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The stem and holdfast of Amygdalocystites florealis Billings, 1854 (Paracrinoidea): lifestyle implications

  • Thomas E. Guensburg (a1)

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Most fossil echinoderms are unknown as complete skeletons because they have easily disarticulated appendages. This is the case of paracrinoids, which have a ruggedly constructed theca but fragile brachioles and attachment structures. In their monographic review ofparacrinoids, Parsley and Mintz (1975) figured only one species (Comarocystites punctatus Billings, 1854) showing essentially complete skeletal morphology. Paracrinoids have no good modern analogues and therefore the task of evaluating their lifestyles is complicated.

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Billings, E. 1854. On some new genera and species of Cystidea from the Trenton Limestone. Canadian Journal, 2:215219,250–253,268–274.
Brett, C. E., and Liddell, W. D. 1978. Preservation and paleoecology of a Middle Ordovician hardground community. Paleobiology, 4:329348.
Fay, R. O., and Graffham, A. A. 1969. Bromide Formation on Tulip Creekand in the Arbuckle Mountains Region. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Guidebook XVII:3741.
Frest, T. J., Strimple, H. L., and Coney, C. C. 1979. Paracrinoids (Platycystitidae) from the Benbolt Formation (Blackriverian) of Virginia. Journal of Paleontology, 53:308398.
Guensburg, T. E. 1984. Echinodermata of the Middle Ordovician Lebanon Limestone, central Tennessee. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 86(319), 100 p.
Parsley, R. L., and Mintz, L. F. 1975. North American Paracrinoidea: (Ordovician: Paracrinozoa, new, Echinodermata). Bulletins of American Paleontology, 68(288), 115 p.
Raff, R. A., and Kaufman, T. C. 1983. Embryos, Genes, and Evolution. Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 395 p.

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The stem and holdfast of Amygdalocystites florealis Billings, 1854 (Paracrinoidea): lifestyle implications

  • Thomas E. Guensburg (a1)

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