In this continuation of his inquiry Dr. Hitzig treats of the relations of the cortex cerebri and of the subcortical ganglia to the function of vision in the dog, and prosecutes his old polemic against Munk. The disputes of these two distinguished physiologists are so far useful that they constitute some safeguard against one being misled, as each is ready as well as able to correct any oversight or error in his opponent's statements. In the present paper Dr. Hitzig gives the details of ninety experiments at considerable length, and illustrates his text with engravings. To give a résumé is impossible, and to criticise the interpretation which the professor gives of his experiments would be presumptuous. Those who are engaged in original research will go to Hitzig's paper for themselves. It will be sufficient here to present his conclusions. He found that injuries to the sigmoid gyrus were almost constantly followed by disorders of vision. To produce this result it was sufficient to lay bare the convolution. Injuries to the orbicular centre were followed by disorders of the optic reflexes, and often, too, by a wider opening of the eyelids. If the lesion be made somewhat anteriorly and laterally, approaching the centre for the facialis, it leads to impairment of the nasal reflexes. The anterior limb of the II—IV primitive convolutions, as well as the anterior part of the descending nerve-bundles and the inner capsule, may be injured without any direct disturbance of vision following. It will be remembered that Munk holds that the mental or cortical blindness of certain parts of the retina only results from injuries of the posterior region of the brain. Hitzig promises in a further contribution to consider the effects of lesions to the posterior portions of the hemispheres.
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