Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The earliest beetle identified

  • Olivier Béthoux (a1)
Abstract

Holometabolan insects, including beetles (Coleoptera), represent about half of all living organisms. Their development cycle, allowing larvae and adults to exploit distinct ecological niches, is traditionally advocated as a critical adaptation resulting in this extraordinary diversity. Herein I report the occurrence of a beetle from the Pennsylvanian deposit of Mazon Creek (IL, USA). It predates the diversification of Coleoptera by at least 65 million years. This identification supports the view that, early in their history, hyper-diverse extant holometabolan lineages were dominated by Palaeozoic lineages, mostly extinct. End-Permian environmental perturbations might have played an important role in the Triassic radiation of holometabolans. However, it is hypothesized that ecological preferences of holometabolans might have resulted in an earlier diversification of moderate importance, correlating to that of seed plants, their putative host plants. The evolutionary success of ‘holometaboly’ might be the result of a sequence of favorable events.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Beckemeyer R. J. and Hall J. D. 2007. The entomofauna of the Lower Permian fossil insect beds of Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. African Invertebrates, 48:2339.
Belayeva N. V., Blagoderov V. A., Dmitriev V. Y., Eskov K. Y., Gorochov A. V., Ivanov V. D., Kluge N. Y., Kozlov M. V., Lukashevich E. D., Mostovski M. B., Novokshonov V. G., Ponomarenko A. G., Popov Y. A., Pritykina L. N., Rasnitsyn A. P., Shcherbakov D. E., Sinitshenkova N. D., Storozhenko S. Y., Sukatsheva I. D., Vishniakova V. N., Vrš anský P., and Zherikhin V. V. 2002. History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 517 p.
Béthoux O. 2003. Protophasma dumasii Brongniart, 1879, a link between Orthoptera and the ‘dictyopterid’ orders? Journal of Orthoptera Research, 12:5762.
Béthoux O. 2005a. Cnemidolestodea (Insecta): an ancient order reinstated. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 3:403408.
Béthoux O. 2005b. Reassigned and new basal Archaeorthoptera from the Upper Carboniferous of Mazon Creek (IL, USA). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 14:121126.
Béthoux O. 2005c. Wing venation pattern of Plecoptera (Neoptera). Illiesia, 1:5281.
Béthoux O. 2006. Revision of Cacurgus Handlirsch, 1911, a basal Pennsylvanian Archaeorthoptera (Insecta: Neoptera). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 47:2935.
Béthoux O. 2008. Groundplan, nomenclature, homology, phylogeny, and the question of the insect wing venation pattern. Alavesia, 2:219232.
Béthoux O., Beattie R. G., and Nel A. 2007a. Wing venation and relationships of the order Glosselytrodea (Insecta). Alcheringa, 31:285296.
Béthoux O. and Briggs D. E. G. 2008. How Gerarus lost its head: stem-group Orthoptera and Paraneoptera revisited. Systematic Entomology, 33:529547.
Béthoux O., Nel A., and Lapeyrie J. 2004. The extinct order Caloneurodea (Insecta, Pterygota, Panorthoptera): wing venation, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships. Annales Zoologici, 54:289318.
Béthoux O., Nel A., Schneider J. W., and Gand G. 2007b. Lodetiella magnifica nov. gen. and nov. sp. (Insecta: Palaeodictyoptera; Permian), an extreme situation in wing morphology of palaeopterous insects. Geobios, 40:181189.
Blagoderov V. A., Grimaldi D., and Fraser N. C. 2007. How time flies for flies: diverse Diptera from the Triassic of Virginia and early radiation of the order. American Museum Novitates, 3572:139.
Bolton H. 1922. A monograph of the fossil insects of the British Coal Measures. Part II. Palaeontographical Society, 74:81156.
Brongniart C. 1885. Les Insectes fossiles des terrains primaires. Coup d'oeil rapide sur la faune entomologique des terrains paléozoïques. Bulletin de la Société des Amis des Sciences naturelles de Rouen, 1885:5068.
Burnham L. 1994. The Stephanian (Late Carboniferous) insects of the basin of Montceau-les-Mines (Massif Central, France), p. 187200. In Heyler D. and Poplin C. (eds.), Quand le Massif central était sous l'équateur. Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, Paris.
Carpenter F. M. 1966. The Lower Permian insects of Kansas. Part 11: The orders Protorthoptera and Orthoptera. Psyche, 73:4688.
Carpenter F. M. 1987. Review of the extinct family Syntonopteridae (order uncertain). Psyche, 94:373388.
Carpenter F. M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda, p. xxii+655. In Kaesler R. L. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Vol. 4. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas, Boulder.
Carpenter F. M. 1997. Insecta, p. 184193. In Shabica C. W. and Hay A. A. (eds.), Richardson's Guide to The Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago.
Danilevsky A. S., Goryshin N. I., and Tysihchenko V. P. 1970. Biological rhythms in terrestrial arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology, 15:201244.
Delclòs X., Nel A., Azar D., Bechly G., Dunlop J. A., Engel M. S., and Heads S. W. 2008. The enigmatic Mesozoic insect taxon Chresmodidae (Polyneoptera): New palaeobiological and phylogenetic data, with the description of a new species from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Neue Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaeontologie, Abhandlungen, 247:353381.
Dimichele W. A., Pfefferkorn H. W., and Gastaldo R. A. 2001. Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian plant communities to climate change. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29:461487.
Dmitriev V. Y. and Ponomarenko A. G. 2002. 3.1. Dynamics of insect taxonomic diversity, p. 325330. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Farrell B. D. 1998. “Inordinate fondness” explained: why are there so many beetles. Science, 281:555558.
Grimaldi D. and Engel M. S. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, 755 p.
Handlirsch A. 1906a. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Wilhelm Engelmann, Berlin, 1430 p.
Handlirsch A. 1906b. Revision of American Paleozoic insects. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 29:661820.
Heller K. M. 1913. Ein neuer Cupedidae. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 32:235237.
Jarzembowski E. A. and Ross A. J. 1996. Insect origination and extinction in the Phanerozoic, p. 6578. In Hart M. B. (ed.), Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction Events. Volume 102. Geological Society Special Publication, London.
Knoll A. H. and Carroll S. B. 1999. Early animal evolution: emerging views from comparative biology and geology. Science, 284:21292137.
Kristensen N. P. 1999. Phylogeny of endopterygote insects, the most successful lineage of living organisms. European Journal of Entomology, 96:237253.
Krzeminski W. and Krzeminska E. 2003. Triassic Diptera: descriptions, revisions and phylogenetic relations. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 46 (suppl. - Fossil Insects): 153184.
Kukalová-Peck J. 1991. Fossil History and the Evolution of Hexapod Structures, p. 141179. In Naumann I. D., Crane P. B., Lawrence J. F., Nielsen E. S., Spradbery J. P., Taylor R. W., Whitten M. J., and Littlejohn M. J. (eds.), The Insects of Australia, a textbook for students and researchers. Vol. 1. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Kukalová-Peck J. 1997. Mazon Creek insect fossils: the origin of insect wings and clues about the origin of insect metamorphosis, p. 194207. In Shabica C. W. and Hay A. A. (eds.), Richardson's Guide to The Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago.
Kukalová-Peck J. and Lawrence J. F. 2004. Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: evidence from hind wing characters. European Journal of Entomology, 101:95144.
Kukalová J. 1969. On the systematic position of the supposed Permian beetles, Tshecardocoleidae, with a description of a new collection from Moravia. Sbornik Geologickych Ved, Paleontologie, 11:139162.
Labandeira C. C. 2006. Silurian to Triassic plant and hexapod clades and their associations: new data, a review, and interpretations. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 64:5394.
Labandeira C. C. and Phillips T. L. 1996. A Carboniferous insect gall: Insight into early ecologic history of the Holometabola. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93:1227812282.
Labandeira C. C. and Phillips T. L. 2002. Stem boring and petiole galls from Pennsylvanian tree ferns of Illinois, USA: implications for the origin of the borer and galler functional-feeding-groups and Holometabolous insects. Palaeontographica Abteilung A, 264:184.
Labandeira C. C. and Sepkoski J. J. 1993. Insect diversity in the fossil record. Science, 261:310315.
Lameere A. 1922. Sur la nervation alaire des Insectes. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, 8:138149.
Lameere A. 1923. On the wing-venation of insects. Psyche, 30:123132.
Lesnikowska A. D. 1990. Evidence of herbivory in tree-fern petioles from the Calhoun Coal (Upper Pennsylvanian) of Illinois. Palaios, 5:7680.
Lubkin S. H. and Engel M. S. 2005. Permocoleus, new genus, the first Permian beetle (Coleoptera) from North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 98:7376.
McElwain J. C. and Punyasena S. W. 2007. Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22:548557.
Needham J. G. and Claassen P. W. 1925. A monograph of the Plecoptera or Stoneflies of America North to Mexico. Thomas Say Foundation, LaFayette, 397 p.
Nel A., Rocques P., Nel P., Prokop J., and Steyer J. S. 2007. The earliest holometabolous insect from the Carboniferous: a “crucial” innovation with delayed success (Insecta Protomeropina Protomeropidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.), 43:349355.
Niklas K. J., Tiffney B. H., and Knoll A. H. 1985. Patterns in vascular plant diversification: an analysis at the species level, p. 97128. In Valentine J. W. (ed.), Phanerozoic diversity patterns. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Papier F., Nel A., Grauvogel-Stamm L., and Gall J. C. 2005. La diversité des Coleoptera du Trias dans le Nord-Est de la France. Geodiversitas, 27:181199.
Parkinson . 1798. Description of the Phasma dilatatum . Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 4:190192.
Pfefferkorn H. W. 1979. High diversity and stratigraphic age the Mazon Creek flora, p. 129142. In Nitecki M. H. (ed.), Mazon Creek fossils. Academic Press, New York.
Ponomarenko A. G. 1969. Istoricheskoe razvitie Zhestkokrylykh-Arkhostemat [Historical development of the Coleoptera- Archostemata]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 125:1240.
Ponomarenko A. G. 2002. 2.2.1.3.2. Superorder Scarabaeida Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles, p. 164176. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quick K. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Queiroz A de. 2002. Contingent predictability in evolution: key traits and diversification. Systematic Biology, 51:917929.
Rasnitsyn A. P. 2002a. 2.2.1.1. Cohors Libelluliformes Laicharting, 1781 (=Subulocornes Latreille, 1807, =Hydropalaeoptera Rohdendorf, 1968), p. 8589. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Rasnitsyn A. P. 2002b. 2.2.1.3.3.4. Order Jurinida M. Zalessky, 1928 (=Glosselytrodea Martynov, 1938), p. 189192. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Rasnitsyn A. P. 2002c. 2.2.1.3. Cohors Scarabaeiformes Laicharting, 1781. The holometabolans (=Holometabola Burmeister, 1835, =Endopterygota Sharp, 1899, =Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1938), p. 157164. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Ren D. 1997. First record of fossil stick-insects from China with analyses of some palaeobiological features (Phasmatodea: Hagiphasmatidae fam. nov.). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 22:268282.
Riek E. F. and Kukalová-Peck J. 1984. A new interpretation of dragonfly wing venation based upon Early Upper Carboniferous fossils from Argentina (Insecta, Odonatoidea) and basic character states in pterygota wings. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62:11501166.
Roscher M. and Schneider J. W. 2006. Permo-Carboniferous climate: Early Pennsylvannian to Late Permian climate development of central Europe in a regional and global context, p. 95136. In Lucas S. G., Cassinis G., and Schneider J. W. (eds.), Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology. Volume 265. Geological Society, Special Publications, London.
Ross E. A. 2000. Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Part 1. Origin, relationships and integumental anatomy of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 149:136.
Scudder S. H. 1885. Palaeodictyoptera: on the affinities and classification of Paleozoic Hexapoda. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 3:319351.
Sharov A. G. 1968. Filogeniya orthopteroidnykh nasekomykh. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 118:1216.
Sharov A. G. 1971. Phylogeny of the Orthopteroidea. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, vi + 251 p.
Shcherbakov D. E., Lukashevich E. D., and Blagoderov V. A. 1995. Triassic Diptera and initial radiation of the order. International Journal of Dipterological Research, 6:75115.
Storozhenko S. Y. 2002. 2.2.2.2.1. Order Grylloblattida Walker, 1914 (=Notoptera, Crampton, 1915, =Grylloblattodea Brues et Melander, 1932, +Protorthoptera Handlirsch, 1906, =Paraplecoptera Martynov, 1925, +Protoperlaria Tillyard, 1928), p. 278281. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Truman J. W. and Riddiford L. M. 1999. The origins of insect metamorphosis. Nature, 401:447452.
Vršanský P., Vishniakova V. N., and Rasnitsyn A. P. 2002. 2.2.2.1.1. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882), p. 263270. In Rasnitsyn A. P. and Quicke D. L. J. (eds.), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Whiting M. F. 2004. Phylogeny of the Holometabolous Insects. The most successful group of terrestrial organisms, p. 345364. In Cracraft J. and Donoghue M. (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Willmann R. 1997. Advances and problems in insect phylogeny, p. 269279. In Fortey R. A. and Thomas R. H. (eds.), Arthropod Relationships. Chapman and Hall, London.
Willmann R. 1999. The Upper Carboniferous Lithoneura lameeri (Insecta, Ephemeroptera?). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 73:289302.
Yang A. S. 2001. Modularity, evolvability, and adaptative radiations: a comparison of the hemi- and holometabolous insects. Evolution and Development, 3:5972.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 164 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.