Skip to main content Accessibility help

Distinguishing Agromyzidae (Diptera) Leaf Mines in the Fossil Record: New Taxa from the Paleogene of North America and Germany and Their Evolutionary Implications

  • Isaac S. Winkler (a1) (a2), Conrad C. Labandeira (a2) (a3), Torsten Wappler (a4) and Peter Wilf (a5)


Fossilized leaf mines and other traces of phytophagous insects provide a unique window into ecological and evolutionary associations of the past. Leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are an important component of the recent leaf-mining fauna, but their fossil record is sparse compared to other mining insect lineages; many putative agromyzid body fossils and traces are dubiously assigned. Agromyzid leaf mines often can be distinguished from those of other insects by the presence of an intermittent, fluidized frass trail that may alternate between the sides of the mine. Here, we describe two new Paleogene leaf mine fossils, Phytomyzites biliapchaensis Winkler, Labandeira and Wilf n. sp. from the early Paleocene of southeastern Montana, USA, occurring in leaves of Platanus raynoldsii (Platanaceae); and Phytomyzites schaarschmidti Wappler n. sp., from the middle Eocene of Messel, Germany, occurring in leaves of Toddalia ovata (Rutaceae). These fossils both exhibit frass trails indicative of an agromyzid origin, and P. biliapchaensis also exhibits associated stereotypical marks identical to damage caused by feeding punctures of extant adult female Agromyzidae prior to oviposition. Phytomyzites biliapchaensis represents the earliest confirmed record of Agromyzidae, and one of the earliest records for the large dipteran clade Schizophora. Plant hosts of both species belong to genera that are no longer hosts of leaf-mining Agromyzidae, suggesting a complex and dynamic history of early host-plant associations and, for the early Paleocene example, an evolutionary, possibly opportunistic colonization in the midst of the ecological chaos following the end-Cretaceous event in North America.



Hide All
Barreda, V. and Palazzesi, L. 2007. Patagonian vegetation turnovers during the Paleogene-early Neogene: origin of arid-adapted floras. Botanical Review, 73:3150.
Beiger, M. 2004. Owady Minujące Polski: Klucz do Oznaczania na Podstawie Min. Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznan, Poland, 894 p. (in Polish)
Belt, E. S., Hartman, J. H., Diemer, J. A., Droeger, T. J., Tibert, N. E., and Curran, H. A. 2004. Unconformities and age relationships, Tongue River and older members of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), western Williston Basin, U.S.A. Rocky Mountain Geology, 39:13140.
Benavent-Corai, J., Martinez, M., and Jiménez Peydró, R. 2005. Catalogue of the hosts-plants of the world Agromyzidae (Diptera). Bolletino di Zoologia agraria e di Bachicoltura. Serie II, 37 (Supplementum), ii + 97 p.
Berger, W. 1949. Lebensspuren schmarotzender Insekten an jungtertiären Laubblattern. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Sitzungsberichte. Abteilung I, Biologie, Mineralogie, Erdkunde und verwandte Wissenschaften, 158:789792.
Blagoderov, V. A., Lukashevich, E. D., and Mostovski, M. B. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The True flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781), p. 227240. In Rasnitsyn, A. P. and Quicke, D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Leafminers, British. 2009. [multiple contributors]
Cockerell, T.D.A. 1924. An ancestor of the Agromyzidae. Entomologist, 57:199201.
Connor, E. F. and Taverner, M. P. 1997. The evolution and adaptive significance of the leaf-mining habit. Oikos, 79:625.
Crane, P. R. and Jarzembowski, E. A. 1980. Insect leaf mines from the Palaeocene of southern England. Journal of Natural History, 14:629636.
Crane, P. R., Manchester, S. R., and Dilcher, D. L. 1988. Morphology and phylogenetic significance of the angiosperm Platanites hebridicus from the Palaeocene of Scotland. Palaeontology, 31:503517.
Csóka, G. 2003. Leaf mines and leaf miners. Hungarian Forest Research Institute. Erdészeti Turományos Intézet, Agroinform Kiadó, Budapest, 192 p. (see also
Davis, D. R. 1989. Generic revision of the Opostegidae, with a synoptic catalog of the world's species (Lepidoptera: Nepticuloidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 478, 197.
Dempewolf, M. 2001. Larvalmorphologie und Phylogenie der Agromyzidae (Diptera). Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Bielefeld, Germany, 256 p. (
Deonier, D. L. 1971. A systematic and ecological study of Nearctic Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 68, 147 p.
Diemer, J. A. and Belt, E. S. 1991. Sedimentology and paleohydraulics of the meandering river systems of the Fort Union Formation, southeastern Montana. Sedimentary Geology, 75:85108.
Ehrlich, P. R. and Raven, P. H. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution, 18:586608.
Ellis, W. N. 2007. Dutch leafminers.
Evanoff, E., McIntosh, W. C., and MuRPHEY, P. C. 2001. Stratigraphic summary and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Florissant Formation, Colorado. Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, 4:116.
Evenhuis, N. L. 1994. Catalogue of the Fossil Flies of the World (Insecta: Diptera). Backhuys, Leiden, 600 p. (
Fallén, C. F. 1810. Specimen entomologicum novam Diptera disponendi methodum exhibens. Berligianus, Lundae, 26 p.
Feeny, P. 1975. Biochemical coevolution between plants and their insect herbivores, p. 319. In Gilbert, L. E. and Raven, P. H. (eds.), Coevolution of Insects and Plants. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Felder, M. and Harms, F.-J. 2004. Lithologie und genetische Interpretationen der vulkano-sedimentären Ablagerungen aus der Grube Messel anhand der Forschungsbohrung Messel 2001 und weiterer Bohrungen. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 252:151203.
Geissert, F., Nötzold, T., and Süss, H. 1981. Pflanzenfossilien und Palaeophytobia salicaria Süss, eine neue fossile Minierfliege (Agromyzidae, Diptera) aus dem Pliozän des Elsaß. Mitteilungen des badischen Landesvereins für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, neue Folge, 12:221231.
Givulesçu, R. 1984. Pathological elements on fossil leaves from Chiuzbaia (galls, mines and other insect traces). Dări de Seamă ale Sedintelor. 3. Paleontologie 68(1981):123133, pls. I-VI.
Goeppert, H. R. 1855. Die Tertiäre Flora von Schossnitz in Schlesien. Heynsche Buchhandlung (E. Remer), Görlitz, xviii + 52 p., Taf. I-XXVI.
Graham, A. 1999. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of North American vegetation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 350 p.
Grambast-Fessart, N. 1966. IV contribution a l'étude des flores tertiaires des régions provencales et alpines: deux bois nouveaux de dicotylédones du pontien de Castellane. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France (nouv. Ser.), 105:130146.
Gregor, H. J. 1979. Systematics, biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the genus Toddalia Jussieu (Rutaceae) in the European Tertiary. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 28:311363.
Grimaldi, D. A. 1999. The co-radiations of pollinating insects and angiosperms in the Cretaceous. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86:373406.
Grimaldi, D. A., Beck, C. W., and Boon, J. J. 1989. Occurrence, chemical characteristics, and paleontology of the fossil resins from New Jersey. American Museum Novitates, Number 2948, 28 p.
Grimaldi, D. A. and Engel, M. S. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 755 p.
Hendel, F. 1931-1936. 59. Agromyzidae. In Lindner, E. (ed.), Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, VI, 2. Stuttgart, Germany, i-xii+570 pp., Taf. I-XVI.
Hennig, W. 1965. Die Acalyptratae des baltischen Bernsteins und ihre Bedeutung für die Erforschung der phylogenetischen Entwicklung dieser Dipteren-Gruppe. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 145:1215.
Hering, M. 1930. Eine Agromyziden-Mine aus dem Tertiär. (Dipt. Agromyz.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1930:6364.
Hering, E. M. 1951. Biology of the Leaf Miners. Dr. W. Junk, 's-Gravenhage, The Netherlands, 420 p.
Hering, E. M. 1957. Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa. Dr. W. Junk, 's-Gravenhage, The Netherlands, 1185 p. (Vol. 1-2) + 221 p. (Vol. 3).
Jarzembowski, E. A. 1989. A century plus of fossil insects. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 100:433449.
Johnson, K. R. 2002. The megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union formations in the western Dakotas: vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 361:329391.
Johnson, K. R. and Ellis, B. 2002. A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science, 296:23792383.
Kozlov, M. V. 1988. Paleontology of lepidopterans and problems in the phylogeny of the order Papilionida, p. 1669, pls. 1-4. In Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.), Cretaceous Biocoenotic Crisis in the Evolution of Insects. Academy of Sciences, Moskow. (in Russian)
Krassilov, V. 2007. Mines and galls on fossil leaves from the Late Cretaceous of southern Negev, Israel. African Invertebrates, 48:1322.
Krassilov, V. 2008a. Traumas on fossil leaves from the Cretaceous of Israel, p. 9187. In Krassilov, V. and Ranitsyn, A. (eds.), Plant-Arthropod Interactions in the Early Angiosperm History: Evidence from the Cretaceous of Israel. Pensoft, Sofia and Brill, Leiden.
Krassilov, V. 2008b. Mine and gall predation as top down regulation in the plant-insect systems from the Cretaceous of Negev, Israel. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 261:261269.
Kräusel, R. and Schönfeld, G. 1925. Fossile Hölzer aus der Braunkohle von Süd-Limburg. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 38:253289.
Kumada, T. 1984. Insects forming pith flecks in broad-leaved trees. Northern Forestry, 36:120129. (in Japanese)
Labandeira, C. C. 1998a. Early history of arthropod and vascular plant associations. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 26:329377.
Labandeira, C. C. 1998b. Plant-insect associations from the fossil record. Geotimes, 43(9):1824.
Labandeira, C.C. 2002. Paleobiology of middle Eocene plant-insect associations from the Pacific Northwest: a preliminary report. Rocky Mountain Geology, 37:3159.
Labandeira, C. C. 2005. Fossil history and evolutionary ecology of Diptera and their associations with plants, p. 217273. In Yeates, D. K. and Wiegmann, B. M. (eds.), The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press, New York.
Labandeira, C. C. 2006a. The four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time. Geologica Acta, 4:409438.
Labandeira, C. C. 2006b. Silurian to Triassic plant and hexapod clades and their associations: new data, a review, and interpretations. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny, 64:5394.
Labandeira, C. C. and Anderson, J. M. 2005. Insect leaf-mining in Late Triassic gymnospermous floras from the Molteno Formation of South Africa. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 37:15.
Labandeira, C. C., Dilcher, D. L., Davis, D. R., and Wagner, D. L. 1994. Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 91:1227012282.
Labandeira, C. C., Johnson, K. R., and Lang, P. 2002a. Preliminary assessment of insect herbivory across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary: major extinction and minimum rebound, p. 297327. In Hartman, J. H., Johnson, K. R., and Nichols, D. J. (eds.), The Hell Creek Formation of the Northern Great Plains. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 361.
Labandeira, C. C., Johnson, K. R., and Wilf, P. 2002b. Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant-insect associations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 99:20612066.
Labandeira, C. C., Wilf, P., Johnson, K. R., and Marsh, F. 2007. Guide to Insect (and other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils. Version 3.0. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 25 p. (
Lang, P. J. 1996. Fossil Evidence for Patterns of Leaf-feeding from the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. Unpublished , , 329 p.
Lang, P. J., Scott, A. C., and Stephenson, J. 1995. Evidence of plant-arthropod interactions from the Eocene Branksome Sand Formation, Bournemouth: introduction and description of leaf mines. Tertiary Research, 15:145174.
Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Wikström, N., Labandeira, C., Godfray, H. C. J., Goodman, S. J., and Cook, J. M. 2006. Fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies reveal that leaf-mining moths radiated millions of years after their host plants. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19:13141326.
Magallón, S., Crane, P. R., and Herendeen, P. S. 1999. Phylogenetic pattern, diversity, and diversification of eudicots. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86:297372.
Manchester, S. R. 1986. Vegetative and reproductive morphology of an extinct plane tree (Platanaceae) from the Eocene of Western North America. Botanical Gazette, 147:200226.
Manchester, S. R. and Dilcher, D. L. 1997. Reproductive and vegetative morphology of Polyptera (Juglandaceae) from the Paleocene of Wyoming and Montana. American Journal of Botany, 84:649663.
McAlpine, J. F. 1970. First record of calypterate flies in the Mesozoic era (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Canadian Entomologist, 102:342346.
Melander, A. L. 1949. A report on some Miocene Diptera from Florissant, Colorado. American Museum Novitates, 1407:163.
Mertz, D. F. and Renne, P. R. 2005. A numerical age for the Messel fossil deposit (UNESCO World Heritage Site) derived from 40Ar/39Ar dating on a basaltic rock fragment. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 255:6775.
Needham, J. G., Frost, S. W., and Tothill, J. D. 1928. Leaf-mining insects. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 351 p. (
Newberry, J. S. 1868. Notes on the later extinct floras of North America with descriptions of some new species of fossil plants from the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, 9:176.
Niklas, K. J., Tiffney, B. H., and Knoll, A. H. 1985. Patterns in vascular land plant diversification: an analysis at the species level, p. 97128. In Valentine, J. W. (ed.), Phanerozoic Diversity Patterns: Profiles in Macroevolution. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Nowakowski, J. T. 1962. Introduction to a systematic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) with some remarks on host plant selection by these flies. Annales zoologici (Warszawa), 28:67183.
Opler, P. A. 1973. Fossil lepidopterous leaf mines demonstrate the age of some insect-plant relationships. Science, 179:13211323.
Parrella, M. P. 1987. Biology of Liriomyza. Annual Review of Entomology, 32:201224.
Poinar, G. O. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 368 p.
Powell, J. A., Mitter, C., and Farrell, B. 1998. Evolution of larval feeding habits in Lepidoptera, p. 4034422. In Kristensen, N. P. (ed.), Handbook of Zoology, Lepidoptera, Volume 1: Systematics and Evolution. W. de Gruyter, Berlin.
Quiévreaux, F. 1934. Sur un niveau fossilifère du bassin potassique oligocène du Haut-Rhin. Compte rendu hebdomadaire de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 199:877879.
Quiévreaux, F. 1935. Esquisse du monde vivant sur les rives de la lagune potassique. Bulletin de la Société industrielle de Mulhouse, 101:161–87, pl. I-V.
Rohdendorf, B. 1974. The historical development of Diptera. Moore, J. E. and Thiele, I (trans.), Hocking, B. H., Oldroyd, H., and Ball, G. E. (eds.). University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, 360 p. (originally published in Russian, 1964)
Rozefelds, A. C. 1985. The first records of fossil leaf mining from Australia. Records of the New Zealand Geological Survey, 9:8081.
Rozefelds, A. C. and Sobbe, I. 1987. Problematic insect leaf mines from the Upper Triassic Ipswich Coal Measures of south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Alcheringa, 11:443482.
Scheffer, S. J., Winkler, I. S., and Wiegmann, B. M. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships within the leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) inferred from sequence data from multiple genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42:756775.
Scheirs, J., de Bruyn, L., and Verhagen, R. 2000. Optimization of adult performance determines host choice in a grass miner. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 267:20652069.
Scheirs, J., Vandevyvere, I., and de Bruyn, L. 1997. Influence of monocotyl leaf anatomy on the feeding pattern of a grass-mining agromyzid (Diptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90:646654.
Schulz, R., Harms, F. J., and Felder, M. 2002. Die Forschungsbohrung Messel 2001: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Genese einer Ölschieferlagerstätte. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Geologie, 4:917.
Scott, A. C., Anderson, J. M., and Anderson, H. M. 2004. Evidence of plant-insect interactions in the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation of South Africa. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161:401410.
Sehgal, V. K. 1971. Biology and host-plant relationships of an oligophagous leaf miner Phytomyza matricariae Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae, 7:255280.
Sittig, W. 1927. Blattminierende Insektenlarven. Natur und Museum, 57:348350.
Solomon, J. D. 1995. Guide to insect borers of North American broadleaf trees and shrubs. Agriculture Handbook No. 706. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC, 735 p.
Smedes, H. W. and Prostka, H. J. 1972. Stratigraphic framework of the Absaroka volcanic supergroup in the Yellowstone National Park region. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 729C, 33 p.
Spencer, K. A. 1973. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Economic Importance. Series Entomologica 9. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 418 p.
Spencer, K. A. 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Vol. 5. Scandinavian Science Press, Klampenborg, Denmark, 606 p.
Spencer, K. A. 1990. Host Specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 444 p.
Spencer, K. A. and Martinez, M. 1987. Additions and corrections to the Agromyzidae section of the catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera (Papp, 1984). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, n.S., 23:253271.
Straus, A. 1967. Zur Paläontologie des Pliozäns von Willershausen. Berichte der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Hannover, 111:1524.
Straus, A. 1977. Gallen, Minen und andere Frasspuren im Pliozän von Willershausen am Harz. Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg, 113:4380.
Strömberg, C. A. E. 2005. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 102:1198011984.
Süss, H. 1979. Durch Protophytobia cupressorum gen. nov., sp. nov. (Agromyzidae, Diptera) verursachte Markflecke in einem Holz von Juniperoxylon aus dem Tertiär von Süd-Limburg (Niederlande) und der Nachweis von Markflecken in einer rezenten Callitris-Art. Feddes Repertorium, 90:165172.
Süss, H. 1980. Fossile Kambium-Minierer der Familie Agromyzidae (Diptera) in tertiären Laub- und Nadelholzresten. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften, 8:12171225.
Süss, H. and Müller-Stoll, W.R. 1975. Durch Palaeophytobia platani n. g., n. sp. (Agromyzidae, Diptera) verursachte Markflecken im Holz fossiler Platanen aus dem ungarischen Miozän. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Reihe, 24:515519.
Süss, H. and Müller-Stoll, W.R. 1977. Untersuchungen über fossile Platanenhölzer. Beiträge zu einer Monographie der Gattung Platanoxylon Andreănszky. Feddes Repertorium, 88:162.
Süss, H. and Müller-Stoll, W.R. 1980. Das fossile Holz Pruninium gummosum Platen emend. Süss u. Müller-Stoll aus dem Yellowstone Nationalpark und sein Parasit Palaeophytobia prunorum sp. nov. nebst Bemerkungen über Markflecke, p. 343364. In Vent, W. (ed.), 100 Jahre Arboretum Berlin (1879-1979). Akademie Verlag, Berlin.
Süss, H. and Müller-Stoll, W.R. 1982. Ein Rosaceen-Holz, Pruninium kraeuseli (E. Schönfeld) comb. nov. aus dem miozänen Ton von Lauterbach. Zeitschrift für Geologische Wissenschaften, 10:15531563.
Süss, H. and Velitzelos, E. 2001. Lebensspuren holzzerstörender Organismen an fossilen Hölzern aus dem Tertiär der Insel Lesbos, Griechenland. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche Reihe, 4:5769.
Von Heyden, C. 1862. Gliederthiere aus der Braunkohle des Niederrheins, der Wetterau und der Röhn. Palaeontographica, 10:6282.
Von Tschirnhaus, M. and Hoffeins, C. 2009. Fossil flies in Baltic amber – insights in the diversity of Tertiary Acalyptratae (Diptera, Schizophora), with new morphological characters and a key based on 1,000 collected inclusions. Denisia, 26:171212.
Wappler, T., Currano, E. D., Wilf, P., Rust, J., and Labandeira, C. C. 2009. No post-Cretaceous ecosystem depression in European forests? Rich insect-feeding damage on diverse middle Palaeocene plants, Menat, France. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 276:42714277.
Wiegmann, B. M., Yeates, D. K., Thorne, J. L., and Kishino, H.Time flies, a new molecular time-scale for brachyceran fly evolution without a clock. Systematic Biology, 52:745756.
Wilde, V. 1989. Untersuchungen zur Systematik der Blattreste aus dem Mitteleozän der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt (Hessen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 115:1213.
Wilf, P. and Labandeira, C. C. 1999. Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene-Eocene warming. Science, 284:21532156.
Wilf, P., Labandeira, C. C., Johnson, K. R., and Ellis, B. 2006. Decoupled plant and insect diversity after the end-Cretaceous extinction. Science, 313:11121115.
Wilf, P., Labandeira, C. C., Kress, W. J., Staines, C. L., Windsor, D. M., Allen, A. L., and Johnson, K. R. 2000. Timing the radiations of leaf beetles: hispines on gingers from the latest Cretaceous to Recent. Science, 289:291294.
Williams, B. L. 1988. Megafloral relationships within a Paleocene river system, southeastern Montana. , , .
Windsor, D., Ness, J., Gomez, L. D., and Jolivet, P. H. 1999. Species of Aulacoscelis Duponchel and Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae) and Nomotus Gorham (Languriidae) feed on fronds of Central American cycads. Coleoperists Bulletin, 53:217231.
Wing, S. L., Hickey, L. J., and Swisher, C. C. 1993. Implications of an exceptional fossil flora for Late Cretaceous vegetation. Nature, 363:342344.
Winkler, I. S. and Mitter, C. 2008. The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence, p. 240263. In Tilmon, K. J. (ed.), Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: the Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Winkler, I. S., Scheffer, S. J., and Mitter, C. 2009a. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae): delimitation of Phytomyza Fallén sensu lato and included species groups, with new insights on morphological and host-use evolution. Systematic Entomology, 34:260292.
Winkler, I. S., Mitter, C., and Scheffer, S. J. 2009b. Repeated climate-linked host shifts have promoted diversification in a temperate clade of leaf-mining flies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 106:1810318108.
Winkler, I. S., Rung, A., and Scheffer, S. J. 2010. Hennig's orphans revisited: testing morphological hypotheses in the “Opomyzoidea.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54:746762.
Wolfe, J. A. and Wehr, W. C. 1987. Middle Eocene dicotyledonous plants from Republic, northeastern Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1597:125.
Ylioja, T., Saranpää, P., Roininen, H., and Rousi, M. 1998. Larval tunnels of Phytobia betulae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in birch wood. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91:175181.
Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils, p. 303324. In Rasnitsyn, A. P. and Quicke, D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Zlobin, V. V. 2007. The cyclorrhaphous Diptera limestone of the Isle of Wight. International Journal of Dipterological Research, 18:129136.
Zoebisch, T. G. and Schuster, D. J. 1987. Longevity and fecundity of Liriomyzia trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) exposed to tomato foliage and honeydew in the laboratory. Environmental Entomology, 16:10011003.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed