Skip to main content

Paleocene echinoid faunas of the eastern United States

  • Louis G. Zachos (a1)

Twenty-one species of echinoid are reported from Paleocene rocks of the eastern United States along the outcrop belt from Texas to New Jersey. Six of these are strictly early Paleocene age (Danian), nine strictly late Paleocene age (Thanetian), five range throughout the Paleocene, and one previously reported Paleocene species (Diplodetus moscovensis) is most likely a Cretaceous species. Two new species are described, Salenia palmyra n. sp., from the Danian Clayton Formation in Alabama and Georgia, and Ova rancoca n. sp., from the Thanetian Vincentown Formation in New Jersey. One new species from the Clayton Formation in Mississippi, Arbaciella? sp., is left in open nomenclature.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Paleocene echinoid faunas of the eastern United States
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Paleocene echinoid faunas of the eastern United States
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Paleocene echinoid faunas of the eastern United States
      Available formats
Hide All
Agassiz L., 1838–1842, Monographies d’Échinodermes Vivans et Fossiles: Neuchâtel, aux frais de l’auteur, Petitpierre, 621 p.
Agassiz L., 1840, Catalogus systematicus ectyporum echinodermatum fossilium Musei Neocomensis, secundum ordinem zoologicum dispositus; adjectis synonymis recentioribus, nec non stratis et locis in quibus reperiuntur. Sequuntur characteres diagnostici generum novorum vel minus cognitorum: Solothurn, Oliv. Petitpierre, 20 p.
Agassiz L., and Desor E., 1847, Catalogue raisonné des familles, des genres et des espèces de la classe des échinodermes 1: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, ser. 3, v. 7, p. 129168.
Barry J.O., and Le Blanc R.J., 1942, Lower Eocene faunal units of Louisiana: Louisiana Geological Survey Geological Bulletin, v. 23, 208 p.
Berggren W.A., and Pearson P.N., 2005, A revised tropical to subtropical Paleogene planktonic foraminiferal zonation: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 35, p. 279298.
Bronn H.G., 1851–1852, Lethaea Geonostica: Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbart, v. 2, pt. 5, 412 p.
Bybell L.M., 1992, Calcareous nannofossils—Their use in interpreting Paleocene and Eocene geologic events in the New Jersey coastal plain, in Gohn, G.S., ed., Proceedings of the 1988 U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on the Geology and Geohydrology of the Atlantic Coastal Plain: U.S., Geological Survey Circular, v. 1059, p. 913.
Carter B.D., 1997, The Salt Mountain Limestone of Alabama, Part VI, Echinoids: Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology, v. 30, p. 4452.
Ciampaglio C.N., and Phillips G.E., 2016, Irregular echinoids of the Upper Cretaceous Coon Creek beds in Tennessee, in Ehret, D, Harrell, T.L., and Ebersole, S., eds., Paleontology of the Cretaceous Coon Creek Formation: Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 33, v. 2, p. 5977.
Clark H.L., 1917, Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini. The Echinoneidae, Nucleolitidae, Urechinidae, Echinocorythidae, Calymnidae, Pourtalweiidae, Paleostomatidae, Aeropsidae, Paleopneustidae, Hemiasteridae, and Spatangidae: Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College Memoirs, v. 2, p. 85283.
Clark W.B., 1891, A revision of the Cretaceous Echinoidea of North America: Johns Hopkins University Circulars, v. 10, p. 7577.
Clark W.B., 1893, The Mesozoic Echinodermata of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 97, 207 p.
Clark W.B., and Twitchell M.W., 1915, The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, 341 p.
Claus C.F.W., 1880, Grundzüge der Zoologie: Marburg and Leipzig, N. G. Elwert’sche Universitätsbuchhandlung, 522 p.
Cooke C.W., 1941, Cenozoic regular echinoids of eastern United States: Journal of Paleontology, v. 15, p. 120.
Cooke C.W., 1942, Cenozoic irregular echinoids of eastern United States: Journal of Paleontology, v. 16, p. 162.
Cooke C.W., 1959, Cenozoic echinoids of eastern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 321, 106 p.
Cope K.H., Utgaard J.E., Masters J.M., and Feldmann R.M., 2005, The fauna of the Clayton Formation (Paleocene, Danian) of southern Illinois: a case of K/P survivorship and Danian recovery: Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, v. 32, p. 97108.
Cotteau G., 1864, Description des Animaux Invertébrés Commencée par Alcide D’Orbigny, Terrain Crétacé, Échinides: Paris, V. Masson, v. 7, 892 p.
d’Orbigny A.D., 1850, Prodrome de paléontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques & rayonnés: Paris, V. Masson, v. 2, 427 p.
d’Orbigny A.D., 1853–1856, Paléontologie Française. Terrains Crétacés. Échinodermes: Paris, V. Masson, 598 p.
d’Orbigny A.D., 1854, Note rectificative sur divers genres d’Echinoïdes: Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée, sér. 2, v. 6, p. 1628.
Davidoff A.J., and Yancey T.E., 1993, Eustatic cyclicity in the Paleocene and Eocene: data from the Brazos River Valley: Texas, Tectonophysics, v. 222, p. 371395.
Delage Y., and Hérouard E., 1903, Les Échinodermes: Paris, Schleicher Frères Traité de Zoologie Concrète, 496 p.
Desor E., 1853, Notice sur les échinides du terrain nummulitique des Alpes, avec les diagnoses de plusieurs espèces et genres nouveaux: Actes de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles, v. 38, p. 270279.
Desor E., 1858, Synopsis des Échinides Fosiles: Paris, Reinwald, 490 p.
Duncan P.M., 1889, A revision of the genera and great groups of the Echinoidea: The Journal of the Linnaean Society, Zoology, v. 23, 311 p.
Duncan P.M., and Sladen M.T.P., 1882, A description of the fossil echinoidea of Western Sind: Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 14, v. 1, no. 3, p. 120.
Durham J.W., and Melville R.V., 1957, A classification of echinoids: Journal of Paleontology, v. 31, p. 242272.
Gabb W.M., 1859, Catalogue of the invertebrate fossils of the Cretaceous formation of the United States: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 1859, p. 120.
Gardner J., 1933, The Midway Group of Texas: University of Texas Bulletin 3301, 403 p.
Gauthier V., 1889, Description des échinides fossiles recuellis en 1885 et 1886 dans la région sud des Hauts-Plateaux de la Tunisie par M. Phillipe Thomas: Exploration scientifique de la Tunise, Paris, Imprimerie National, 116 p.
Gray J.E., 1825, An attempt to divide the Echinida, or sea eggs, into natural families: The Annals of Philosophy, v. 10, New Series, p. 423431.
Gray J.E., 1835, On the genera distinguishable in Echinus Lamarck: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, v. 3, p. 5760.
Gray J.E., 1855, An arrangement of the families of Echinida, with description of some new genera and species: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, v. 23, p. 3539.
Gregory J.W., 1892, The relations of the American and European echinoid faunas: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 3, p. 101108.
Gregory J.W., 1900, The Echinoidea, in Lankester, E.R., ed., A Treatise on Zoology: Part III The Echinoderma: London, Adam & Charles Black, p. 282332.
Hennig A., 1898, Faunan i Skånes Yngre Krita. I. Echiniderna: Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, v. 24, p. 312.
Hinz R., 1985, Die paläarktischen Arten der Gattung Trematopygus Holmgren: Spixiana, v. 8, p. 265276.
Holmgren A.E., 1858, Försök till uppställning och beskrifning af de i Sverige funna tryphonider; Monographia Tryphonidum Sueciae: Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, NF 1, p. 93246.
Ikeda H., 1936, Preliminary note on a new family of the Cidaroidea: Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, v. 15, p. 486493.
Jagt J.W.M., 2000, Late Cretaceous–Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium—Part 4: Echinoids: Scripta Geologica, v. 121, p. 181375.
Kier P.M., 1962, Revision of the Cassiduloid echinoids: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 144, no. 3, 262 p.
Kroh A., 2001, Echinoids from the Danian (Lower Paleocene) Brunderndorf Formation of Austria, in Piller, W.E., and Rasser, M.W., eds., Paleogene of the Eastern Alps: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommission, v. 14, p. 377463.
Kroh A., 2003, Palaeobiology and biogeography of a Danian echinoid fauna of Lower Austria, in Féral, J., and David, B., eds., Echinoderm Research 2001: Lisse, Swets and Zeitlinger, p. 6975.
Kroh A., Madeira P., and Haring E., 2012, Species distributions: virtual or real—the case of Arbaciella elegans (Echinoidea: Arbaciidae): Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, v. 50, p. 99105.
Lambert J., 1888, Note sur un nouveau genre d'échinidae de la Craie de l’Yonne: Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de l’Yonne, sér 3, v. 11, p. 314.
Lambert J., 1905, Echinides, in Doncieux, L., ed., Catalogue descriptif des fossiles nummulitiques de l’Aude et de l’Hérault: Annales de l’Université de Lyon, Nouvelle Série, I. Sciences, Médecine, v. 17, 184 p.
Lambert J., 1920, Sur quelques genres nouveaux d'échinides: Mémoires de la Société Académique d’Agriculture des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres du Département de l’Aube, v. 57, p. 145172.
Lambert J., and Thiéry P., 1911, Essai de Nomenclature Raisonnée des Échinides: Paris, Chaumont, v. 3, p. 161240.
Lambert J., and Thiéry P., 1921, Essai de Nomenclature Raisonnée des Échinides: Paris, Chaumont, v. 5, p. 321384.
Lambert J., and Thiéry P., 1924, Essai de Nomenclature Raisonnée des Échinides: Paris, Chaumont, v. 6 and 7, p. 385512.
Lambert J., and Thiéry P., 1925, Essai de Nomenclature Raisonnée des Échinides: Paris, Chaumont, v. 8 and 9, p. 513607.
Lauginiger E.M., 1988, Cretaceous fossils from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal: Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 18, 56 p.
Leske N.G., 1778, Iacobi Theodori Klein Naturalis Dispositio Echinodermatum: Accesserunt Lucubratiuncula de Aculeis Echinorum Marinorum et Spicilegium de Belemnitis: Ex Officina Gleditschiana, Lipsiae, 278 p.
Lovén S., 1874, Études sur les Échinoïdées: Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, v. 11, no. 7, 91 p.
Mancini E.A., and Tew B.H., 1991, Relationships of Paleogene stage and planktonic foraminiferal zone boundaries to lithostratigraphic and allostratigraphic contacts in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 21, p. 4866.
Martínez-Díaz J.L., Phillips G.E., Nyborg T., Espinosa B., Távora V.d.A., Centeno-García E., and Vega F.J., 2016, Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 69, p. 1124.
Melville R.V., 1952, On a new species of irregular echinoid (Plagiochasma coxwellense sp. nov.) from the Lower Greensand of Faringdon: Berks., Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, v. 4, p. 17.
Mortensen T., 1904, The Danish Expedition to Siam 1899–1900 II. Echinoidea (I): Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences et Lettres de Danemark, Copenhague, sér. 7, v. 1, p. 1124.
Mortensen T., 1910, Arbaciella elegans. Eine neue Echiniden-Gattung aus der Familie Arbaciidae: Mitteilungen des Naturhistorischen Museum Hamburg, v. 27, p. 327334.
Mortensen T., 1928, I. Cidaroidea, A Monograph of the Echinoidea: Copenhagen, C.A. Reitzel, 551 p.
Mortensen T., 1935, II. Bothriocidaroida, Melonechinoida, Lepidocentroida, and Stirodonta, A Monograph of the Echinoidea: Copenhagen, C.A. Reitzel, 647 p.
Mortensen T., 1942, New echinoidea (Camarodonta). Preliminary notice: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn, v. 106, p. 225232.
Morton S.G., 1830a, Synopsis of the organic remains of the ferruginous sand formation of the United States, with Geological Remarks: American Journal of Science, ser. 1, v. 18, p. 243250.
Morton S.G., 1830b, Additional observations on the geology and organic remains of New Jersey and Delaware: Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, ser. 1, v. 6, part 1, p. 189204.
Morton S.G., 1833, Supplement to the “Synopsis of the organic remains of the ferruginous sand formation of the United States”: American Journal of Science, ser. 1, v. 23, p. 288294.
Morton S.G., 1834, Synopsis of the organic remains of the Cretaceous Group of the United States: Philadelphia, Key & Biddle, 98 p.
Morton S.G., 1841, Stated Meeting, Written Communications: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings, v. 1, p. 131133.
Morton S.G., 1842, Description of some new species of organic remains of the Cretaceous Group of the United States: with a tabular view of the fossils hitherto discovered in this formation: Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 8, p. 207215.
Pictet F.J., 1857, Traité de Paléontologie: Paris, J. Bailliére, 768 p.
Pomel A., 1869, Revue des Échinodermes et leur classification pour servir d’introduction á l'étude des fossiles: Paris, C. Deyrolle, 67 p.
Pomel A., 1883, Classification Mèthodique et Genera des Échinides Vivants et Fossiles, [Doctoral thesis]: Academie de Paris, 131 p.
Ravenel E., 1850, On the Recent Squalidae of the coast of South Carolina, and a catalogue of the Recent and fossil echinoderms of Carolina: Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, v. 3, p. 159161.
Rose E.P.F., 1982, Holectypoid echinoids and their classification, in Lawrence, J.M., ed., International Echinoderm Conference: Tampa Bay, A.A. Balkema, p. 145–152.
Scheibner C., and Speijer R.P., 2008, Late Paleocene–early Eocene Tethyan carbonate platform evolution—A response to long- and short-term paleoclimatic change: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 90, p. 71102.
Schlüter C., 1900, Ueber einige Kreide-Echiniden: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, v. 52, p. 360–279.
Sherwood C.D., 1899, On the dates of the “Paléontologie Française” of d’Orbigny: Geological Magazine, n. ser. 10, v. 6, p. 223225.
Slocum A.W., 1909, New echinoids from the Ripley group of Mississippi: Field Museum of Natural History Publication 134, 16 p.
Smith A.B., and Jeffery C.H., 2000, Maastrichtian and Palaeocene echinoids: a key to world faunas: The Palaeontological Association Special Papers in Palaeontology, 406 p.
Smith A.B., and Kroh A., 2011, The Echinoid Directory: (accessed February 4, 2017).
Smith E.A., 1910, Cretaceous-Eocene Contact: Tombigbee River, Alabama: The Journal of Geology, v. 18, p. 430434.
Smith E.A., Johnson L.C., and Langdon D.W. Jr., 1894, Report on the Geology of the Coastal Plain of Alabama: Tuscaloosa, Geological Survey of Alabama, 759 p.
Stefanini G., 1924, Relations between American and European Tertiary echinoid faunas: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 35, p. 827846.
Stephenson L.W., 1915, The Cretaceous-Eocene contact in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 90, p. 155182.
Stephenson L.W., 1941, The larger invertebrate fossils of the Navarro Group of Texas: University of Texas Publication 4101, 641 p.
Toulmin L.D., 1977, Stratigraphic distribution of Paleocene and Eocene fossils in the eastern Gulf Coast region: Geological Survey of Alabama Monograph 13, 602 p.
Walker J.D., Geissman J.W., Bowring S.A., and Babcock L.E., and compilers 2012, GSA Geologic Time Scale v. 4.0: Geological Society of America, 1 p.
Ward L.W., and Powars D.S., 1989, Tertiary stratigraphy and paleontology, Chesapeake Bay region, Virginia and Maryland: Washington, D.C., 28th International Geological Congress, 64 p.
Weller S., 1907, A report on the Cretaceous paleontology of New Jersey: Geological Survey of New Jersey Paleontology Series 4, 871 p.
Wright T., 1856, A monograph on the British fossil Echinodermata of the Oolitic Formations. Part second containing the Diademadae, Echinidae, Saleniadae, and Echinoconidae: Palaeontographical Society Monographs, v. 10, p. 155303.
Zachos J., Pagani M., Sloan L., Thomas E., and Billups K., 2001, Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present: Science, v. 292, p. 686693.
Zachos L.G., 2008, Preservation of echinoid fossils, Paleocene and Eocene of Texas: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 58, p. 919932.
Zachos L.G., and Levin D., 2010, Rediscovery of figured Paleogene echinoid specimens from Clark and Martin (1901): Journal of Paleontology, v. 84, p. 148.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Paleontology
  • ISSN: 0022-3360
  • EISSN: 1937-2337
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-paleontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 82 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 291 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th May 2017 - 12th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.