Genise, Jorge Fernando 2017. Ichnoentomology.
Genise, Jorge F. Bedatou, Emilio Bellosi, Eduardo S. Sarzetti, Laura C. Sánchez, M. Victoria and Krause, J. Marcelo 2016. The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events.
Haug, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin and Garwood, Russell J. 2016. Evolution of insect wings and development - new details from Palaeozoic nymphs. Biological Reviews, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 53.
Minter, Nicholas J. Buatois, Luis A. Mángano, M. Gabriela Davies, Neil S. Gibling, Martin R. and Labandeira, Conrad 2016. The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events.
Ponomarenko, A. G. 2016. New beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) from the Lower Triassic of European Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 286.
Wolfe, Joanna M. Daley, Allison C. Legg, David A. and Edgecombe, Gregory D. 2016. Fossil calibrations for the arthropod Tree of Life. Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 160, p. 43.
Nagler, Christina and Haug, Joachim T. 2015. Fossil Parasites.
Reisz, R. R. LeBlanc, Aaron R. H. Sidor, Christian A. Scott, Diane and May, William 2015. A new captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma showing remarkable dental and mandibular convergence with microsaurian tetrapods. The Science of Nature, Vol. 102, Issue. 9-10,
Smith, D. M. and Marcot, J. D. 2015. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 282, Issue. 1805, p. 20150060.
Garwood, Russell J. Sharma, Prashant P. Dunlop, Jason A. and Giribet, Gonzalo 2014. A Paleozoic Stem Group to Mite Harvestmen Revealed through Integration of Phylogenetics and Development. Current Biology, Vol. 24, Issue. 9, p. 1017.
Kirejtshuk, Alexander G. Poschmann, Markus Prokop, Jakub Garrouste, Romain and Nel, André 2014. Evolution of the elytral venation and structural adaptations in the oldest Palaeozoic beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tshekardocoleidae). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol. 12, Issue. 5, p. 575.
Sharma, Prashant P and Wheeler, Ward C 2014. Cross-bracing uncalibrated nodes in molecular dating improves congruence of fossil and molecular age estimates. Frontiers in Zoology, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,
Aristov, D. S. Bashkuev, A. S. Golubev, V. K. Gorochov, A. V. Karasev, E. V. Kopylov, D. S. Ponomarenko, A. G. Rasnitsyn, A. P. Rasnitsyn, D. A. Sinitshenkova, N. D. Sukatsheva, I. D. and Vassilenko, D. V. 2013. Fossil insects of the middle and upper Permian of European Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol. 47, Issue. 7, p. 641.
Lucas, Spencer G. Voigt, Sebastian Lerner, Allan J. and Rainforth, Emma C. 2013. Sphaerapus, A Poorly Known Invertebrate Trace Fossil From Nonmarine Permian and Jurassic Strata of North America. Ichnos, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 142.
Chatzimanolis, Stylianos Grimaldi, David A. Engel, Michael S. and Fraser, Nicholas C. 2012. Leehermania prorova, the Earliest Staphyliniform Beetle, from the Late Triassic of Virginia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). American Museum Novitates, Vol. 3761, Issue. 3761, p. 1.
KUKALOVA-PECK, Jarmila and BEUTEL, Rolf G. 2012. Is the Carboniferous a€ Adiphlebia lacoana really the "oldest beetle"? Critical reassessment and description of a new Permian beetle family. European Journal of Entomology, Vol. 109, Issue. 4, p. 633.
2012. Evolution of Fossil Ecosystems.
Béthoux, Olivier Cui, Yingying Kondratieff, Boris Stark, Bill and Ren, Dong 2011. At last, a Pennsylvanian stem-stonefly (Plecoptera) discovered. BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,
Labandeira, Conrad C. 2011. Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages. Entomologica Americana, Vol. 117, Issue. 1 & 2, p. 9.
Lucas, Spencer G. Voigt, Sebastian Lerner, Allan J and Nelson, W. John 2011. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 308, Issue. 3-4, p. 395.
Holometabolan insects, including beetles (Coleoptera), represent about half of all living organisms. Their development cycle, allowing larvae and adults to exploit distinct ecological niches, is traditionally advocated as a critical adaptation resulting in this extraordinary diversity. Herein I report the occurrence of a beetle from the Pennsylvanian deposit of Mazon Creek (IL, USA). It predates the diversification of Coleoptera by at least 65 million years. This identification supports the view that, early in their history, hyper-diverse extant holometabolan lineages were dominated by Palaeozoic lineages, mostly extinct. End-Permian environmental perturbations might have played an important role in the Triassic radiation of holometabolans. However, it is hypothesized that ecological preferences of holometabolans might have resulted in an earlier diversification of moderate importance, correlating to that of seed plants, their putative host plants. The evolutionary success of ‘holometaboly’ might be the result of a sequence of favorable events.
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