Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-8lphq Total loading time: 0.512 Render date: 2022-07-02T16:05:00.620Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Diversity, morphology, and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon-Part I: Prototeuthidina

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2015

Dirk Fuchs
1Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Branch Palaeontology, Malteserstr. 74-100, D-12249 Berlin, Germany,
Neal Larson
2Black Hills Institute of Geological Research and Black Hills Museum of Natural History, PO Box 643, 117 Main Street, Hill City, South Dakota 57745, USA,


Morphologic analyses of a large collection of coleoid cephalopods from the Lebanese Upper Cretaceous yielded a much higher diversity than previously assumed and revealed numerous extraordinarily well-preserved, soft-part characters. An analysis of the Prototeuthidina, a gladius-bearing group with a slender torpedo-shaped body, revealed two species: Dorateuthis syriaca and Boreopeltis smithi n. sp. Previously unknown soft-part characters, such as the digestive tract, the gills, and the cephalic cartilage considerably improved our knowledge of D. syriaca. Since none of the investigated specimens show more than eight arms, similarities with modern squids are regarded as superficial. Boreopeltis smithi n. sp. is erected on the basis of its comparatively wide Paraplesioteuthis-like gladius. The latter species represents the first unambiguous record of this genus in Upper Cretaceous deposits. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the prototeuthidid clade consists of two lineages. The plesioteuthidid lineage originates from early Jurassic Paraplesioteuthis and leads to Plesioteuthis and Dorateuthis. The other lineage is morphologically more conservative and leads to Boreopeltis.

Research Article
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Avnimelech, M. A. 1965. Bibliography of Levan Geology. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Jerusalem, Israel, 192 p.Google Scholar
Bandel, K. and Leich, H.. 1986. Jurassic Vampyromorpha (dibranchiate cephalopods). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte, 1986:129148.Google Scholar
Bather, F. A. 1888. Shell-growth in Cephalopoda (Siphonopoda). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 6:421427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binkhorst van den Binkhorst, J.-T. 1861. Monographie des Gastropodes et Céphalopodes de la Craie Supérieure du Limburg. Verlag Muquart, Verlag Müller, Brüssel, Maastricht, 44 p.Google Scholar
Bizikov, V. A. 2008. Evolution of the shell in cephalopoda. VNIRO Publishing, Moscow, 445 p.Google Scholar
Boletzky, S. V. 1992. Evolutionary aspects of development, life style, and reproduction mode in incirrate octopods (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Révue de Suisse Zoologie, 4:755770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cappetta, H. 1980a. Les selachiens du Crétace supérior du Liban I: Requins, the Selachians from Upper Cretaceous of Lebanon I: Sharks. Palaeontographica A, 168:69148.Google Scholar
Cappetta, H. 1980b. Les selachiens du Crétace supérior du Liban II: Batoïdes, the Selachians from Upper Cretaceous of Lebanon II: Batoïdes. Palaeontographica A, 168:149229.Google Scholar
Chun, C. 1903. Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres. Fischer Verlag, Jena, 592 p.Google Scholar
Cobban, W. A., Walaszczyk, I., Obradovich, J. D., and McKinney, K. C.. 2006. A USGS Zonal table for the Upper Cretaceous middle Cenomanian-Maastrichtian of the Western Interior of the United States based on ammonites, inoceramids, and radiometric ages. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2006-1250, 46 p.Google Scholar
Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 2004. The Cretaceous fossils of Lebanon. Geolina s.r.l., Italy, 128 p.Google Scholar
Davis, J. W. 1887. The Fossil Fishes of the Chalk of Mount Lebanon, in Syria. The Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 3:457632.Google Scholar
Doguzhaeva, L. A. 2005. A gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopod from the Aptian of Central Russia. Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts, Universität Hamburg, 89:4148.Google Scholar
Donovan, D. T. 1977. Evolution of the dibranchiate Cephalopoda. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 38:1548.Google Scholar
Donovan, D. T., Doguzhaeva, L. A., and Mutvei, H.. 2003. Two pairs of fins in the Late Jurassic Coleoid Trachyteuthis from southern Germany. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 3:9199.Google Scholar
Donovan, D. T. and Toll, R. B.. 1988. The gladius in Coleoid (Cephalopoda) Evolution, p. 89101. In Clarke, M. R., and Trueman, E. R. (eds.), The Mollusca. Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, Vol. 12. Academic Press, San Diego.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, P., Donovan, D. T., and Nixon, M.. 1994. Phylogeny and systematics of the Coleoida. Paleontological contributions, University of Kansas, 5:115.Google Scholar
Ejel, F. and Dubertret, L.. 1966. Sur l'age précis du gisement de poissons et de crustacés de Sahael Alma (Liban). Compte Rendu Sommaire des séances de la Societé Géologie de France, 6:353.Google Scholar
Engeser, T. 1988. Vampyromorpha (“Fossile Teuthiden”), p. 1167. In Westphal, F. (ed.), Fossilium Catalogus. I: Animalia, Vol. 130. Kugler Publications, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Engeser, T., and Bandel, K.. 1988. Phylogenetic classification of cephalopods, p. 105115. In Wiedmann, J., and Kullman, J. (eds.), Cephalopods—Present and Past. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
Engeser, T. and Keupp, H.. 1999. Zwei neue vampyromorphe Tintenfische (Coleoidea, Cephalopoda) aus dem oberjurassischen Solnhofener Plattenkalk von Eichstätt. Archeopteryx, 17:2132.Google Scholar
Engeser, T. and Reitner, J.. 1985. Teuthiden aus dem Unterapt (“Töck”) von Helgoland (Schleswig-Holstein, Norddeutschland). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 59:245260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engeser, T. and Reitner, J., 1986. Coleoidenreste aus der Oberkreide des Libanon im Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Ser. B, 124:117.Google Scholar
Fischer, J.-C. and Riou, B.. 1982. Les Teuthoides (Cephalopoda, Dibranchiata) du Callovien Inférieur de La Voulte-sur-Rhône (Ardèche, France). Annales de Paléontologie, 68:295325.Google Scholar
Fischer, J.-C. and Riou, B.. 2002. Vampyronassa rhodanica nov. gen. nov. sp., vampyromorphe (Cephalopoda, Coleoidea) du Callovien Inférieur de La Voulte-sur-Rhône (Ardèche, France). Annales de Paléontologie, 88:117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forey, P. L., Yi, L., Patterson, C., and Davies, C. E.. 2003. Fossil Fishes from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of Namoura, Lebanon. Journal of Systematic Palaentology, 1:227330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraas, O. 1878. Geologisches aus dem Libanon. Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 34:257391.Google Scholar
Fritsch, A. 1910. Neue Cephalopoden aus der Kreideformation Boehmens, p. 1215. In Fritsch, A. (ed.), Miscellanea Palaeontologica II, Vol. Mesozoica. Selbstverlag, Prag.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D. 2006a. Diversity, Taxonomy and Morphology of vampyropod Coleoids (Cephalopoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Lebanon. Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali et del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 34:128.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D. 2006b. Fossil erhaltungsfähige Merkmalskomplexe der Coleoidea (Cephalopoda) und ihre phylogenetische Bedeutung. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 8:1115.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D. 2006c. Re-description of Doryanthes munsterii (D'Orbigny, 1845), a poorly known vampyropod coleoid (Cephalopoda) from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Plattenkalks. Archaeopteryx, 24:7988.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D. 2007. Coleoid Cephalopods from the Plattenkalks of the Late Jurassic of Southern Germany and the Late Cretaceous of Lebanon-A faunal comparison. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 245:5969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, D. 2010. A rare and unusual teudopseid coleoid from the Upper Cretaceous of Haqel (Lebanon), p. 6172. In Fuchs, D. (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium “Coleoid Cephalopods Through Time.” Ferrantia, 59. Musee National D'Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D., Bracchi, G., and Weis, R.. 2009. New records of octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Cenomanian) of Hâkel and Hâdjoula (Lebanon). Palaeontology, 52:5681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, D., Engeser, T., and Keupp, H.. 2007a. Gladius shape variation in coleoid cephalopod Trachyteuthis from the Upper Jurassic Nusplingen and Solnhofen Plattenkalks. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52:575589.Google Scholar
Fuchs, D., Klinghammer, A., and Keupp, H.. 2007b. Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of plesioteuthidid coleoids from the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) Plattenkalks of Solnhofen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 245:239252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, D. and Weis, R.. 2008. Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of Lower Jurassic loligosepiid coleoids (Cephalopoda). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 249:93112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, D. and Weis, R.. 2009. A new Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) coleoid (Cephalopoda) from Hâdjoula, Lebanon. Fossil Record, 12:175181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, D. and Weis, R.. 2010. Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of Lower Jurassic teudopseid coleoids (Cephalopoda). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 257:351366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaudant, M. 1978. Recherches sur l'anatomie et la systématique des Cténothrissiformes et des Pattersonichthyiformes (Poissons Téléostéens) du Cénomanien du Liban. Mémoires du Museéum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Series C, 41:1124.Google Scholar
Gayet, M. 1980. Contribution a l'étude anatomique et systématique des poissons Cénomaniens du Liban, Anciennement placés dans les Acanthoptérygiens. Mémoires du Musée National D'Histoire Naturelle, Series C, 44:1149.Google Scholar
Gayet, M., Belouze, A., and Abi Saad, P.. 2003. Les Poissons Fossiles, Liban—Mémoire du Temps, Éditions Dés Iris, Méolans-Revel, 158 p.Google Scholar
Haas, W. 2002. The evolutionary history of the eight-armed Coleoidea, p. 341351. In Summesberger, H., Histon, K., and Daurer, A. (eds.), Cephalopods—Present & Past. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 57, Wien.Google Scholar
Hay, O. P. 1903. On a collection of Upper Cretaceous fishes from Mount Lebanon, Syria, with description of four new genera and nineteen new species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 19:395452.Google Scholar
Hückel, U. 1970. Die Fischschiefer von Haquel und Hajoula in der Oberkreide des Libanon. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 135:113149.Google Scholar
Hyatt, A. 1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 22:253338.Google Scholar
Hyatt, A. 1903. Pseudoceratites of the Cretaceous. United States, Geological survey, Monograph 44, 351 p.Google Scholar
Janke, P. R. 2008. A correlated history of the Earth. Poster. Pan Terra Inc., Hill City, South Dakota.Google Scholar
Jeletzky, J. A. 1965. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of fossil Coleoidea (=Dibranchiata). Geological Survey of Canada, Papers 65-2, 42:7678.Google Scholar
Jeletzky, J. A. 1966. Comparative morphology, phylogeny and classification of fossil Coleoidea. Paleontological contributions, University of Kansas, Mollusca 7:1166.Google Scholar
Klinghardt, F. 1943. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über Tintenfische und belemnitenähnliche Weichtiere. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin, 1942:517.Google Scholar
Klug, C., Schweigert, G., and Dietl, G.. 2010. A new Plesioteuthis with beak from the Kimmeridgian of Nusplingen (Germany), p. 7377. In Fuchs, D. (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium Coleoids Cephalopods Through Time. Ferrantia, 59, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
Klug, C., Schweigert, G., Dietl, G., and Fuchs, D.. 2005. Coleoid beaks from the Nusplingen Lithographic Limestone (Late Kimmeridgian, SW Germany). Lethaia, 38:173192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klug, C., Schweigert, G., Fuchs, D., and Dietl, G.. 2009. First record of a belemnite preserved with beaks, arms and ink sac from the Nusplingen Lithographic Limestone (Kimmeridgian, SW Germany). Lethaia, 43:445456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolbe, H. J. 1888. Zur Kenntnis der Insektenbohrgänge in fossilen Hölzern. Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 40:131137.Google Scholar
Kretzoi, M. 1942. Necroteuthis n. gen. (Ceph. Dibr., Necroteuthidae n. f.) aus dem Oligozän von Budapest und das system der Dibranchiata. Földtani Közlöny, 72:124138.Google Scholar
Larson, N. L., Morton, R. W., Larson, P. L. and Bergmann, U.. 2010. A new look at fossil cephalopods, p. 303314. In Tanabe, K., Shigeta, Y., Sasaki, T., and Hirano, H. (eds.), Cephalopods—Present and Past. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
Leach, W. E. 1817. Synopsis of the Orders, Families, and Genera of the Class Cephalopoda. The Zoological Miscellany, being descriptions of new or interesting animals, 3:137141.Google Scholar
Lukeneder, A. and Harzhauser, M.. 2004. The Cretaceous coleoid Dorateuthis syriaca WOODWARD: morphology, feeding habits and phylogenetic implications. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, 106:114.Google Scholar
Lund, R. 1980. Photomacrography of fossils for publication. Journal of Paleontology, 54:264266.Google Scholar
Mangold, K. M. and Young, R. E.. 1998. The systematic value of the digestive organs. Smithonian Contributions to Zoology, 586:2130.Google Scholar
Marck, W. Von Der. 1873. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der fossilen Fische und anderer Thierreste aus der jüngsten Kreide Westfalens, sowie Aufzählung sämtlicher seither in der westfälischen Kreide aufgefundenen Fischreste. Palaeontographica, 22:5574.Google Scholar
Meister, C. 1993. Les collections du Département de Géologie et de Paléontologie du Musée D'Histoire Naturelle de Genève, 46. La collection des poissons du Liban. Revue de Paléobiologie, 12:301310.Google Scholar
Mehl, J. 1990. Fossilerhaltung von Kiemen bei Plesioteuthis prisca RÜPPELL 1829 (Vampyromorpha, Cephalopoda) aus untertithonen Plattenkalken der Altmühlalb. Archaeopteryx, 8:7791.Google Scholar
Meyer, H. V. 1834. Leptoteuthis gigas. Museum Senckenbergianum, Abhandlungen, 1:286287.Google Scholar
Morris, S. C. 1978. Laggania cambria Walcott, a composite fossil. Journal of Paleontology, 52:126131.Google Scholar
Münster, G. G. z. 1843. Die schalenlosen Cephalopoden im unteren Jura, den Lias-Schiefern von Franken und Schwaben. Beiträge zur Petrefaktenkunde, 6:5777.Google Scholar
Münster, G. G. z. 1846. Ueber die schalenlosen Cephalopoden des oberen Juragebirges, der lithographischen Kalkschiefern von Bayern. Beiträge zur Petrefaktenkunde, 7:5165.Google Scholar
Naef, A. 1921-1923. Fauna e Flora del Golfo di Napoli, Monograph No. 35, Cephalopoda. Friedländer und Sohn, Berlin, 917 p.Google Scholar
Naef, A. 1922. Die fossilen Tintenfische-Eine paläozoologische Monographie. G. Fischer, Jena, 322 p.Google Scholar
Nesis, K. N. 1987. Cephalopods of the world. TFH Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, 351 p.Google Scholar
Nixon, M. 1998. Cephalic cartilage of Cephalopoda. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586:3138.Google Scholar
Philip, J., Babinot, J. F., Tronchetti, G., Fourcade, E., Ricou, L. E., Guiaud, R., Bellion, Y., Herbin, J. P., Combes, P. E., Conee, J. J., and Dercourt, J.. 1993. Late Cenomanian Palaeoenvironments (94-92 Ma), p. 153178. In Dercourt, J., Ricou, L. E., and Vrielynck, B. (eds.), Atlas Tethys Palaeoenvironmental maps. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.Google Scholar
Pictet, F. J. 1850. Description de quelques Poissons fossiles du Mont Liban. Imprimerie de Jules-Guillaume Fick, Genéve, 59 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quenstedt, F. A. 1849. Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands, 1. Abteilung, 1. Band, Cephalopoden. Verlag Fues, Tübingen, 581 p.Google Scholar
Regteren Altena, C. O. v. 1949. Teyler's Museum systematic catalogue of the palaeontological collection-sixth supplement (Teuthoidea). Archives du Musee Teyler, 3:5362.Google Scholar
Reitner, J. 1978. Ein Teuthiden-Rest aus dem Obernor (Kössener Schichten) der Lahnewies-Neidernachmulde bei Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Bayern). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 52:205212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reitner, J. 2009. Preserved gill remains in Phragmoteuthis conocauda (Quenstedt, 1846-1849) (Toarcian, Southern Western Germany). Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 10:289295.Google Scholar
Reitner, J. and Engeser, T. 1982. Teuthiden aus dem Barrême der Insel Maio (Kapverdische Inseln). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 56:209216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reitner, J. and Mehl, J.. 1989. Ein besonderes Fossil. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 63:34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riegraf, W. 1987. Plesioteuthis arcuata VON DER MARCK 1873 (Cephalopoda, Teuthida) from the Campanian (late Cretaceous) of Westfalia (NW Germany). Münsterische Forschung zur Geologie und Paläontologie, 66:95110.Google Scholar
Roemer, F. A. 1852. Die Kreidebildungen von Texas und ihre organischen Einschüsse. Adolf Marcus, Bonn, 100 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roger, J. 1946. Les invertébrés des couches a poissons du Crétacé supérieur du Liban, Étude paléobiologique des gisements. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, 51:192.Google Scholar
Roger, J. 1952. Sous-classes des Dibranchiata OWEN 1836, p. 689755. In Piveteau, J. (ed.), Traité de Paléontologie, Vol. 2. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
Roman, F. 1928. Callovien Inférieur-Horizont a nodules de Crustaces et Poissons, p. 105115. In Roman, F. (ed.), Etudes sur les Callovien de la Vallée du Rhône. Traveaux Géologique de Lyon, Lyon.Google Scholar
Rüppell, E. 1829. Abbildung und Beschreibung einiger neuer oder wenig bekannten Versteinerungen aus der Kalkschieferformation von Solnhofen. Brönner Verlag, Frankfurt/M, 12 p.Google Scholar
Spath, L. F. 1926. On new ammonites from the English Chalk. Geological Magazine, 63:7783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starobogatov, Y. I. 1983. The System of the Cephalopoda, p. 47. In Starobogatov, Y. I. and Nesis, K. N. (eds.), Taxonomy and ecology of Cephalopoda. Zoological Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad.Google Scholar
Stoliczka, F. 1863-1866. Ammonitidae, with revision of the Nautilidae, p. 41216. In Blanford, H. F. and Stoliczka, F. (eds.), The Fossil Cephalopoda of the Cretaceous rocks of southern India. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica (Series 1 & 3)1.Google Scholar
Sweet, W. C. 1964. Cephalopoda-general features, p. K4K13. In Teichert, C., Kummel, B., Sweet, W. C., Senzel, H. B., Furnish, W. H., Glenister, B. F., Erben, H. K., Moore, R. C., and Nodine Zeller, D. E. (eds.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda-General festures. Endoceratoidea-Actinoceratoidea-Nautiloidea-Bactritoidea. Geological Society of America & University Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado; Lawrence, Kansas, New York.Google Scholar
Vecchione, M., Young, R. E., Donovan, D. T., and Rodhouse, P. G.. 1999. Reevaluation of coleoid cephalopod relationships based on modified arms in the Jurassic coleoid Mastigophora. Lethaia, 32:113118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wade, M. 1993. New Kelaenida and Vampyromorpha: Cretaceous squid from Queensland. Memoirs of the Association Australasian Paleontologists, 15:353374.Google Scholar
Wagner, A. 1859. Revision der bisherigen systematischen Bestimmungen der Überreste von nackten Dintenfischen aus dem Süddeutschen Juragebirge. Gelehrte Anzeigen der Königlichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 34:273278.Google Scholar
Wippich, G. E., and Lehmann, J.. 2004. Allocrioceras from the Cenomanian (mid-Cretaceous) of the Lebanon and its bearing on the palaeobiological interpretation of heteromorphic ammonites. Palaeontology, 47:10931109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodward, H. 1883. On a new genus of fossil “calamary” from the Cretaceous formation of Sahel Alma, near Beirut, Lebanon, Syria. Geological Magazin, new series, 10:15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodward, H. 1896. On a Fossil Octopus (Calais Newboldi, J. de C. Sby. MS.) from the Cretaceous of the Lebanon. Quaternary Journal of the Geological Society of London, 52:229234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, R. E., Vecchione, M., and Donovan, D. T.. 1998. The Evolution of Cephalopods and their present Biodiversity and Ecology. South Africa Journal of Marine Science, 20:393420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Diversity, morphology, and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon-Part I: Prototeuthidina
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Diversity, morphology, and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon-Part I: Prototeuthidina
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Diversity, morphology, and phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods from the Upper Cretaceous Plattenkalks of Lebanon-Part I: Prototeuthidina
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *