The treatment of mental disorders by drastic methods coming as a “shock” to the patient was applied early in history all over the world (1). The severity of the procedure usually varies with the degree of civilization achieved. The earliest method was occipital branding. Water cures followed later: “The frantic person was placed with his back to the water without being permitted to know what was going to be done. He was knocked backwards into the water by a violent blow on the chest, when he was tumbled about in a most unmerciful manner until fatigue had subdued the rage.” Anglo-Saxon priests used a form of treatment described in Bald's Leechbook: “In case a man be a lunatic take the skin of a mereswine (porpoise), work it into a whip, swing the man herewith, soon he will be well. Amen.” (1).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.