Bullying has become an increasingly grave social problem in Korea and, as such, researchers have attempted to identify the various factors involved in bullying, along with victimisation experiences, in adolescents. However, previous research has often been fragmentary, examining only the individual, family or school factors, thereby failing to take an ecological perspective that can provide a more in-depth understanding of the behaviour involved in bullying. Moreover, such studies often view bullying as a single type of behaviour rather than one composed of different subtypes that may have different causes. Therefore, this study examined the long-term effects of individual, family and school factors on bullying and victimisation experiences from a sample of 3,449 middle school students. Logistic regression analyses were employed in order to understand how various ecological factors influence youth bullying and victimisation experiences. The findings supported the hypothesis, which noted that the key factors varied with regard to the bullying and victimisation subtypes. Lastly, implications and future directions are discussed.