Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Hadrosaurian dinosaurs from the Maastrichtian Javelina Formation, Big Bend National Park, Texas

  • Thomas M. Lehman (a1), Steven L. Wick (a2) and Jonathan R. Wagner (a3)

Rare remains of hadrosaurian dinosaurs previously reported from the Maastrichtian Javelina Formation of West Texas had been attributed tentatively to either Edmontosaurus or Kritosaurus. Three recently recovered specimens include substantial skull parts and postcranial skeletal elements sufficient to recognize three distinct hadrosaurs. Two species are found in the lower part of the Javelina Formation; one of these is identified as Kritosaurus sp., confirming the earlier referral of specimens to this taxon. The most complete of these specimens combines features thought to be diagnostic of both K. navajovius Brown, 1910 and ‘Naashoibitosaurusostromi Hunt and Lucas, 1993 and exhibits some unique attributes such that its specific identity remains uncertain. A second species, documented by a single specimen found near the base of the Javelina Formation, is inadequate to confidently identify but appears to represent a ‘solid-crested’ saurolophine with frontals having upturned processes along the midline, similar to those that brace the posterior side of the narial crest in Saurolophus. A third hadrosaur is represented at a bonebed in the uppermost part of the Javelina Formation. Its remains are sufficient to justify designation as a new species ?Gryposaurus alsatei. The skull roof elements are similar to those in species of Gryposaurus, and although no parts of the narial crest are preserved, the bordering elements indicate that ?G. alsatei was a ‘flat-headed’ saurolophine. Referral of ?G. alsatei to Gryposaurus would constitute a significant temporal range extension for the genus into late Maastrichtian time, and if correct, this long-lived lineage of hadrosaurs persisted nearly to the end of Cretaceous time in West Texas. ?G. alsatei was a contemporary of Edmontosaurus, the sole terminal Cretaceous hadrosaur in the northern Great Plains region, and neither possessed the ornate narial crest that characterized many earlier hadrosaurs.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B.G. Anderson , S.G. Lucas , R.E. Barrick , A.B. Heckert , and G.T Basabilvaso . 1998, Dinosaur skin impressions and associated skeletal remains from the Upper Cretaceous of southwestern New Mexico: new data on the integuement morphology of hadrosaurs: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 18, p. 739745.

P.R. Bell , 2011, Redescription of the skull of Saurolophus osborni Brown 1912 (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae): Cretaceous Research, v. 32, p. 3044.

P.R. Bell , 2012, Standardized terminology and potential taxonomic utility for hadrosaurid skin impressions: a case study for Saurolophus from Canada and Mongolia: PLoS ONE, v. 7, e31295.

Y. L. Bolotsky , and P. Godefroit , 2004, A new hadrosaurine dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of far eastern Russia: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 24, p. 354368.

N.E. Campione , and D.C. Evans , 2011, Cranial growth and variation in edmontosaurs (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae): implications for latest Cretaceous megaherbivore diversity in North America: PLoS ONE, v. 6, e25186.

E.D. Cope , 1870, Synopsis of the extinct Batracia, Reptilia, and Aves of North America: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, v. 14, p. 1252.

R. Difley , and A.A. Ekdale , 2002, Faunal implications of an environmental change before the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in central Utah: Cretaceous Research, v. 23, p. 315331.

D.A. Eberth , R.R. Rogers , and A.R. Fiorillo , 2007, A practical approach to the study of bonebeds, in Rogers, R.R., Eberth, D.A., and Fiorillo, A.R., eds., Bonebeds: Genesis, Analysis, and Paleobiological Significance, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, p. 265331.

D.A. Eberth , D.C. Evans , D.B. Brinkman , F. Therrien , D.H. Tanke , and L.S. Russell. , 2013, Dinosaur biostratigraphy of the Edmonton Group (Upper Cretaceous), Alberta, Canada: evidence for climate influence: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 50, p. 701726.

D.C. Evans , R.R. Reisz , and K. Dupuis , 2007, A juvenile Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae) braincase from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, with comments on crest ontogeny in the genus: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 27, p. 642650.

T.A. Gates , and S.D. Sampson , 2007, A new species of Gryposaurus (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation, southern Utah, USA: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 151, p. 351376.

T.A. Gates , J.R. Horner , R.R. Hanna , and C.R. Nelson , 2011, New unadorned hadrosaurine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) from the Campanian of North America: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 31, p. 798811.

T.A. Gates , A. Prieto-Márquez , and L.E. Zanno , 2012, Mountain building triggered Late Cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation: PLoS One, v. 7, e42135.

P. Godefroit , H. Shulin , Y. Tingxiang , and P. Lauters , 2008, New hadrosaurid dinosaurs from the uppermost Cretaceous of northeastern China: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 53, p. 4774.

J.R. Horner , 1988, A new hadrosaur (Reptilia, Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation of Montana: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 8, p. 314321.

T.M. Lehman , 1987, Late Maastrichtian paleoenvironments and dinosaur biogeography in the western interior of North America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 60, p. 189217.

T.M. Lehman , and A.B. Coulson , 2002, A juvenile specimen of the sauropod dinosaur Alamosaurus sanjuanensis from the Upper Cretaceous of Big Bend National Park, Texas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 156172.

T.M. Lehman , F.W. McDowell , and J.N. Connelly , 2006, First isotopic (U-Pb) age for the Late Cretaceous Alamosaurus vertebrate fauna of West Texas, and its significance as a link between two faunal provinces: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, p. 922928.

A. Prieto-Márquez , 2005, New information on the cranium of Brachylophosaurus canadensis (Dinosauria, Hadrosauridae), with a revision of its phylogenetic position: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 25, p. 144156.

A. Prieto-Márquez , 2010a, The braincase and skull roof of Gryposaurus notabilis (Dinosauria, Hadrosauridae), with a taxonomic revision of the genus: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 30, p. 838854.

A. Prieto-Márquez , 2010b, Global phylogeny of Hadrosauridae (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) using parsimony and Bayesian methods: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 159, p. 435502.

A. Prieto-Márquez , 2012, The skull and appendicular skeleton of Gryposaurus latidens, a saurolophine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda), from the early Campanian (Cretaceous) of Montana, USA: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 49, p. 510532.

A. Prieto-Márquez , 2014, Skeletal morphology of Kritosaurus navajovius (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of the North American south-west, with an evaluation of the phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of Kritosaurini: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, v. 12, p. 133175.

A. Prieto-Márquez , and G.C. Salinas , 2010, A re-evaluation of Secernosaurus koerneri and Kritosaurus australis (Dinosauria, Hadrosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 30, p. 813837.

A. Prieto-Márquez , and C.I. Serrano Brañas , 2012, Latirhinus uitstlani, a ‘broad-nosed’ saurolophine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) from the late Campanian (Cretaceous) of northern Mexico: Historical Biology, v. 24, p. 607619.

A. Prieto-Márquez , L.M. Chiappe , and S.H. Joshi , 2012, The lambeosaurine dinosaur Magnapaulia laticaudus from the Late Cretaceous of Baja California, northwestern Mexico: PLoS ONE, v. 7, e38207.

A. Prieto-Márquez , J.R. Wagner , P.R. Bell , and L.M. Chiappe , 2014, The late-surviving ‘duck-billed’ dinosaur Augustynolophus from the upper Maastrichtian of western North America and crest evolution in Saurolophini: Geological Magazine, v. 152, p. 225241.

H.G. Seeley , 1887, On the classification of the fossil animals commonly named Dinosauria: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, v. 43, p. 165171.

M.J. Vavrek , and H.C. Larsson , 2010, Low beta diversity of Maastrichtian dinosaurs of North America: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 107, p. 82658268.

S.L. Wick , and T.M. Lehman , 2013, A new ceratopsian dinosaur from the Javelina Formation of West Texas and implications for chasmosaurine phylogeny: Naturwissenschaften, v. 100, p. 667682.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 20 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 536 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.