Skip to main content
×
×
Home

New pantolestids (Mammalia, Eutheria) from the late Paleocene (late middle Tiffanian) Roche Percée local fauna, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

  • Brian D. Rankin (a1)
Abstract

The Pantolestidae are an extinct family of mammals known principally from the early Paleocene to late Oligocene (from approximately 64 to 30 million years ago) of North America and Europe. Although never particularly abundant, pantolestids are relatively well represented in the Eocene and Oligocene, with several taxa known from exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial material. The early evolutionary history of the group, however, similar to that of many contemporaneous mammals, remains comparatively poorly known. The current study reports on several previously undescribed pantolestids from the early late Paleocene (late middle Tiffanian, Ti4) Roche Percée local fauna, Ravenscrag Formation, of southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Aatotomus placochton n. gen. n. sp. resembles the enigmatic pantolestid Paleotomus in having sectorial premolars with well-developed crests and tall, sharp molar trigonids, but differs principally in possessing narrow molar talonids. Besseocetor krausei n. sp. shares numerous similarities with B. thomsoni and B. septentrionalis but differs in being considerably smaller and less robust. Palaeosinopa reclusum n. sp., the oldest species of Palaeosinopa yet discovered, reveals a unique combination of primitive and derived pantolestid features, and supports previous suggestions of a close evolutionary relationship between Palaeosinopa and Bessoecetor. The new taxa document an unusually high diversity of pantolestids in the Tiffanian of western Canada and provide important new knowledge to the evolutionary history of this group during the Paleocene.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Beard, K. C. and Dawson, M. R. 2009. Early Wasatchian mammals from the Red Hot local fauna, uppermost Tuscahoma Formation, Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 78:193243.
Bown, T. M. and Schankler, D. 1982. A review of the Proteutheria and Insectivora of the Willwood Formation (lower Eocene), Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1,523:179.
Bown, T. M. and Simons, E. L. 1987. New Oligocene Ptolemaiidae (Mammalia: ?Pantolesta) from the Jebel Qatrani Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7:311324.
Clemens, W. A. 1966. Fossil mammals of the type Lance Formation, Wyoming. Part II. Marsupialia. The University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 62:1122.
Cope, E. D. 1872. Second account of new Vertebrata from the Bridger Eocene. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 12 (separata Paleontological Bulletin no. 2):466468. [dated August 3]
Cope, E. D. 1881. On the Vertebrata of the Wind River Eocene beds of Wyoming. Bulletin of the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Territories, 6:183202.
Cope, E. D. 1884. Second addition to the knowledge of the fauna of the Puerco Epoch. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 21:309324.
Dorr, J. A. 1977. Partial skull of Paleosinopa [Palaeosinopa] simpsoni (Mammalia, Insectivora), latest Paleocene Hoback Formation, central western Wyoming, with some general remarks on the family Pantolestidae. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, 24:281307.
Eberle, J. J. and McKenna, M. C. 2002. Early Eocene Leptictida, Pantolesta, Creodonta, Carnivora, and Mesonychidae (Mammalia) from the Eureka Sound Group, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39:899910.
Folinsbee, K. E., Müller, J., and Reisz, R. R. 2007. Canine grooves: morphology, function, and relevance to venom. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27:547551.
Fox, R. C. 1990. The succession of Paleocene mammals in western Canada, p. 5170. In Bown, T. M. and Rose, K. D. (eds.), Dawn of the Age of Mammals in the Northern Part of the Rocky Mountain Interior. Geological Society of America Special Paper 243.
Fox, R. C. 2002. The dentition and relationships of Carpodaptes cygneus (Russell) (Carpolestidae, Plesiadapiformes, Mammalia), from the late Paleocene of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 76:864881.
Fox, R. C and Scott, C. S. 2005. First evidence of a venom delivery apparatus in extinct mammals. Nature, 435:1,0911,093.
Fraser, F. J., McLearn, F. D., Russell, L. S., Warren, P. S., and Wickenden, R. T. D. 1935. Geology of southern Saskatchewan. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 176, 137 p.
Gabunia, L. K. 1989. On the first find of pantolestids (Pantolestidae, Insectivora) in the Paleogene of the USSR. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoj SSR, 136:177180.
Gazin, C. L. 1956. Paleocene mammalian faunas of the Bison Basin in south-central Wyoming. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 131:156.
Gheerbrant, E. 1991. Todralestes variabilis, n.g., n.sp., new proteutherian (Eutheria, Todralestidae fam. nov.) from the Paleocene of Morocco. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, 312:1,2491,255.
Gill, T. 1872. Arrangement of the families of mammals with analytical tables. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 11:198.
Gingerich, P. D. 1976. Cranial anatomy and evolution of Early Tertiary Plesiadapidae (Mammalia, Primates). The University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology, 15:1141.
Gingerich, P. D. 1980a. A new species of Palaeosinopa (Insectivora: Pantolestidae) from the late Paleocene of western North America. Journal of Mammalogy, 61:449454.
Gingerich, P. D. 1980b. Tytthaena parrisi, oldest known oxyaenid (Mammalia, Creodonta) from the late Paleocene of western North America. Journal of Paleontology, 54:570576.
Gingerich, P. D. 1982. Aaptoryctes (Palaeoryctidae) and Thelysia (Palaeoryctidae?): New insectivorous mammals from the late Paleocene and early Eocene of western North America. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, 26:3747.
Gingerich, P. D. 1983. New Adapisoricidae, Pentacodontidae, and Hyopsodontidae (Mammalia, Insectivora and Condylarthra) from the late Paleocene of Wyoming and Colorado. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, 26:227255.
Gunnell, G. F, Bown, T. M., Bloch, J. I., and Boyer, D. M. 2008. “Proteutheria”, p. 6381. In Janis, C. M., Gunnell, G. F., and Uhen, M. D. (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 2: Small Mammals, Xenathrans, and Marine Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
Holtzman, R. C. 1978. Late Paleocene mammals of the Tongue River Formation, western North Dakota. Report of Investigation, North Dakota Geological Survey, 65:188.
Jaeger, J. J. 1970. Pantolestidae nouveaux (Mammalia, Insectivora) de l'Éocène moyen de Bouxwiller (Alsace). Palaeovertebrata, 3:6382.
Johnson, G. D., Murry, P. A., and Storer, J. E. 1994. Recovery of vertebrate microfossils. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, 73:211230.
Kihm, A. J. and Hartman, J. H. 2004. A reevaluation of the biochronology of the Brisbane and Judson local faunas (late Paleocene) of North Dakota. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 36:97107.
Koenigswald, W. v. 1980. Das Skelett eines Pantolestiden (Proteutheria, Mammalia) aus dem mittleren Eozän von Messel bei Darmstadt. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 54:267287.
Koenigswald, W. v. 1987. Ein zweites Skelett von Buxolestes (Pantolestidae, Proteutheria, Mammalia) aus dem Mitteleozän von Messel bei Darmstadt. Carolinea, 45:3642.
Krause, D. W. 1977. Paleocene multituberculates (Mammalia) of the Roche Percée local fauna, Ravenscrag Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeontographica Abteilung A, 159:136.
Krause, D. W. 1978. Paleocene primates from western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 15:1,2501,271.
Krause, D. W. and Gingerich, P. D. 1983. Mammalian fauna from Douglass Quarry, earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) of eastern Crazy Mountain Basin, Montana. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, 26:157196.
Krause, D. W. and Maas, M. C. 1990. The biogeographic origins of late Paleocene–early Eocene mammalian immigrants to the Western Interior of North America, p. 71105. In Bown, T. M. and Rose, K. D. (eds.), Dawn of the Age of Mammals in the Northern Part of the Rocky Mountain Interior. Geological Society of America Special Paper 243.
Lemoine, V. 1891. Études d'ensemble sur les dents des mammifères fossiles des environs Reims. Bulletin de la Société Geologique de France, 3e série, 19:263290.
Lerbekmo, J. F. 1985. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations of Maastrichtian to early Paleocene strata between south-central Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geologists, 33:213226.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I: Regnum animale. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm [Facsimile reprinted in 1956 by the British Museum of Natural History].
Lofgren, D. L., Lillegraven, J. A., Clemens, W. A., Gingerich, P. D., and Williamson, T. E. 2004. Paleocene biochronology: the Puercan through Clarkforkian Land Mammal Ages, p. 43105. In Woodburne, M. O. (ed.), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology. Columbia University Press, New York.
Marsh, O. C. 1889. Discovery of Cretaceous Mammalia. Part II. American Journal of Science, 38:177180.
Matthew, W. D. 1899. A provisional classification of the freshwater Tertiary of the West. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 12:1977.
Matthew, W. D. 1901. Additional observations on the Creodonta. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 14:138.
Matthew, W. D. 1909. The Carnivora and Insectivora of the Bridger Basin, middle Eocene. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, 9:291567.
Matthew, W. D. 1918. Part V: Insectivora (continued), Glires, Edentata. In Matthew, W. D. and Granger, W., A revision of the lower Eocene Wasatch and Wind River faunas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 34:565657.
McIver, E. E. and Basinger, J. F. 1993. Flora of the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene) southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 10:167 p.
McKenna, M. C. 1975. Towards a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia, p. 2146. In Luckett, W. P. and Szalay, F. S. (eds.), Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Plenum Press, New York.
McKenna, M. C. and Bell, S. K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 p.
Mossop, G. D. and Shetson, I. 1994. Geological atlas of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists and Alberta Research Council, 510 p.
Orr, C. M., Delezene, L. K., Scott, J. E., Tocheri, M. W., and Schwartz, G. T. 2007. The comparative method and the inference of venom-delivery systems in fossil mammals. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27:541546.
Rankin, B. D. 2009. Early late Paleocene mammals from the Roche Percée local fauna, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 235 p.
Rigby, J. K. Jr. 1980. Swain Quarry of the Fort Union Formation, middle Paleocene (Torrejonian), Carbon County, Wyoming: Geologic setting and mammalian fauna. Evolutionary Monographs, 3, 179 p.
Rose, K. D. 1981. The Clarkforkian Land Mammal Age and mammalian faunal composition across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary. The University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology, 26:1197.
Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 640 p.
Rose, K. D. and von Koenigswald, W. 2005. An exceptionally complete skeleton of Palaeosinopa (Mammalia, Cimolesta, Pantolestidae) from the Green River Formation, and other postcranial elements of the Pantolestidae from the Eocene of Wyoming. Palaeontographica Abteilung A, 273:5596.
Russell, L. S. 1929. Paleocene vertebrates from Alberta. American Journal of Science, 17:162178.
Russell, L. S. 1950. Correlation of the Cretaceous–Tertiary transition in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 61:2742.
Russell, L. S. 1974. Fauna and correlation of the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene) of southwestern Saskatchewan. Contributions in Life Sciences from the Royal Ontario Museum, 102:152.
Russell, D. E. and Godinot, M. 1988. The Paroxyclaenidae (Mammalia) and a new form from the early Eocene of Palette, France. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 62:319331.
Scott, C. S. 2003. Late Torrejonian (middle Paleocene) mammals from south central Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 77:745768.
Scott, C. S. 2005. New neoplagiaulacid multituberculates (Mammalia: Allotheria) from the Paleocene of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 79:1,1891,213.
Scott, C. S. 2006. A new erinaceid (Mammalia, Insectivora) from the late Paleocene from western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43:1,6951,709.
Scott, C. S. 2008. Late Paleocene mammals from near Red Deer, Alberta, and a phylogenetic analysis of the earliest Lipotyphla (Mammalia, Insectivora). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1,340 p.
Scott, C. S. 2010a. New cyriacotheriid pantodonts (Mammalia, Pantodonta) from the Paleocene of Alberta, Canada, and the relationships of Cyriacotheriidae. Journal of Paleontology, 84:197215.
Scott, C. S. 2010b. Eudaemonema webbi sp. nov. (Mammalia, Mixodectidae) from the late Paleocene of western Canada: the youngest known mixodectid. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47:1,4511,462.
Scott, C. S., Fox, R. C., and Youzwyshyn, G. P. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47:691704.
Scott, C. S., Webb, M. W., and Fox, R. C. 2006. Horolodectes sunae, an enigmatic mammal from the late Paleocene of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 80:1,0091,025.
Secord, R. 1998. Paleocene mammalian biostratigraphy of the Carbon Basin, southeastern Wyoming, and age constraints on local phases of tectonism. Rocky Mountain Geology, 33:119154.
Secord, R. 2008. The Tiffanian Land-Mammal Age (middle–late Paleocene) in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology, 35:1192.
Secord, R. P. D. Gingerich, M. Smith, E., Clyde, W. C., Wilf, P., and Singer, B. S. 2006. Geochronology and mammalian biostratigraphy of middle and upper Paleocene continental strata, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. American Journal of Science, 306:211245.
Simpson. G. G. 1927. Mammalian fauna and correlation of the Paskapoo Formation of Alberta. American Museum Novitates, 268:110.
Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 83:221244.
Simpson, G. G. 1936. A new fauna from the Fort Union of Montana. American Museum Novitates, Number 873, 27 p.
Simpson, G. G. 1937. The Fort Union of the Crazy Mountain Field, Montana and its mammalian faunas. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 169:1287.
Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 85:14350.
Smith, R. 1997. Palaeosinopa russelli (Mammalia, Pantolesta), une espèce nouvelle du Membre de Dormaal, proche de la limite Paléocène–Eocène. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de le Terre, 67:153159.
Szalay, F. S. 1969. Mixdoectidae, Microsyopsidae, and the insectivore-primate transition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 140:193330.
Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 132:1126.
Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 132:1126.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed