1.Manach, C, Scalbert, A, Morand, C, et al. (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 727–747.
2.Sumner, MD, Elliott-Eller, M, Weidner, G, et al. (2005) Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 96, 810–814.
3.Aviram, M, Dornfeld, L, Rosenblat, M, et al. (2000) Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1062–1076.
4.Seeram, NP, Adams, LS, Henning, SM, et al. (2005) In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 16, 360–367.
5.Longtin, R (2003) The pomegranate: nature's power fruit. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 346–348.
6.Gil, MI, Tomas-Barberan, FA, Hess-Pierce, B, et al. (2000) Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 48, 4581–4589.
7.Seeram, NP, Henning, SM, Zhang, Y, et al. (2006) Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours. J Nutr 136, 2481–2485.
8.Mertens-Talcott, SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz, P, Rios, J, et al. (2006) Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. J Agric Food Chem 54, 8956–8961.
9.Mousavinejad, G, Emam-Djomeh, Z, Rezaei, K, et al. (2009) Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and their effects on antioxidant activity in pomegranate juices of eight Iranian cultivars. Food Chem 115, 1274–1278.
10.Bialonska, D, Kasimsetty, SG, Khan, SI, et al. (2009) Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay. J Agric Food Chem 57, 10181–10186.
11.González-Barrio, R, Truchado, P, Ito, H, et al. (2011) UV and MS identification of urolithins and nasutins, the bioavailable metabolites of ellagitannins and ellagic acid in different mammals. J Agric Food Chem 59, 1152–1162.
12.Cerda, B, Periago, P, Espin, JC, et al. (2005) Identification of urolithin A as a metabolite produced by human colon microflora from ellagic acid and related compounds. J Agric Food Chem 53, 5571–5576.
13.Basu, A & Penugonda, K (2009) Pomegranate juice: a heart healthy juice. Nutr Rev 67, 49–56.
14.Avriam, M, Rosenblat, M, Gaitini, D, et al. (2003) PJ consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 23, 423–433.
15.Avriam, M & Dornfield, L (2001) Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis 158, 195–198.
16.Stowe, CB (2010) The effects of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Complement Ther Clin Pract 17, 113–115.
17.Davidson, MH, Maki, KC, Dicklin, MR, et al. (2009) Effect of consumption of pomegranate juice on carotid intima-media thickness in men and women at moderate risk for coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 104, 936–942.
18.Crozier, A, Yokota, T, Jaganath, IB, et al. (2006) Secondary metabolites in fruits, vegetables, beverages and other plant based dietary components. In Plant Secondary Metabolites: Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet, pp. 208–302 [Crozier, A, Clifford, MN and Ashihara, H, editors]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
19.Seeram, NP, Aviram, M, Zhang, Y, et al. (2008) Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. J Agric Food Chem 56, 1415–1422.
20.Vicennati, V & Pasquali, R (2000) Abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in nondepressed women with abdominal obesity and relations with insulin resistance: evidence for a central and a peripheral alteration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 4093–4098.
21.Walker, BR, Connacher, AA, Webb, DJ, et al. (1992) Glucocorticoids and blood pressure: a role for the cortisol/cortisone shuttle in the control of vascular tone in man. Clin Sci 83, 171–178.
22.Duclos, M, Pereira, PM, Barat, P, et al. (2005) Increased cortisol bioavailability, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome in obese women. Obes Res 13, 1157–1166.
23.Kidambi, S, Kitchen, JM, Grim, CE, et al. (2007) Association of adrenal steroids with hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in blacks. Hypertension 49, 704–711.
24.Matthews, DR, Hosker, JP, Rudenski, AS, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412–419.
25.Singleton, VL & Rossi, JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic reagents. Am J Enol Vitol 16, 144–158.
26.Benzie, IFF & Strain, JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’. The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239, 70–76.
27.Serafini, M, Maiani, G & Ferro-Luzzi, A (1998) Alcohol-free red wine enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. J Nutr 128, 1003–1007.
28.Al-Dujaili, EAS, Kenyon, CJ, Nicol, MR, et al. (2011) Liquorice and glycyrrhetinic acid increase DHEA and deoxycorticosterone levels in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting adrenal SULT2A1 activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 336, 102–109.
29.Grassi, D, Lippi, C, Necozione, S, et al. (2005) Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 611–614.
30.Chong, MFF, Macdonald, R & Lovegrove, JA (2010) Fruit polyphenols and CVD risk: a review of human intervention studies. Br J Nutr 104, S28–S39.
31.Rosenblatt, M, Hayek, T & Aviram, M (2006) Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice consumption by diabetic patients on serum and on macrophages. Atherosclerosis 187, 363–371.
32.Edwards, CR, Stewart, PM, Burt, D, et al. (1988) Localisation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase tissue specific protector of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Lancet ii, 986–989.
33.Palermo, M, Shackleton, CH, Mantero, F, et al. (1996) Urinary free cortisone and the assessment of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in man. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 45, 605–611.
34.Tomlinson, JW, Finney, J, Gay, C, et al. (2008) Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance are associated with increased adipose 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression and elevated hepatic 5alpha-reductase activity. Diabetes 57, 2652–2660.
35.Rahmouni, K, Correia, MLG, Haynes, WG, et al. (2005) Obesity-associated hypertension, new insights into mechanisms. Hypertension 45, 9–14.
36.Chen, T, Li, W, Wang, Y, et al. (2012) Body mass index and hypertension among Chinese governmental and institutional employees in Beijing. Angiology 63, 337–342.
37.Esmaillzadeh, A, Tahbaz, F, Gaieni, I, et al. (2004) Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. J Med Food 7, 305–308.
38.Kaplan, M, Hayek, T, Raz, A, et al. (2001) Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduces macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis. J Nutr 131, 2082–2089.
39.de Nigris, F, Williams-Ignarro, S, Botti, C, et al. (2006) Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein down regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells. Nitric Oxide 15, 259–263.
40.Malik, A, Afaq, F, Sarfaraz, S, et al. (2005) Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 14813–14818.
41.Kim, ND, Mehta, R, Yu, W, et al. (2002) Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 71, 203–217.
42.Ignarro, LJ, Byrns, RE, Sumi, D, et al. (2006) Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide 15, 93–102.
43.Hartman, RE, Shah, A, Fagan, AM, et al. (2006) Pomegranate juice decreases amyloid load and improves behaviour in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Dis 24, 506–515.
44.Matsui, T, Ueda, A, Oki, T, et al. (2001) α-Glucosidase inhibitory action of natural acylated anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem 49, 1952–1956.
45.Gin, H, Rigalleau, V, Caubet, O, et al. (1999) Effects of red wine, tannic acid or ethanol on glucose tolerance in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients and on starch digestibility in vitro. Metabolism 48, 1179–1183.
46.Avignon, A, Hokayem, M, Bisbal, C, et al. (2012) Dietary antioxidants: do they have a role in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism? Nutrition 28, 715–721.
47.Cerdá, B, Espín, JC, Parra, S, et al. (2004) The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur J Nutr 43, 205–220.
48.Larrosa, M, García-Conesa, MT, Espín, JC, et al. (2010) Ellagitannins, ellagic acid and vascular health. Mol Aspects Med 31, 513–539.
49.Martin-Gallan, P, Carrascossa, A, Gussinye, M, et al. (2003) Biomarkers of diabetes-associated oxidative stress and antioxidant status in young diabetic patients with or without subclinical complications. Free Radical Biol Med 34, 1563–1574.
50.McDougall, GJ, Kulkarni, NN & Stewart, D (2009) Berry polyphenols inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Food Chem 115, 193–199.
51.Florian, JP & Pawelczyk, JA (2010) Non-esterified fatty acids increase arterial pressure via central sympathetic activation in humans. Clin Sci 118, 61–69.
52.Schlaich, M (2010) Central sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle: the major link between non-esterified fatty acids and elevated blood pressure. Clin Sci 118, 43–45.
53.Fagot-Campagna, A, Balkau, B, Simon, D, et al. (1998) High free fatty acid concentration: an independent risk factor for hypertension in the Paris Prospective Study. Int J Epidemiol 27, 808–813.
54.Ferrannini, E, Balkau, B, Coppack, SW, et al. (2007) Insulin resistance, insulin response, and obesity as indicators of metabolic risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2885–2892.