Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Miocene rhinoceroses from the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain

  • Donald R. Prothero (a1) and Earl M. Manning (a2)
Abstract

Four species of rhinoceros occur together in the Barstovian (middle Miocene) faunas of southeast Texas, a unique situation in the Miocene of North America. Two are assigned to normal contemporary High Plains species of Aphelops and Teleoceras, and two to dwarf species of Peraceras and Teleoceras. The dwarf Peraceras is a new species, P. hessei. The dwarf Teleoceras is assigned to Leidy's (1865) species “Rhinocerosmeridianus, previously referred to Aphelops. “Aphelopsprofectus is here reassigned to Peraceras.

The late Arikareean (early Miocene) Derrick Farm rhino, erroneously referred to “Caenopus premitis” by Wood and Wood (1937), is here referred to Menoceras arikarense. Menoceras barbouri is reported from the early Hemingfordian (early Miocene) Garvin Gully local fauna of southeast Texas. The rhinos from the early Clarendonian Lapara Creek Fauna are tentatively referred to Teleoceras cf. major.

The three common genera of middle late Miocene rhinoceroses of North America (Aphelops, Peraceras, Teleoceras) are rediagnosed. Aphelops and Peraceras are more closely related to the Eurasian Aceratherium and Chilotherium (all four together forming the Aceratheriinae) than they are to the American Teleoceras. Contrary to Heissig (1973), Teleoceras is more closely related to the living rhinoceroses and their kin (together forming the Rhinocerotini) than it is to the Aceratheriinae.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Archer, M. 1975. Abnormal dental development and its significance in dasyurids and other marsupials. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 17:251265.
Barbour, E. H. 1906. Notice of a new fossil rhinoceros from Sioux County, Nebraska: Diceratherium arikarense. Publication of the Nebraska Geological Survey, ser. 1, 2:313318.
Butler, P. M. 1967. Dental merism and tooth development. Journal of Dental Research, 46:845850.
Cope, E. D. 1873. On some new extinct Mammalia from the Tertiary of the Plains. Palaeontological Bulletin, 14:12.
Cope, E. D. 1874. Report on the stratigraphy and Pliocene vertebrate paleontology of northern Colorado. U.S. Geological and Geographic Survey of the Territories, Bulletin, 14:928.
Cope, E. D. 1875. Report on the geology of that part of northwestern New Mexico examined during the field season of 1874. Annual Report upon the Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Appendix LL:9811017.
Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Report of the U.S. Geological Survey West of the 100th Meridian, 4(2):1370.
Cope, E. D. 1880. A new genus of rhinoceros. American Naturalist, 14:540.
Dalquest, W. W. and Hughes, J. T. 1966. A new mammalian local fauna from the lower Pliocene of Texas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 69:7987.
Deussen, A. 1924. Geology of the Coastal Plain of Texas west of the Brazos River. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 126, 145 p.
Frick, C. 1937. Horned ruminants of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 69:1669.
Galbreath, E. C. 1953. A contribution to the Tertiary geology and paleontology of northeastern Colorado. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 4:1120.
Harrison, J. A. and Manning, E. M. 1983. Extreme carpal variability in Teleoceras (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 3:5864.
Hatcher, J. B. 1894. A median horned rhinoceros from the Loup Fork beds of Nebraska. American Geologist, 13:149150.
Hay, O. P. 1902. Bibliography and catalog of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 179, 868 p.
Heissig, K. 1973. Die Unterfamilien und Tribus der rezenten und fossilien Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia). Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen, München, 21(1):2530.
Hesse, C. J. 1943. A preliminary report on the Miocene vertebrate faunas of southeast Texas. Proceedings of the Texas Academy of Science, 26:157179.
Hunt, R. M. 1972. Miocene amphicyonids (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Agate Spring Quarries, Sioux County, Nebraska. American Museum Novitates, 2506:139.
Jepsen, G. L. 1966. Early Eocene bat from Wyoming. Science, 154(3754):13331339.
Laurie, A. 1982. Behavioural ecology of the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Journal of Zoology, 196:307341.
Leidy, J. 1865. On the species of Rhinoceros. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1865, p. 94.
Leidy, J. 1869. On the extinct Mammalia of Dakota and Nebraska, including an account of some allied forms from other localities, together with a synopsis of the mammalian remains of North America. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 7:1472.
Lucas, S. G., Schoch, R. M. and Manning, E. 1981. The systematics of Forstercooperia, a middle to late Eocene hyracodontid (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotoidea) from Asia and western North America. Journal of Paleontology, 55:826841.
MacFadden, B. J. and Skinner, M. F. 1977. Earliest known Hipparion from Holarctica. Nature, 265:532533
MacFadden, B. J. and Skinner, M. F. 1981. Earliest Holarctic hipparion, Cormohipparion goorisi n. sp. (Mammalia, Equidae), from the Barstovian (medial Miocene) Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Journal of Paleontology, 55:619627
Matthew, W. D. 1899. A provisional classification of the fresh-water Tertiary of the West. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 12:1975.
Matthew, W. D. 1901. Fossil mammals of the Tertiary of northeastern Colorado. Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, 1(7):355447.
Matthew, W. D. 1931. Critical observations on the phylogeny of the rhinoceroses. University of California Publications in Geological Science, 20:19.
Matthew, W. D. 1932. A review of the rhinoceroses with a description of Aphelops material from the Pliocene of Texas. University of California Publications in Geological Science, 20:411480.
McBride, E. F., Lindemann, W. L. and Freeman, P. S. 1968. Lithology and petrology of the Gueydan (Catahoula) Formation in south Texas. University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations, 63:1122.
Osborn, H. F. 1900. Phylogeny of the rhinoceroses of Europe. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 13:229267.
Osborn, H. F. 1904. New Miocene rhinoceroses with revision of known species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 20:307326.
Patton, T. H. 1969. Miocene and Pliocene artiodactyls, Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Science, 14:115226.
Patton, T. H. and Taylor, B. E. 1971. The Synthetoceratinae (Mammalia, Tylopoda, Protoceratidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 145:119218.
Patton, T. H. and Taylor, B. E. 1973. The Protoceratinae (Mammalia, Tylopoda, Protoceratidae) and the systematics of the Protoceratidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 150:347414.
Pavlow, M. 1892. Etudes sur l'histoire paléontologique des ongules. VI. Les Rhinoceridae de la Russie et le développement des Rhinoceridae en général. Bulletin de Société des Naturalistes de Moscou, 6:137221.
Peterson, O. A. 1906. Preliminary description of two new species of the genus Diceratherium Marsh, from the Agate Spring Fossil Quarry. Science, new ser. 24(609):281283.
Peterson, O. A. 1920. The American diceratheres. Memoir of the Carnegie Museum, 7:399476.
Prothero, D. R., Manning, E. and Hanson, C. B. 1986. The phylogeny of the Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 87:341366.
Prothero, D. R., and Rensberger, J. M. 1985. Preliminary magnetostratigraphy of the John Day Formation, Oregon, and the North American Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Newsletter of Stratigraphy, 15:5970.
Prothero, D. R., and Sereno, P. C. 1980. Allometry and paleoecology of medial Miocene dwarf rhinoceroses from the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 12(7):504.
Prothero, D. R., and Sereno, P. C. 1982. Allometry and paleoecology of medial Miocene dwarf rhinoceroses from the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Paleobiology, 8:1630.
Quinn, J. H. 1955. Miocene Equidae of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, Publication 5516:590.
Rose, K. D. and Smith, B. H. 1979. Dental anomaly in the early Eocene condylarth Ectocion. Journal of Paleontology, 53:756760.
Schultz, C. B. and Falkenbach, C. H. 1941. Ticholeptinae, a new subfamily of oreodonts. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 79:1105.
Skinner, M. F. and MacFadden, B. J. 1977. Cormohipparion n. gen. (Mammalia, Equidae) from the North American Miocene (Barstovian–Clarendonian). Journal of Paleontology, 51:912926.
Stock, C. and Furlong, E. L. 1926. New canid and rhinocerotid remains from the Ricardo Pliocene of the Mohave Desert, California. University of California Publications in Geological Science, 16:4360.
Tanner, L. G. 1969. A new rhinoceros from the Nebraska Miocene. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum, 8(6):395412.
Tanner, L. G. 1972. A new species of Menoceras from the Marsland Formation of Nebraska. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum, 9(8):205213.
Tanner, L. G. 1976. A new species of Peraceras from the Lower Pliocene of Boyd County, Nebraska. Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 86:50.
Tanner, L. G. 1977. A new species of Diceratherium from the Lower Pliocene (Valentinian) of Boyd County, Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 4:121128
Taylor, B. E. and Webb, S. D. 1976. Miocene Leptomerycidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and their relationships. American Museum Novitates, 2596:122.
Taylor, R. M. S. 1982. Aberrant maxillary third molars, morphology and developmental relations, p. 6474. In Kurten, B. (ed.), Teeth: Form, Function, and Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.
Tedford, R. H. 1970. Principles and practice of mammalian geochronology in North America. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, Pt. F, p. 666703.
Tedford, R. H. et al. 1987. Faunal succession and biochronology of the Arikareean through Hemphillian interval (late Oligocene through late Miocene epochs), North America. In Woodburne, M. O. (ed.), Cenozoic Mammals: Their Temporal Record, Biostratigraphy, and Bio-chronology. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Troxell, E. L. 1921. A study of Diceratherium and the diceratheres. American Journal of Science, 202(10):197208.
Wahlert, J. H. 1976. Jimomys labaughi, a new geomyid rodent from the early Barstovian of North America. American Museum Novitates, 2591:16.
Weeks, A. W. 1933. Lissie, Reynosa, and Upland Terrace deposits of Coastal Plain of Texas between Brazos River and Rio Grande. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 17:453487.
Wilson, J. A. 1956. Miocene formations and vertebrate biostratigraphic units, Texas Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 40:22332246.
Wood, H. E. II. 1964. Rhinoceroses from the Thomas Farm Miocene of Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 130:361386.
Wood, H. E. II. and Wood, A. E. 1937. Mid-Tertiary vertebrates from the Texas Coastal Plain: fact and fable. American Midland Naturalist, 18:129146.
Yatkola, D. and Tanner, L. G. 1979. Brachypotherium from the Tertiary of North America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 77:111.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed