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  • Cited by 11
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Potts, Deborah 2006. Rural mobility as a response to land shortages: the case of Malawi. Population, Space and Place, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 291.

    Englund, Harri 2002. The Village in the City, the City in the Village: Migrants in Lilongwe. Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 137.

    Englund, Harri 2002. Ethnography After Globalism: Migration And Emplacement In Malawi. American Ethnologist, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 261.

    KALIPENI, EZEKIEL 1997. CONTAINED URBAN GROWTH IN POST-INDEPENDENCE MALAWI. East African Geographical Review, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 49.

    Kalipeni, Ezekiel 1993. Determinants of infant mortality in Malawi: A spatial perspective. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 37, Issue. 2, p. 183.

    Fair, T J D 1990. Rural development policy in East and Southern Africa as a counter to rural‐urban migration. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 7, Issue. sup1, p. 451.

    Lele, Uma 1990. Structural adjustment, agricultural development and the poor: Some lessons from the Malawian experience. World Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 9, p. 1207.

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    Crush, Jonathan S. 1986. The extrusion of foreign labour from the South African gold mining industry. Geoforum, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 161.

    Kydd, J. and Hewitt, A. 1986. The effectiveness of structural adjustment lending: Initial evidence from Malawi. World Development, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 347.

    Kydd, Jonathan and Hewitt, Adrian 1986. Limits to Recovery: Malawi after Six Years of Adjustment, 1980 to 1985. Development and Change, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 531.


The Return of Malawian Labour from South Africa and Zimbabwe


This article examines an unusual phenomenon in the context of modern African labour migration. It explains how Malawi, which had long been a significant source of migrant workers for its neighbours, managed to withdraw over one-half of its international labour force from abroad in the first six years of the 1970s, and to integrate these individuals into the domestic economy within a very short period of time. Traumatic movements of large numbers of migrant workers have been all too common in contemporary Africa, usually manifested as expulsions from host countries during periods of economic stress. A recent notable example was the exodus of about a million foreign workers from Nigeria in the course of one month in 1983. What is unusual about the reduction in international labour migration from Malawi is that it was induced mainly by economic opportunities rather than by coercion.

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Jonathan G. Kydd and Robert E. Christiansen , ‘Structural Change in Malawi since Independence: consequences of a development strategy based on large scale agriculture’, in World Development (Oxford), 10, 5, 1982, pp. 355–75.

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The Journal of Modern African Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-278X
  • EISSN: 1469-7777
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-modern-african-studies
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