Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-lmg95 Total loading time: 0.418 Render date: 2021-10-20T20:33:04.944Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Lakotacrinus brezinai n. gen. n. sp., a new stalked crinoid from cold methane seeps in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Pierre Shale, South Dakota, United States

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2016

Aaron W. Hunter
Department of Applied Geology, Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Australia 〈〉
Neal L. Larson
Black Hills Museum of Natural History, PO Box 614, Hill City, South Dakota 57745, USA and Larson Paleontology Unlimited, 12799 Wolframite Road, Keystone, South Dakota 57751, USA 〈〉
Neil H. Landman
Division of Paleontology (Invertebrates), American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024-5192, USA 〈〉
Tatsuo Oji
Nagoya University Museum, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan 〈〉


Despite a rich and varied record, Mesozoic stalked crinoids are relatively rare in the Western Interior Seaway of North America compared to those found in Northern Europe. A unique example of Mesozoic stalked crinoid is described from cold methane seeps (hydrocarbon seep mounds also called “tepee buttes”) from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Campanian) of the Northern Great Plains of the United States; the first crinoids to be described from such an environment. The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway has never before yielded any identifiable stalked crinoid remains. Nevertheless, there have been significant studies on both free living and stalked crinoids from other locations in the Upper Cretaceous of North America that provide a good basis for comparison. Lakotacrinus brezinai n. gen. n. sp. is characterized by a tapering homeomorphic column with through-going tubuli, lacking any attachment disc. The arms are unbranched and pinnulate, with muscular and syzygial articulations. The unique morphology of the column justifies the establishment of Lakotacrinidae new family. A new suborder Lakotacrinina n. subord., is also proposed as there exists no corresponding taxon within the Articulata that can accommodate all the characteristics of this new genus. This new crinoid shares many features with other members of the articulates, including bathycrinids, bourgueticrinids and guillecrinids within the Order Comatulida, as currently defined in the revised Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology. Reconstructing the entire crinoid using hundreds of semi-articulated and disarticulated (well preserved) fossils, reveals a unique paleoecology and functional morphology specifically adapted to living within this hydrocarbon seep environment.

Copyright © 2016, The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aharon, P., 1994, Geology and biology of modern and ancient submarine hydrocarbon seeps and vents: an introduction: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 14,no. 2, p. 6973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baadsgaard, H., Lerbekmo, J.F., Wijbrans, J.R., Swisher, C.C. III, and Fanning, M., 1993, Multimethod radiometric age for a bentonite near the top of the Baculites reesidei Zone of southwestern Saskatchewan (Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary?): Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 30, p. 769775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, R.D., 1980, Invertebrate zoology, 4th edition., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Holt-Saunders International, 1089 p.Google Scholar
Bather, F.A., 1899, A phylogenetic classification on the Pelmatozoa: British Association for the Advancement of Science Report, v. 1898, p. 916923.Google Scholar
Baumiller, T.K., 1993, Survivorship analysis of Paleozoic Crinoidea: effect of filter morphology on evolutionary rates: Paleobiology, v. 19, p. 304321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchamp, B., and Savard, M., 1992, Cretaceous chemosynthetic carbonate mounds in the Canadian Arctic: Palaios, v. 7, p. 434450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchamp, B., Harrison, J.C., Nassichuk, W.W., Krouse, H.R., and Eliuk, L.S., 1989, Cretaceous cold-seep communities and methane-derived carbonates in the Canadian Arctic: Science, v. 244, p. 5356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bishop, G.A., and Williams, A.B., 2000, Fossil crabs from tepee buttes, submarine seeps of the late Cretaceous Pierre Shale, South Dakota and Colorado, USA: Journal of Crustacean Biology, v. 20, p. 286300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourseau, J-P., Améziane-Cominardi, N., Avocat, R., and Roux, M., 1991, Echinodermata: les crinoïdes pédonculés de Nouvelle-Calédonie, in Crosnier, A., ed., Résultats des Campagnes Naturelle, series A [In French], v. 151, p. 229333.Google Scholar
Clark, A.H., 1908, Descriptions of new species of crinoids, chiefly from the collections made by the US Fisheries steamer “Albatross” at the Hawaiian Islands in 1902; with remarks on the classification of the Comatulida: U.S. National Museum Proceedings, v. 34, p. 209239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, W.B., 1893, The Mesozoic Echinodermata of the United States: U.S. Geological Bulletin, v. 97, 207 p.Google Scholar
Clark, W.B., and Twitchell, M.W., 1915, The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 54, 341 p.Google Scholar
Cobban, W.A., 1995, Occurrences of the free-swimming Upper Cretaceous crinoids Uintacrinus and Marsupites in the Western Interior of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 2113, p. 16.Google Scholar
Cobban, W.A., McKinney, K.C., Obradovich, J.D., and Walaszczyk, I., 2006, USGS Zonal Table for the Upper Cretaceous middle Cenomanian-Maastrichtian of the Western Interior of the United States Based on Ammonites, Inoceramids, and Radiometric Ages: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report, v. 1250, 46 p.Google Scholar
de Loriol, P., 1882, Description of a new species of Bourgueticrinus : Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, v. 5, p. 942950.Google Scholar
Donovan, S.K., Milsom, C.V., and Veltkamp, C.J., 1996, Jamaican Cretaceous Crinoidea: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 866871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenneman, N.M., 1931, Physiography of Western United States, New York, NY, McGraw Hill, 714 p.Google Scholar
Gabb, W.M., 1876, Note on the discovery of representatives of three orders of fossils new to the Cretaceous formation of North America: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 28, p. 178179.Google Scholar
Gilbert, G.K., and Gulliver, F.P., 1895, Tepee Buttes: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 6, p. 333342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grinnell, G.B., 1876, On a new crinoid from the Cretaceous formation of the West: American Journal of Science, Series 3, p. 8183.Google Scholar
Hagdorn, H., Wang, X., and Wang, C., 2007, Palaeoecology of the pseudoplanktonic Triassic crinoid Traumatocrinus from Southwest China: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 247, p. 181196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendricks, J.K., Gong, J., Jones, P., Hsiung, S., Tao, K., Metz, C.L., Raymond, A., and Pope, M.C., 2011, Depositional model for the Tepee Buttes methane seeps-zoned and conical, or flat and patchy?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 43, p. 95.Google Scholar
Hess, H., 1999, Chapter 27. Uintacrinus beds of the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation, Kansas, USA, in Hess, H., Ausich, W.I., Brett, C.E., and Simms, M.J., eds., Fossil Crinoids, Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press, p. 225232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, H., Messing, C.G., and Ausich, W.I., 2011, Revised, Crinoidea (3), in Seldon, P.A., ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part T, Echinodermata 2, Lawrence, Kansas, The University of Kansas Paleontological Institute, p. 1261.Google Scholar
Howe, B., 1987, Tepee Buttes: A petrological, paleontological, paleoenvironmental study of Cretaceous submarine spring deposits [Unpublished Masters Thesis]: University of Colorado at Boulder, 218 p.Google Scholar
Hunter, A.W., and Donovan, S.K., 2005, Field sampling bias, museum collections and completeness of the fossil record record in echinoderms from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of Northern Europe: Lethaia, v. 38, p. 305314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, A.W., and Zonneveld, J.P., 2008, Palaeoecology of Jurassic encrinites: reconstructing crinoid communities from the Western Interior Seaway of North America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Jurassic Marine Palaeobiology Special Issue, v. 263, p. 5870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, A.W., Oji, T., Ewin, T.A.M., and Kitazawa, K., 2011a, New species of isocrinid crinoids Chariocrinus japonicus (Articulata, Echinodermata) from the Lower Cretaceous Mitarai Formation (Tetori Group) of Takayama district, central Japan: Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, v. 37, p. 115121.Google Scholar
Hunter, A.W., Barras, C.G., and Thuy, B., 2011b, Online field-guide to fossils: British Middle Jurassic echinoderms: Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, v. 122, p. 501503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Izett, G.A., Cobban, W.A., Obradovich, J.D., and Dalrymple, G.B., 1998, 40Ar/39Ar age of the Manson impact structure, Iowa, and correlative impact ejecta in the Crow Creek Member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous), South Dakota and Nebraska: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 110, p. 361376.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jagt, J.W.M., 1999, Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium - Part 2: Crinoids: Scripta Geologica, v. 116, p. 59255.Google Scholar
Kauffman, E.G., Arthur, M.A., Howe, B., and Scholle, P.A., 1996, Widespread venting of methane-rich fluids in Late Cretaceous (Campanian) submarine springs (Tepee Buttes), Western Interior Seaway, U.S.A: Geology, v. 24, p. 799802.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keefer, W.R., and Troyer, M.L., 1964, Geology of the Shotgun Butte area, Fremont County, Wyoming: Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 1157, 123 p.Google Scholar
Klikushin, V.G., 1982, Taxonomic survey of fossil isocrinids with a list of the species found in the USSR: Geobios, v. 15, p. 299325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klikushin, V.G., 1987, Thiolliericrinid crinoids from the Lower Cretaceous of Crimea: Geobios, v. 20, p. 625665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koch, D.L., 1962, Isocrinus from the Jurassic of Wyoming: Journal of Paleontology, v. 36, p. 13131318.Google Scholar
Landman, N.H., Kennedy, W.J., Cobban, W.A., and Larson, N.L., 2010, Scaphites of the “Nodosus group” from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) of the Western Interior of North America: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 342, 242 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landman, N.H., Cochran, J.K., Larson, N.L., Brezina, J., Garb, M.P., and Harries, P.J., 2012, Methane seeps as ammonite habitats in the US Western Interior Seaway revealed by isotopic analyses of well-preserved shell material: Geology, v. 40, p. 507510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, W.N., 1896, The invertebrates of the Benton, Niobrara, and Fort Pierre Groups, in Williston, S.W., ed., The University Geological Survey of Kansas, Vol. 4. Paleontology, Part 1, Upper Cretaceous, p. 431–518.Google Scholar
Marsh, O.C., 1871, Scientific expedition to the Rocky Mountains: American Journal of Science, Series 3, v. 1, p. 142143.Google Scholar
Meek, F.B., 1876, Note on the new genus Uintacrinus Grinnell: U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories Bulletin, v. 2, p. 375378.Google Scholar
Metz, C.L., 2008, The paleobiogeography of the Late Cretaceous, Western Interior Basin Tepee Butte Mounds (hydrocarbon seeps) of North America and possible tectonic factors controlling their distribution: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 40, p. 250251.Google Scholar
Miller, H.W. Jr., 1968, Invertebrate fauna and environment of deposition of the Niobrara Formation (Cretaceous) of Kansas: Fort Hays Kansas Studies n. s., Science series, v. 8, 90 p.Google Scholar
Miller, H.W. Jr., Sternberg, G.F., and Walker, M.V., 1957, Uintacrinus localities in the Niobrara Formation of Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 60, p. 163166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, J.S., 1821, A Natural History of the Crinoidea or Lily-Shaped Animals, Bristol, UK, Bryan and Co., 150 p.Google Scholar
Milsom, C.V., Simms, M.J., and Gale, A.S., 1994, The phylogeny and palaeobiology of Marsupites and Uintacrinus : Palaeontology, v. 37, p. 595607.Google Scholar
Mironov, A.N., and Sorokina, O.A., 1998, Sea lilies of the order Hyocrinida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea): Zoologicheskie Issledovania, v. 2, 118 p [In Russian with English diagnoses].Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., 1967, Unique stalked crinoids from Upper Cretaceous of Mississippi: University of Kansas, Paleontological Contribution Echinodermata, Article 17, p. 135.Google Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Vokes, H.E., 1953, Lower Tertiary crinoids from northwestern Oregon: United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 233, p. 111147.Google Scholar
Oji, T., 1985, Early Cretaceous Isocrinus from northeast Japan: Palaeontology, v. 28, p. 661674.Google Scholar
Oji, T., Kanoh, M., Toshimitsu, S., and Tashiro, M., 1996, Nielsenicrinus japonicus n. sp. (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) from the Late Cretaceous of western Japan and its paleobiogeographic implications: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 964968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peck, R.E., 1943, Lower Cretaceous crinoids from Texas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 17, p. 451475.Google Scholar
Peck, R.E., and Watkins, W.T., 1972, Comatulid crinoids from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 46, p. 410414.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, H.W., 1961, A monograph on the Cretaceous Crinoidea: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab - Biologiske Skrifter, v. 12, 428 p.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, H.W., 1978, Articulata (3), in Moore, R.C., and Teichert, C., eds., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Pt. T, Echinodermata 2: Boulder Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas, The Geological Society of America, Inc. & The University of Kansas Press, p. T813T928.Google Scholar
Riding, R., 2000, Microbial carbonates: the geological record of calcified bacterial–algal mats and biofilms: Sedimentology, v. 47, p. 179214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roux, M., 1985, Découverte d’un représentant actuel des crinoïdes pédonculés paléozoïques Inadunata (Echinodermes) dans l'étage bathyal de l’Ile de la Réunion (Océan Indien): Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, série 3, Sciences de la vie [In French], v. 301, p. 503506.Google Scholar
Salamon, M.A., Gajerski, A., Gorzelak, P., and Łukowiak, M., 2007, A new plicatocrinid crinoid, Tetracrinus jagti, from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of southern Poland: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, v. 245, p. 179183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salamon, M.A., Gorzelak, P., Borszcz, T., Gajerski, A., and Kaźmierczak, J., 2009, A crinoid concentration Lagerstätte in the Turonian (Late Cretaceous) Conulus Bed (Miechów-Wolbrom area, Poland): Geobios, v. 42, p. 351357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salamon, M.A., and Gorzelak, P., 2010, Late Cretaceous crinoids (Crinoidea) from Eastern Poland: Palaeontographica Abteilung, v. 291, p. 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segonzac, M., 1992, Les peuplements associés à l’hydrothermalisme océanique du Snake Pit (dorsale médio-atlantique; 23°N, 3480m): composition et microdistribution de la mégafaune: Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris, série 3, Sciences de la vie [In French], v. 314, p. 593600.Google Scholar
Shapiro, R., and Fricke, H., 2002, Tepee Buttes: Fossilized methane-seep ecosystems, in Leonard, E.M., Hubbard, M.S., Kelley, S.A., Evanoff, E., Siddoway, C.S., Oviatt, C.G., Heizler, M., and Timmons, M., eds., High Plains to Rio Grande Rift: Late Cenozoic evolution of Central Colorado. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Field Trip Guidebook, Volume 3, Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, p. 94101.Google Scholar
Sieverts-Doreck, H., 1952, Orders of the Articulata, in Moore, R.C., Lalicker, C.G., and Fischer, A.G., eds., Invertebrate Fossils, New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, p. 1766.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1900, Further note on Uintacrinus : American Geologist, v. 26, p. 194.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1901, Uintacrinus: its structure and relations: Harvard College, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Memoir 25, 89 p.Google Scholar
Springer, F., 1911, Some new American fossil crinoids: Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, v. 25, p. 117161.Google Scholar
Stöhr, S., and Segonzac, M., 2005, Deep-sea ophiuroids (Echinodermata) from reducing and non-reducing environments in the North Atlantic Ocean: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, v. 85, p. 383402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, P.D., 1983, Ailsacrinus gen. nov., an aberrant millericrinid from the Middle Jurassic of Britain: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, v. 37, p. 3777.Google Scholar
Thomson, W., 1872, On the crinoids of the “Porcupine” deep-sea dredging expedition: Royal Society of Edinburgh, Proceedings, v. 7, p. 764773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Zittel, K.A., 1976–1880, Handbuch der Palaeontologie. Abteilung 5: Band 1, Palaeozoologie, v. 1, 765 p.Google Scholar
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lakotacrinus brezinai n. gen. n. sp., a new stalked crinoid from cold methane seeps in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Pierre Shale, South Dakota, United States
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Lakotacrinus brezinai n. gen. n. sp., a new stalked crinoid from cold methane seeps in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Pierre Shale, South Dakota, United States
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Lakotacrinus brezinai n. gen. n. sp., a new stalked crinoid from cold methane seeps in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Pierre Shale, South Dakota, United States
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *