao, C., Zhou, J., Li, X., and Xie, E.: An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors. Nanoscale 5, 87998820 (2013).
15.Kang, M.G., Park, N-G., Ryu, K.S., Chang, S.H., and Kim, K-J.: A 4.2% efficient flexible dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells using stainless steel substrate. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 574581 (2006).
16.Schubert, M.B. and Werner, J.H.: Flexible solar cells for clothing. Mater. Today 9, 4250 (2006).
17.Kaltenbrunner, M., White, M.S., Głowacki, E.D., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Sariciftci, N.S., and Bauer, S.: Ultrathin and lightweight organic solar cells with high flexibility. Nat. Commun. 3, 770 (2012).
18.Kim, K.S., Zhao, Y., Jang, H., Lee, S.Y., Kim, J.M., Kim, K.S., Ahn, J-H., Kim, P., Choi, J-Y., and Hong, B.H.: Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature 457, 706710 (2009).
19.Park, H., Rowehl, J., Kim, K.K., Bulovic, V., and Kong, J.: Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells. Nanotechnology 21, 505204 (2010).
20.He, R.X., Lin, P., Liu, Z.K., Zhu, H.W., Zhao, X.Z., Chan, H.L.W., and Yan, F.: Solution-gated graphene field effect transistors integrated in microfluidic systems and used for flow velocity detection. Nano Lett. 12, 14041409 (2012).
21.Li, X., Cai, W., An, J., Kim, S., Nah, J., Yang, D., Piner, R., Velamakanni, A., Jung, I., Tutuc, E., Banerjee, S.K., Colombo, L., and Ruoff, R.S.: Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science 324, 13121314 (2009).
22.Bae, S., Kim, H., Lee, Y., Xu, X., Park, J-S., Zheng, Y., Balakrishnan, J., Lei, T., Kim, H.R., Song, Y., Kim, Y-J., Kim, K.S., Özyilmaz, B., Ahn, J-H., Hong, B.H., and Iijima, S.: Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574578 (2010).
23.Liu, Z., Li, J., and Yan, F.: Package-free flexible organic solar cells with graphene top electrodes. Adv. Mater. 25, 42964301 (2013).
24.Ito, S., Ha, N-L.C., Rothenberger, G., Liska, P., Comte, P., Zakeeruddin, S.M., Péchy, P., Nazeeruddin, M.K., and Gratzel, M.: High-efficiency (7.2%) flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with Ti-metal substrate for nanocrystalline-TiO2 photoanode. Chem. Commun. 38, 40044006 (2006).
25.Park, J.H., Jun, Y., Yun, H-G., Lee, S-Y., and Kang, M.G.: Fabrication of an efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with stainless steel substrate. J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, 145149 (2008).
26.Fan, K., Peng, T., Chai, B., Chen, J., and Dai, K.: Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 films on Ti substrate for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochim. Acta 55, 52395244 (2010).
27.Yamaguchi, T., Tobe, N., Matsumoto, D., Nagai, T., and Arakawa, H.: Highly efficient plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells with validated conversion efficiency of 7.6%. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 812816 (2010).
28.Huang, F., Chen, D., Li, Q., Caruso, R.A., and Cheng, Y-B.: Construction of nanostructured electrodes on flexible substrates using pre-treated building blocks. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123102 (2012).
29.Weerasinghe, H.C., Sirimanne, P.M., Simon, G.P., and Cheng, Y-B.: Cold isostatic pressing technique for producing highly efficient flexible dye-sensitised solar cells on plastic substrates. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20, 321332 (2012).
30.Kim, Y., Cook, S., Tuladhar, S.M., Choulis, S.A., Nelson, J., Durrant, J.R., Bradley, D.D.C., Giles, M., McCulloch, I., Ha, C-S., and Ree, M.: A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene: Fullerene solar cells. Nat. Mater. 5, 197203 (2006).
31.Li, X., Zhu, H., Wang, K., Cao, A., Wei, J., Li, C., Jia, Y., Li, Z., Li, X., and Wu, D.: Graphene-on-silicon Schottky junction solar cells. Adv. Mater. 22, 27432748 (2010).
32.Kopelevich, Y. and Esquinazi, P.: Graphene physics in graphite. Adv. Mater. 19, 45594563 (2007).
33.Singh, V., Joung, D., Zhai, L., Das, S., Khondaker, S.I., and Seal, S.: Graphene based materials: Past, present and future. Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 11781271 (2011).
34.Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V., and Firsov, A.A.: Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306, 666669 (2004).
35.Bourlinos, A.B., Georgakilas, V., Zboril, R., Sterioti, T., and Stubos, A.K.: Liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite towards solubilized graphenes. Small 5, 18411845 (2009).
36.Cui, X., Zhang, C., Hao, R., and Hou, Y.: Liquid-phase exfoliation, functionalization and applications of graphene. Nanoscale 3, 21182126 (2011).
37.Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Piner, R.D., Kohlhaas, K.A., Kleinhammes, A., Jia, Y., Wu, Y., Nguyen, S.T., and Ruoff, R.S.: Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45, 15581565 (2007).
38.Eda, G., Fanchini, G., and Chhowalla, M.: Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 270274 (2008).
39.Kang, F., Leng, Y., and Zhang, T-Y.: Influences of H2O2 on synthesis of H2SO4-GICs. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 57, 889892 (1996).
40.Kang, F., Zhang, T-Y., and Leng, Y.: Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid. Carbon 35, 11671173 (1997).
41.Pan, Y-X., Yu, Z-Z., Ou, Y-C., and Hu, G-H.: A new process of fabricating electrically conducting nylon 6/graphite nanocomposites via intercalation polymerization. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 38, 16261633 (2000).
42.Li, X., Zhang, G., Bai, X., Sun, X., Wang, X., Wang, E., and Dai, H.: Highly conducting graphene sheets and Langmuir–Blodgett films. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 538542 (2008).
43.Somani, P.R., Somani, S.P., and Umeno, M.: Planer nano-graphenes from camphor by CVD. Chem. Phys. Lett. 430, 5659 (2006).
44.Cao, H., Yu, Q., Colby, R., Pandey, D., Park, C.S., Lian, J., Zemlyanov, D., Childres, I., Drachev, V., Stach, E.A., Hussain, M., Li, H., Pei, S.S., and Chen, Y.P.: Large-scale graphitic thin films synthesized on Ni and transferred to insulators: Structural and electronic properties. J. Appl. Phys. 107, 120 (2010).
45.Bhaviripudi, S., Jia, X., Dresselhaus, M.S., and Kong, J.: Role of kinetic factors in chemical vapor deposition synthesis of uniform large area graphene using copper catalyst. Nano Lett. 10, 41284133 (2010).
46.Chae, S.J., Güneş, F., Kim, K.K., Kim, E.S., Han, G.H., Kim, S.M., Shin, H., Yoon, S.M., Choi, J.Y., Park, M.H., Yang, C.W., Pribat, D., and Lee, Y.H.: Synthesis of large-area graphene layers on poly-nickel substrate by chemical vapor deposition: Wrinkle formation. Adv. Mater. 21, 23282333 (2009).
47.Lee, S., Lee, K., and Zhong, Z.: Wafer scale homogeneous bilayer graphene films by chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett. 10, 47024707 (2010).
48.Wang, X., Li, J., Zhong, Q., Zhong, Y., and Zhao, M.: Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films. Nano Lett. 10, 490493 (2010).
49.Malesevic, A., Vitchev, R., Schouteden, K., Volodin, A., Zhang, L., Tendeloo, G.V., Vanhulsel, A., and Haesendonck, C.V.: Synthesis of few-layer graphene via microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Nanotechnology 19, 305604 (2008).
50.Vitchev, R., Malesevic, A., Petrov, R.H., Kemps, R., Mertens, M., Vanhulsel, A., and Van Haesendonck, C.: Initial stages of few-layer graphene growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Nanotechnology 21, 095602 (2010).
51.Zhu, M., Wang, J., Holloway, B.C., Outlaw, R.A., Zhao, X., Hou, K., Shutthanandan, V., and Manos, D.M.: A mechanism for carbon nanosheet formation. Carbon 45, 22292234 (2007).
52.Forbeaux, I., Themlin, J-M., and Debever, J-M.: Heteroepitaxial graphite on 6H—SiC(0001): Interface formation through conduction-band electronic structure. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 58, 1639616406 (1998).
53.Hass, J., de Heer, W., and Conrad, E.H.: The growth and morphology of epitaxial multilayer graphene. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 323202 (2008).
54.de Heer, W., Berger, C., Wu, X., First, P.N., Conrad, E.H., Li, X., Li, T., Sprinkle, M., Hass, J., Sadowski, M.L., Potemski, M., and Martinez, G.: Epitaxial graphene. Solid State Commun. 143, 92100 (2007).
55.Varchon, F., Feng, R., Hass, J., Li, X., Nguyen, B.N., Naud, C., Mallet, P., Veuillen, J.Y., Berger, C., Conrad, E.H., and Magaud, L.: Electronic structure of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC: Effect of the substrate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126805 (2007).
56.Penuelas, J., Ouerghi, A., Lucot, D., David, C., Gierak, J., Estrade-Szwarckopf, H., and Andreazza-Vignolle, C.: Surface morphology and characterization of thin graphene films on SiC vicinal substrate. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79, 33408 (2009).
57.Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., and Ruoff, R.S.: Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442, 282286 (2006).
58.Verdejo, R., Barroso-Bujans, F., Rodriguez-Perez, M.A., de Saja, J., and Lopez-Manchado, M.A.: Functionalized graphene sheet filled silicone foam nanocomposites. J. Mater. Chem. 18, 22212226 (2008).
59.Schniepp, H.C., Li, J.L., McAllister, M.J., Sai, H., Herrera-Alonson, M., Adamson, D.H., Robert, K., Car, R., Seville, D.A., and Aksay, I.A.: Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide. J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 85358539 (2006).
60.Gilje, S., Han, S., Wang, M., Wang, K.L., and Kaner, R.B.: A chemical route to graphene for device applications. Nano Lett. 7, 33943398 (2007).
61.Gómez-Navarro, C., Weitz, R.T., Bittner, A.M., Scolari, M., Mews, A., Burghard, M., and Kern, K.: Electronic transport properties of individual chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets. Nano Lett. 7, 34993503 (2007).
62.Hummers, W.S. and Offeman, R.E.: Preparation of graphitic oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 1339 (1958).
63.Becerril, H.A., Mao, J., Liu, Z., Stoltenberg, R.M., Bao, Z., and Chen, Y.: Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors. ACS Nano 2, 463470 (2008).
64.Lee, C-G., Park, S., Ruoff, R.S., and Dodabalapur, R.S.: Integration of reduced graphene oxide into organic field-effect transistors as conducting electrodes and as a metal modification layer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023304 (2009).
65.Bourlinos, A.B., Gournis, D., Petridis, D., Szabo, T., Szeri, A., and Dékány, I.: Graphite oxide: Chemical reduction to graphite and surface modification with primary aliphatic amines and amino acids. Langmuir 19, 60506055 (2003).
66.Shin, H.J., Kim, K.K., Benayad, A., Yoon, S.M., Park, H.K., Jung, I.S., Jin, M.H., Jeong, H.K., Kim, J.M., Choi, J.Y., and Lee, Y.H.: Efficient reduction of graphite oxide by sodium borohydride and its effect on electrical conductance. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 19871992 (2009).
67.Paredes, J.I., Villar-Rodil, S., Martínez-Alonso, A., and Tascón, J.M.D.: Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. Langmuir 24, 1056010564 (2008).
68.Li, D., Muller, M.B., Gilje, S., Kaner, S., and Wallace, G.G.: Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 101105 (2008).
69.Ramos, M., Rispens, M.T., Van Duren, M.T., Hummelen, J.C., and Janssen, R.J.: Photoinduced electron transfer and photovoltaic devices of a conjugated polymer with pendant fullerenes [4]. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 67146715 (2001).
70.Cai, W., Piner, R.D., Stadermann, F.J., Park, S., Shaibat, M., Ishii, Y., Yang, D., Velamakanni, A., An, S.J., Stoller, M., An, J., Chen, D., and Ruoff, R.S.: Synthesis and solid-state NMR structural characterization of 13C-Labeled graphite oxide. Science 321, 18151817 (2008).
71.Gao, W., Alemany, L.B., Ci, L.B., and Ajayan, P.M.: New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide. Nat. Chem. 1, 403408 (2009).
72.He, H., Klinowski, J., Forster, M., and Lerf, A.: A new structural model for graphite oxide. Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 5356 (1998).
73.Lerf, A., He, H., Forster, M., and Klinowski, J.: Structure of graphite oxide revisited. J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 44774482 (1998).
74.Szabó, T., Berkesi, O., Forgó, P., Josepovits, K., Sanakis, Y., Petridis, D., and Dékány, I.: Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides. Chem. Mater. 18, 27402749 (2006).
75.Stankovich, S., Piner, R.D., Chen, X., Wu, N., Nguyen, S.T., and Ruoff, R.S.: Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). J. Mater. Chem. 16, 155158 (2006).
76.Zalan, Z., Lazar, L., and Fueloep, F.: Chemistry of hydrazinoalcohols and their heterocyclic derivatives. Part 1. Synthesis of hydrazinoalcohols. Curr. Org. Chem. 9(4), 357376 (2005).
77.Wang, S., Chia, P.J., Chua, L.L., Zhao, L.H., Png, R.Q., Sivaramakrishnan, S., Zhou, M., Goh, R.G.S., Friend, R.H., Wee, A.T.S., and Ho, P.K.H.: Band-like transport in surface-functionalized highly solution-processable graphene nanosheets. Adv. Mater. 20, 34403446 (2008).
78.Wu, Z-S., Ren, W., Gao, L., Liu, B., Jiang, C., and Cheng, H-M.: Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers. Carbon 47, 493499 (2009).
79.Fan, X., Peng, W., Li, Y., Li, X., Wang, S., Zhang, G., and Zhang, F.: Deoxygenation of exfoliated graphite oxide under alkaline conditions: A green route to graphene preparation. Adv. Mater. 20, 44904493 (2008).
80.McAllister, M.J., Li, J.L., Adamson, D.H., Schniepp, H.C., Abdala, A.A., Liu, J., Herrera-Alonso, M., Milius, D.L., Car, R., Prud'homme, R.K., and Aksay, I.A.: Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite. Chem. Mater. 19, 43964404 (2007).
81.Dubin, S., Gilje, S., Wang, K., Tung, V.C., Cha, K., Hall, A.S., Farrar, J., Varshneya, R., Yang, Y., and Kaner, R.B.: A one-step, solvothermal reduction method for producing reduced graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. ACS Nano 4, 38453852 (2010).
82.Stankovich, S., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., and Ruoff, R.S.: Synthesis and exfoliation of isocyanate-treated graphene oxide nanoplatelets. Carbon 44, 33423347 (2006).
83.Xu, Y., Liu, Z., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Tian, J., Huang, Y., Ma, Y., Zhang, X., and Chen, Y.: A graphene hybrid material covalently functionalized with porphyrin: Synthesis and optical limiting property. Adv. Mater. 21, 12751279 (2009).
84.Niyogi, S., Bekyarova, E., Itkis, M.E., McWilliams, J.L., Hamon, M.A., and Haddon, R.C.: Solution properties of graphite and graphene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 77207721 (2006).
85.Yang, H., Shan, C., Li, F., Han, D., Zhang, Q., and Niu, L.: Covalent functionalization of polydisperse chemically-converted graphene sheets with amine-terminated ionic liquid. Chem. Commun. 38803882 (2009). doi: 10.1039/b905085j.
86.Liu, Z., Robinson, J.T., Sun, X., and Dai, H.: PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1087610877 (2008).
87.Veca, L.M., Lu, F., Meziani, M.J., Cao, L., Zhang, P., Qi, G., Qu, L., Shrestha, M., and Sun, Y-P.: Polymer functionalization and solubilization of carbon nanosheets. Chem. Commun. 25652567 (2009). doi: 10.1039/b900590k.
88.Mohanty, N. and Berry, V.: Graphene-based single-bacterium resolution biodevice and DNA transistor: Interfacing graphene derivatives with nanoscale and microscale biocomponents. Nano Lett. 8, 44694476 (2008).
89.Yang, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Liu, J., Yang, X., and Zhao, H.: Exfoliated graphite oxide decorated by PDMAEMA chains and polymer particles. Langmuir 25, 1180811814 (2009).
90.Fang, M., Wang, K., Lu, H., Yang, Y., and Nutt, S.: Covalent polymer functionalization of graphene nanosheets and mechanical properties of composites. J. Mater. Chem. 19, 7098 (2009).
91.Lee, S.H., Dreyer, D.R., An, J., Velamakanni, A., Piner, R.D., Park, S., Zhu, Y., Kim, S.O., Bielawski, C.W., and Ruoff, R.S.: Polymer brushes via controlled, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from graphene oxide. Macromol. Rapid Comm. 31, 281288 (2010).
92.Bai, H., Xu, Y., Zhao, L., Li, C., and Shi, G.: Non-covalent functionalization of graphene sheets by sulfonated polyaniline. Chem. Commun. 16671669 (2009). doi: 10.1039/b821805f.
93.Chunder, A., Liu, A., and Zhai, L.: Reduced graphene oxide/poly(3-hexylthiophene) supramolecular composites. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 31, 380384 (2010).
94.Qi, X., Pu, K.Y., Zhou, X., Li, H., Liu, B., Boey, F., Huang, W., and Zhang, H.: Conjugated-polyelectrolyte-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent solubility and stability in polar solvents. Small 6, 663669 (2010).
95.Hao, R., Qian, W., Zhang, L., and Hou, Y.: Aqueous dispersions of TCNQ-anion-stabilized graphene sheets. Chem. Commun. 48, 65766578 (2008). doi: 10.1039/b816971c.
96.Chunder, A., Pal, T., Khondaker, S.I., and Zhai, L.: Reduced graphene oxide/copper phthalocyanine composite and its optoelectrical properties. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 1512915135 (2010).
97.Geng, J. and Jung, H.T.: Porphyrin functionalized graphene sheets in aqueous suspensions: From the preparation of graphene sheets to highly conductive graphene films. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 82278234 (2010).
98.Wojcik, A. and Kamat, P.V.: Reduced graphene oxide and porphyrin. An interactive affair in 2-D. ACS Nano 4, 66976706 (2010).
99.Su, Q., Pang, S., Alijani, V., Li, C., Feng, X., and Müllen, K.: Composites of graphene with large aromatic molecules. Adv. Mater. 21, 31913195 (2009).
100.Yang, Q., Pan, X., Huang, F., and Li, F.: Fabrication of high-concentration and stable aqueous suspensions of graphene nanosheets by noncovalent functionalization with lignin and cellulose derivatives. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 38113816 (2010).
101.Lu, C.H., Yang, H.H., Zhu, C.L., Chen, X., and Chen, G.N.: A graphene platform for sensing biomolecules. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 47854787 (2009).
102.Luo, Z., Vora, P.M., Mele, E.J., Johnson, A.T.C., and Kikkawa, J.M.: Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 111909 (2009).
103.Rothberg, L.J. and Lovinger, A.J.: Status of and prospects for organic electroluminescence. J. Mater. Res. 11, 31743187 (1996).
104.Jung, I., Pelton, M., Piner, R., Dikin, D.A., Stankovich, S., Watcharotone, S., Hausner, M., and Ruoff, R.S.: Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets. Nano Lett. 7, 35693575 (2007).
105.Lambacher, A. and Fromherz, P.: Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy on oxidized silicon using a monomolecular dye layer. Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 207216 (1996).
106.Ni, Z.H., Wang, H.M., Kasim, J., Fan, H.M., Yu, T., Wu, Y.H., Feng, Y.P., and Shen, Z.X.: Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy. Nano Lett. 7, 27582763 (2007).
107.Lotya, M., Hernandez, Y., King, P.J., Smith, R.J., Ronan, J., Nicolosi, V., Karlsson, L.S., Blighe, F.M., De, S., Zhiming, W., McGovern, I.T., Duesberg, G.S., and Coleman, J.N.: Liquid phase production of graphene by exfoliation of graphite in surfactant/water solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 36113620 (2009). doi: 10.1021/ja807449u.
108.Treossi, E., Melucci, M., Liscio, A., Gazzano, M., Samorì, P., and Palermo, V.: High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1557615577 (2009).
109.Paredes, J.I., Villar-Rodil, S., Solís-Fernández, P., Martínez-Alonso, A., and Tascón, J.M.D.: Atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of graphene nanosheets derived from graphite oxide. Langmuir 25, 59575968 (2009).
110.Meyer, J.C., Kisielowski, C., Erni, R., Rossell, M.D., Crommie, M.F., and Zettl, A.: Direct imaging of lattice atoms and topological defects in graphene membranes. Nano Lett. 8, 35823586 (2008).
111.Gass, M.H., Bangert, U., Bleloch, A.L., Wang, P., Nair, R.R., and Geim, A.K.: Free-standing graphene at atomic resolution. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 676681 (2008).
112.Reina, A., Jia, X., Ho, J., Nezich, D., Son, H., Bulovic, V., Dresselhaus, M.S., and Jing, K.: Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett. 9, 3035 (2009).
113.Bolotin, K.I., Sikes, K.J., Jiang, Z., Klima, M., Fudenberg, G., Hone, J., Kim, P., and Stormer, H.L.: Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene. Solid State Commun. 146, 351355 (2008).
114.Peng, X. and Ahuja, R.: Symmetry breaking induced bandgap in epitaxial graphene layers on SiC. Nano Lett. 8, 44644468 (2008).
115.Zhou, S.Y., Gweon, G-H., Fedorov, V., First, P.N., de Heer, W., Lee, D-H., Guinea, F., Castro Neto, H., and Lanzara, A.: Substrate-induced bandgap opening in epitaxial graphene. Nat. Mater. 6, 770775 (2007).
116.Kim, S., Ihm, J., Choi, H.J., and Son, Y.W.: Origin of anomalous electronic structures of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 176802 (2008).
117.De Arco, L. and Zhang, Y.: Synthesis, transfer, and devices of single-and few-layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 8(2), 135138 (2009).
118.Yu, Q., Lian, J., Siriponglert, S., Li, H., Chen, Y.P., and Pei, S.S.: Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 113103 (2008).
119.Li, X., Cai, W., Colombo, L., and Ruoff, R.S.: Evolution of graphene growth on Ni and Cu by carbon isotope labeling. Nano Lett. 9, 42684272 (2009).
120.Castro, E.V., Novoselov, K.S., Morozov, S.V., Peres, N.M.R., Dos Santos, J., Lopes, M.B., Nilsson, J., Guinea, F., Geim, A.K., and Neto, A.H.C.: Biased bilayer graphene: Semiconductor with a gap tunable by the electric field effect. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2016802 (2007).
121.Tonouchi, M.: Cutting-edge terahertz technology. Nat. Photonics 1, 97105 (2007).
122.Wang, F., Zhang, Y., Tian, C., Girit, C., Zettl, A., Crommie, M., and Shen, Y.R.: Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene. Science 320, 206209 (2008).
123.San-Jose, P., Prada, E., McCann, E., and Schomerus, H.: Pseudospin valve in bilayer graphene: Towards graphene-based pseudospintronics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 247204 (2009).
124.Nair, R.R., Grigorenko, A.N., Blake, P., Novoselov, K.S., Booth, T.J., Peres, N.M.R., Stauber, T., and Geim, A.K.: Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science 320, 1308 (2008).
125.Kravets, V.G., Grigorenko, A.N., Nair, R.R., Blake, P., Anissimova, S., Novoselov, K.S., and Geim, A.K.: Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81, 155413 (2010).
126.Xia, F., Mueller, T., Golizadeh-Mojarad, R., Freitage, M., Lin, Y.M., Tsang, J., Perebeinos, V., and Avouris, P.: Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor. Nano Lett. 9, 10391044 (2009).
127.Rana, F., George, P.A., Strait, J.H., Dawlaty, J., Shivaraman, S., Chandrashekhar, M., and Spencer, M.G.: Carrier recombination and generation rates for intravalley and intervalley phonon scattering in graphene. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79, 115447 (2009).
128.Park, S. and Ruoff, R.S.: Chemical methods for the production of graphenes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 217224 (2009).
129.Elias, D.C., Nair, R.R., Mohiuddin, T.M.G., Morozov, S.V., Blake, P., Halsall, M.P., Ferrari, A.C., Boukhvalov, D.W., Katsnelson, M.I., Geim, A.K., and Novoselov, K.S.: Control of graphene's properties by reversible hydrogenation: Evidence for graphane. Science 323, 610613 (2009).
130.Bonaccorso, F., Sun, Z., Hasan, T., and Ferrari, A.C.: Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nat. Photonics 4, 611622 (2010).
131.Gokus, T., Nair, R.R., Bonetti, A., Bohmler, M., Lombardo, A., Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Ferrari, A.C., and Hartschuh, A.: Making graphene luminescent by oxygen plasma treatment. ACS Nano 3, 39633968 (2009).
132.Sheats, J.R., Antoniadis, H., Hueschen, M., Leonard, W., Miller, J., Moon, R., Roitman, D., and Stocking, A.: Organic electroluminescent devices. Science 273, 884888 (1996).
133.Balandin, A.A., Ghosh, S., Bao, W., Calizo, I., Teweldebrhan, D., Miao, F., and Lau, C.N.: Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett. 8, 902907 (2008).
134.Nika, D.L., Pokatilov, E.P., Askerov, A.S., and Balandin, A.A.: Phonon thermal conduction in graphene: Role of Umklapp and edge roughness scattering. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79, 155413 (2009).
135.Jiang, J-W., Lan, J., Wang, J-S., and Li, B.: Isotopic effects on the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons: Localization mechanism. J. Appl. Phys. 107, 054314 (2010).
136.Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J.W., and Hone, J.: Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321, 385388 (2008).
137.Ghosh, S., Calizo, I., Teweldebrhan, D., Pokatilov, E.P., Nika, D.L., Balandin, A.A., Bao, W., Miao, F., and Lau, C.N.: Extremely high thermal conductivity of graphene: Prospects for thermal management applications in nanoelectronic circuits. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151911 (2008).
138.Seol, J.H., Jo, I., Moore, A.L., Lindsay, L., Aitken, Z.H., Pettes, M.T., Li, X., Yao, Z., Huang, R., Broido, D., Mingo, N., Ruoff, R.S., and Shi, L.: Two-dimensional phonon transport in supported graphene. Science 328, 213216 (2010).
139.Schwamb, T., Burg, B.R., Schirmer, N.C., and Poulikakos, D.: An electrical method for the measurement of the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide nanostructures. Nanotechnology 20, 405704 (2009).
140.Tsoukleri, G., Parthenios, J., Papagelis, K., Jalil, R., Ferrari, A.C., Geim, A.K., Novoselov, K.S., and Galiotis, C.: Subjecting a graphene monolayer to tension and compression. Small 5, 23972402 (2009).
141.Lee, C., Wei, X.D., Li, Q.Y., Carpick, R., Kysar, J.W., and Hone, J.: Elastic and frictional properties of graphene. Phys. Status Solidi 246, 25622567 (2009).
142.O'Connor, B., Pipe, K.P., and Shtein, M.: Fiber based organic photovoltaic devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193306 (2008).
143.Lee, M., Eckert, R.D., Forberich, K., Dennler, G., Brabec, C.J., and Gaudiana, R.: Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials. Science 324, 232235 (2009).
144.Fan, X., Chu, Z.Z., Wang, F.Z., Zhang, C., Chen, L., Tang, Y.W., and Zou, D.C.: Wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. Adv. Mater. 20, 592595 (2008).
145.Wang, H., Liu, Y., Huang, H., Zhong, M., Shen, H., Wang, Y., and Yang, H.: Low resistance dye-sensitized solar cells based on all-titanium substrates using wires and sheets. Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 90209025 (2009).
146.Chen, T., Wang, S., Yang, Z., Feng, Q., Sun, X., Li, L., Wang, Z.S., and Peng, H.: Flexible, light-weight, ultrastrong, and semiconductive carbon nanotube fibers for a highly efficient solar cell. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 18151819 (2011).
147.Xiang, C., Young, C.C., Wang, X., Yan, Z., Hwang, C.C., Cerioti, G., Lin, J., Kono, J., Pasquali, M., and Tour, J.M.: Large flake graphene oxide fibers with unconventional 100% knot efficiency and highly aligned small flake graphene oxide fibers. Adv. Mater. 25, 45924597 (2013).
148.Cai, X., Peng, M., Yu, X., Fu, Y., and Zou, D.: Flexible planar/fiber-architectured supercapacitors for wearable energy storage. J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 1184 (2014).
149.Meng, Y., Zhao, Y., Hu, C., Cheng, H., Hu, Y., Zhang, Z., Shi, G., and Qu, L.: All-graphene core-sheath microfibers for all-solid-state, stretchable fibriform supercapacitors and wearable electronic textiles. Adv. Mater. 25, 23262331 (2013).
150.Kim, J., Cote, L.J., Kim, F., and Huang, J.: Visualizing graphene based sheets by fluorescence quenching microscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 260267 (2010).
151.Ferrari, A.C., Meyer, J.C., Scardaci, V., Casiraghi, C., Lazzeri, M., Mauri, F., Piscanec, S., Jiang, D., Novoselov, K.S., Roth, S., and Geim, A.K.: Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed