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The Interstates and the Cities: The U.S. Department of Transportation and the Freeway Revolt, 1966–1973

  • Raymond A. Mohl (a1)
Abstract

When construction began on the urban expressways of the new Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s, homes, businesses, schools, and churches began to fall before bulldozers and wrecking crews. Entire neighborhoods, as well as parks, historic districts, and environmentally sensitive areas, were slated for demolition to make way for new expressways. Highway builders leveled central city areas where few people had cars so that automobile owners from other places could drive to and through the city on the big, new roads. As one analyst of postwar America put it: “The desire of the car owner to take his car wherever he went no matter what the social cost drove the Interstate Highway System, with all the force and lethal effect of a dagger, into the heart of the American city.” In response, citizen activists in many cities challenged the routing decisions made by state and federal highway engineers. This Freeway Revolt found its first expression in San Francisco in the late 1950s, and eventually spread across urban America. By the late 1960s, freeway fighters began to win a few battles, as some urban expressways were postponed, cancelled, or shift ed to alternative route corridors.

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6. John Greenwood, interview with W. Lee Mertz, 5 and 12 March 1988, typescript, 49–50, 96, Interstate Highway Research Project, Public Works Historical Society, copy in author's possession; Beckman Norman, “Impact of the Transportation Planning Process,” Traffic Quarterly 20 (04 1966): 159173; Morehouse Thomas A., “The 1962 Highway Act: A Study in Artful Interpretation,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 (05 1969): 160168; Johnson Walter K., “The 1962 Highway Act: Its Long-Term Significance,” Urban Law Annual 3 (1970): 5764.

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9. Burns James MacGregor, To Heal and to Bind: The Programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson (New York, 1968), 326345, for Johnson's 1966 Transportation Message to Congress; Califano Joseph A., A Presidential Nation (New York, 1975), 2729, 50–51; Califano Joseph A., The Triumph and Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson (New York, 1991), 122126; Dallek Robert, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973 (New York, 1998), 313317; Rose Mark H., Seely Bruce E., and Barrett Paul F., The Best Transportation System in the World: Railroads, Trucks, Airlines, and American Public Policy in the Twentieth Century (Columbus, 2006), 134150; David G. McComb, interview with Lowell K. Bridwell, 17 October 1968, pp. 14–21, Lyndon B. Johnson Library Austin, Texas; Davis Grant M., The Department of Transportation (Lexington, Mass., 1970); Boyd Alan S., “The U.S. Department of Transportation,” Journal of Air Law and Commerce 33 (Spring 1967): 225233; Boyd Alan S., “The Federal Department of Transportation,” Traffic Quarterly 21 (10 1967): 467469.

10. David G. McComb, interviews with Alan S. Boyd, 20 November and 18 December 1968, Lyndon B. Johnson Library “Planes, Trains, Ships, Roads: An Official Look Ahead” [Interview with Alan S. Boyd], U.S. News and World Report, 24 January 1966, 48–51; Burby John, The Great American Motion Sickness: Or Why You Can't Get There from Here (Boston, 1971), 4457.

11. Alan S. Boyd, “Speech before Transportation Task Force of the State of California,” Los Angeles, 6 September 1967, Federal Highway Administration Records (hereafter cited as fhwa Records), RG 406, General Subject File, box 14, U.S. National Archives II, College Park, Maryland; Alan S. Boyd, “Speech before South Carolina Governor's Transportation Conference,” Columbia, 29 November 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, General Subject File, box 14; Alan S. Boyd, “Speech before Third Annual Rocky Mountain States Governor's Conference,” Albuquerque, 7 September 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, General Subject File, box 14; Lyn Shepard, “U.S. Traffic Chief Defends Roles of Railroads and Highways,” Christian Science Monitor, 6 June 1968, 15; Zachary Schrag, transcript of telephone interview with Alan S. Boyd, 2 October 2001, p. 2, copy in author's possession.

12. Francis C. Turner, “The Highway Program Faces New Challenges: Speech at Illinois Editors' Highway Safety Seminar,” Rocton, Illinois, 3 May 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Lowell K. Bridwell Files, box 16; Janus Robert, “Transportation: No Policy, No System,” Washington Monthly 1 (04 1969): 49; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 46. On the discomfort and difficulty of state and federal highway engineers in adapting to a changing social environment unfriendly to building highways, see Rose Mark H. and Seely Bruce E., “Getting the Interstate Built: Road Engineers and the Implementation of Public Policy, 1955–1985,” Journal of Policy History 2, no. 1 (1990): 2355.

13. McComb interview with Bridwell, 17 October 1968; “Lowell Bridwell: Urban Highways Are the Big Challenge,” Engineering News-Record (21 March 1968): 129; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 54–55. On corruption in the highway construction program, see Meisler Stanley, “The Federal Highway Program: Super-Graft on Superhighways,” The Nation 192 (1 04 1961): 275279.

14. “Lowell Bridwell,” Engineering News-Record, 129; Donald L. O'Connor, “Road Planners Must Weigh Social Aspects, Bridwell Says,” Transport Topics (18 September 1967): 6; Dunhill Priscilla, “The Freeway versus the City,” Architectural Forum 128 (0102 1968): 7277; Dunhill Priscilla, “Reconciling the Conflict of Highways and Cities,” The Reporter 38 (8 02 1968): 2123; Ronald G. Shafer, “Freeways and Cities,” Wall Street Journal, 27 June 1968; McComb interview with Bridwell, 28–31; “Proceedings of Meeting on Baltimore Expressway System,” 12 December 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Francis C. Turner Files, box 15; Lupo Alan, Colcord Frank, and Fowler Edmund P., Rites of Way: The Politics of Transportation in Boston and the U.S. City (Boston, 1971), 1920, 38–39, 109, 185; Lewis, Divided Highways, 202–6; Klein Norman, “Baltimore Urban Design Concept Team,” Highway Research Record 220 (1968): 1120.

15. Schrag interview with Boyd, 2 October 2001, p. 2; Greenwood interview with Mertz, 5 March 1988, p. 37; Dunhill, “The Freeway versus the City,” 73; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 44–57.

16. “Wall-to-Wall Concrete,” New York Times, 17 November 1967; Homer Bigart, “U.S. Road Plans Periled by Rising Urban Hostility,” New York Times, 13 November 1967; “Urban Expressway Projects May be Delayed by Opposition,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 26 November 1967; “Trouble Ahead for Freeways in Cities,” U.S. News and World Report, 4 April 1966, 8; Charles E. Alverson, “Beauty and the ‘Beasts’: Foes of Urban Freeway Expansion Score More Successes, “Wall Street Journal, 11 May 1966; Wing William G., “The Concrete Juggernaut,” Audubon 67 (0708 1966): 266272; “The War over Urban Expressways,” Business Week, 11 March 1967, 4–5; Dunhill Priscilla, “When Highways and Cities Collide,” City 1 (07 1967): 4854; B. Drummond Ayers Jr., “White Roads Through Black Bedrooms,” New York Times, 31 December 1967; Urban Highways: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Roads of the Committee on Public Works, U.S. Senate, 90th Cong., 1st sess., Part One, November 1967; 2d sess., Part Two, May 1968 (Washington, D.C., 1968).

17. J. R. Abernathy to File, 19 July 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, bpr Files, box 6; Francis C. Turner to Lowell K. Bridwell, 8 June 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, bpr Files, box 2.

18. Alan S. Boyd to Lowell K. Bridwell, 5 July 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, bpr Files, box 2; Paul Sitton to Lowell K. Bridwell, 1 August 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, bpr Files, box 6.

19. Harry E. Stark to All Division Engineers, 15 November 1967, fhwa Records, RG 406, Central Correspondence, 1968–69, box 103; “A Rising Furor over Superhighways,” U.S. News and World Report, 27 November 1967, 14; “Revolt Against Tearing Up Cities,” U.S. News and World Report, 11 March 1968, 68–70; “Fighting the Freeway,” Newsweek, 25 March 1968, 64–65; Lyn Shepard, “Freeway Revolt,” Christian Science Monitor, ten-part series, 4, 6, 11, 13, 18, 20, 25, 27 June, and 2, 9 July 1968; Ronald G. Shafer, “Freeways and Cities,” Wall Street Journal, 27 June 1968; Hirsch Lisa and Campbell Louise, “Roads,” City 2 (0910 1968): 2734; Richard Whalen, “The American Highway: Do We Know Where We're Going?” Saturday Evening Post, 14 December 1968, 22–27, 54–64.

20. Alan S. Boyd to Jennings Randolph, 19 July 1968, Congressional Record—Senate (29 July 1968), S9681; Washington Post, 8 November 1967; “A Brake to the Bulldozer,” New York Times, 21 February 1968; Schrag interview with Boyd, 2 October 2001, 7, 13–14, 20–22; Dunhill, “The Freeway versus the City,” 73; Kelley Ben, The Pavers and the Paved (New York, 1971), 116117; Leavitt Helen, Superhighway—Superhoax (New York, 1970), 91109; Schrag Zachary M., “The Freeway Fight in Washington, D.C.: The Three Sisters Bridge in Three Administrations,” Journal of Urban History 30 (07 2004): 648673. See also Schrag Zachary M., The Great Society's Subway: A History of the Washington Metro (Baltimore, 2006), which links freeway fights and mass transit.

21. Howard A. Heffron to Lowell K. Bridwell, 23 September 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Turner Files, box 7; Francis C. Turner to Lowell K. Bridwell, 23 September 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Turner Files, box 7; “Right-of-Way for People,” New York Times, 21 November 1968; “Cry, Havoc!” Providence Journal, 25 October 1968; “Stop Signs for the Highway Lobby?” New York Post, 1 November 1968.

22. John Robson, “Speech before the Committee on Legal Affairs at the Fifty-third Annual Meeting of the American Association of State Highway Officials,” Salt Lake City, 17 October 1967, Department of Transportation Records (hereafter cited as dot Records), RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 15, U.S. National Archives II.

23. Lowell K. Bridwell, “Speech before Highway Research Board Conference on Joint Development and Multiple Use of Transportation Rights of Way,” Washington, D.C., 15 November 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Turner Files, box 18; J. A. Swanson to Regional Federal Highway Administrators, 7 February 1969, fhwa Records, RG 406, Central Correspondence, 1968–69, box 1; John R. Jamieson to Richard F. Lally, 6 November 1968, fhwa Records, RG 406, Central Correspondence, 1968–69, box 1.

24. “Boyd Assures Strong Part for States on Transport Policy,” Transport Topics (18 September 1967): 17; “Congress Passes Highway Act, Interstate System Enlarged,” Transport Topics (5 August 1968): 1, 8; John D. Miles, “Record Outlay for Highways Wins Approval,” Transport Topics (2 September 1968): 1, 4.

25. Greenwood interview with Mertz, 12 March 1988, p. 79; Mogulof Melvin B., Governing Metropolitan Areas: A Critical Review of Councils of Government and the Federal Role (Washington, D.C., 1971); and Rose Mark H., “Reframing American Highway Politics, 1956–1995,” Journal of Planning History 3 (08 2003): 212236, which points to the importance of the COGS and later metropolitan planning organizations (mpos) in implementing the Intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1991 (istea). On governors and state dots, see Washington News Letter,” Roads and Streets 111 (01 1968): 15; Washington News Letter,” Roads and Streets 112 (03 1969): 16; Washington News Letter,” Roads and Streets 112 (11 1969): 1718; Bennett James W. Jr. and DeWitt William J., “The Development of State Departments of Transportation—A Recent Organizational Phenomenon,” Transportation Journal 12 (Fall 1972): 514; Hughes Harry R., “Emerging State Departments of Transportation,” Transportation Research Record 524 (1974): 13.

26. Geiser Kenneth R., Urban Transportation Decision Making: Political Processes of Urban Freeway Controversies (Cambridge, Mass., 1970), 239; Denison George and Tomlinson Kenneth Y., “Let's Put the Brakes on the Highway Lobby,” Reader's Digest 94 (05 1969): 102; Lupo et al., Rites of Way, 185–86; Hapgood David, “The Highwaymen,” Washington Monthly (03 1969): 78; Janus, “Transportation,” 49; “Galbraith Sees U.S. ‘Paved with Concrete,’” Tarrytown [N.Y.] Daily News, 12 December 1968; Roadmaster Volpe,” New Republic 160 (05 10, 1969): 7; Lyn Shepard, “Volpe and Turner Predicted for Nixon Transportation Team,” Christian Science Monitor, 23 November 1968.

27. Moynihan Daniel P., “Toward a National Urban Policy,” The Public Interest (Fall 1969): 320; Moynihan Daniel P., “New Roads and Urban Chaos,” The Reporter 22 (14 04 1960): 1320, at p. 19; David and Nowlan Nadine, The Bad Trip: The Story of the Spadina Expressway (Toronto, 1970), 93, quoting Moynihan; Osborne John, “Moynihan at Work in the White House,” New Republic 160 (22 03 1969): 1113; “Report of the President-Elect's Task Force on Transportation,” 5 January 1969, Daniel P. Moynihan Papers, box 305, folder 8, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; Reeves Richard, President Nixon: Alone in the White House (New York, 2001), 4446, at p. 46. On Moynihan's brief stint in the Nixon White House, see Schoen Douglas, Pat: A Biography of Daniel Patrick Moynihan (New York, 1979), 144186; Hess Stephen, “The Federal Executive,” in Daniel Patrick Moynihan: The Intellectual in Public Life, ed. Katzmann Robert A. (Washington, D.C., 1998), 113123; Troy Tevi, Intellectuals and the American Presidency: Philosophers, Jesters, or Technicians? (Lanham, Md., 2002). 75112; Hodgson Godfrey, The Gentleman from New York: Daniel Patrick Moynihan: A Biography (Boston, 2000), 149181.

28. “Secretary Volpe Tells Where He Stands,” Highway User (February 1969): 19; Edwin A. Bock, “Preparing and Clearing the Urban Mass Transit Act of 1970,” typescript, 1972, 16, 17, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 319 [Bock's report was subsequently published: Edwin A. Bock, Between Mayors and Nixon: Secretary Volpe's Mass Transit Bill (Syracuse, 1980)]; “Autos Can't Rule in Cities, Volpe Warns Motoring Public,” Transport Topics (17 March 1969): 1–2; “How to Cure Traffic Jams: Interview with John A. Volpe,” U.S. News and World Report, 9 June 1969, 62–67; “Volpe Says U.S. Can't Continue to Rely on Auto,” Transport Topics (26 January 1970): 1, 21; Janus, “Transportation,” 38–40; Dean Alan L. and Beggs James M., “The Department of Transportation Comes of Age: The Nixon Years,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (Winter 1996): 209215; Volpe John A., “The Future of Transportation,” State Government 43 (Autumn 1970): 207210; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 57–59.

29. David G. McComb, interview with Francis C. Turner, 12 November 1968, pp. 23, 26–27, Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas; Schrag interview with Boyd, 22; Janus, “Transportation,” 49; Shepard, “Volpe and Turner”; Seely Bruce E., “Francis C. Turner: Father of the U.S. Interstate Highway System,” TR News 213 (0304 2001): 514; Oliver D. C., “In the Footsteps of a Giant: Francis C. Turner and Management of the Interstate,” Transportation Quarterly 48 (Spring 1994): 199220; Daniel P. Moynihan, Memorandum of Conversation [with Alan Boyd], 6 January 1969, Moynihan Papers, box 305, folder 13; Daniel P. Moynihan to Richard M. Nixon, 30 January 1969, with Haldeman notation, Moynihan Papers, box 242, folder 9.

30. Francis C. Turner, “Highway Relocation Assistance: Speech to Mississippi Valley Conference of State Highway Departments,” Chicago, 20 March 1969, fhwa Records, RG 406, Central Correspondence, 1968–69, box 129; Janus, “Transportation,” 49; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 306; Robinson Judith, “Opposition to Urban Highway Projects Prompts Broadened Relocation Policy,” National Journal 2 (28 02 1970): 438440. For Turner's sustained defense of highway building and attack on mass transit, see “Turner Sharply Rebuts ‘Myths’ Spread by Anti-Highway Groups,” Transport Topics (10 November 1969): 1, 21; “Metros Not Answer to Urban Traffic, Turner Emphasizes,” Transport Topics (31 August 1970): 1, 19; Turner Francis C., “Highways ‘Simply Irreplaceable,’” Transport Topics (16 08 1971): 1, 40.

31. Janus, “Transportation,” 49; James D. Braman, “Rapid Transit and Urban Survival,” speech typescript, 29 November 1967, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 4; Bock, Between Mayors and Nixon, 6, 14; Kilgore Kathleen, John Volpe: The Life of an Immigrant's Son (Dublin, N.H., 1987), 177; William W. Prochnau, “Mayor Braman Appointed to U.S. Transportation Post,” Seattle Times, 7 February 1969; Michael J. Parks, “Braman Outlines Scope of New Federal Duties,” Seattle Times, 7 February 1969; Wolf Von Eckardt, “Victory in New Orleans,” Washington Post, 19 July 1969; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 97, 112, 128; Lilley William, “Urban Interests Win Transit Bill with ‘Letter-Perfect’ Lobbying,” National Journal 2 (19 09 1970): 20272028.

32. Welles Chris, “Bitterest Fight: New Mass Transit vs. More Highways,” Life 62 (12 05 1967): 39; Ronald A. Buel, “In Transit with the Road Lobbyists,” Wall Street Journal, 27 June 1968; Donald Janson, “Expressway Construction Lags as Officials Heed Urban Outcry,” New York Times, 15 February 1970; Daniel P. Moynihan to John A. Volpe, 11 April 1969, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 319; Urban Affairs Council, “Report on Public Transportation,” 27 June 1969, Moynihan Papers, box 265, folder 8; Urban Affairs Council, “Minutes, Fourteenth Meeting,” 27 June 1969, Moynihan Papers, box 265, folder 8; Ronald G. Shafer, “Unclogging the Jam: Administration Stresses Mass Transit as Cure for Urban Traffic Ills,” Wall Street Journal, 21 May 1969; Bock, Between Mayors and Nixon. For the wave of books critical of the urban interstates, see Mowbray A. Q., Road to Ruin: A Critical View of the Federal Highway Program (Philadelphia, 1969); Leavitt Helen, Superhighway–Superhoax (Garden City, N.Y., 1970); Laycock George, The Diligent Destroyers (New York, 1970); Burby John, The Great American Motion Sickness: Or Why You Can't Get There from Here (Boston, 1971); Kelley Ben, The Pavers and the Paved (New York, 1971); Schneider Kenneth R., Autokind vs. Mankind (New York, 1971); Lupo Alan, Colcord Frank, and Fowler Edmund P., Rites of Way: The Politics of Transportation in Boston and the U.S. City (Boston, 1971); Hebert Richard, Highways to Nowhere: The Politics of City Transportation (Indianapolis, 1972); Buel Ronald A., Dead End: Th e Automobile in Mass Transportation (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972); Jerome John, The Death of the Automobile: The Fatal Effect of the Golden Era, 1955–1970 (New York, 1972).

33. “Volpe Endorses Plan to Negate U.S. Trust Fund,” Transport Topics (20 April 1970): 1, 7; Hirschberg Vera, “Forces Gather for Strong Debate over Highways with Trust Fund as Lightning Rod,” National Journal 2 (6 06 1970): 11931207; Lilley, “Urban Interests Win Transit Bill,” 2021–29; Hayes Denis, “Can We Bust the Highway Trust?Saturday Review 54 (5 06 1971): 4853; Merrell Jesse H., “Volpe Proposes Busting Road Trust Fund,” Transport Topics (20 03 1972): 1, 16; “Volpe Snarls Highway Trust Traffic,” Environmental Action (1 April 1972): 7; William V. Shannon, “The Untrustworthy Highway Fund,” New York Times Magazine, 15 October 1972, 31, 120–32; Harnick Peter, “We Busted the Highway Trust Fund,” Environmental Action (4 08 1973): 34. See also Smerk George M., “Highway Act of 1973: What's in It for Mass Transit?” Passenger Transport (10 08 1973): 45; Smerk George M., “Operating Subsidies for Urban Mass Transportation,” Traffic Quarterly 28 (10 1974): 603618; Smerk George M., The Federal Role in Urban Mass Transportation (Bloomington, 1991), 108123.

34. Greenwood interview with Mertz, 12 March 1988, p. 94; Altshuler Alan, Womack James P., and Pucher John R., The Urban Transportation System: Politics and Policy Innovation (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 1942, at p. 38. On the role of the Highway Action Coalition, see Malbin Michael J., “Long Deadlock Ends in Compromise Opening Highway Trust Fund for Mass Transit,” National Journal 5 (11 08 1973): 1170. On ISTEA, see Rose, “Reframing American Highway Politics.”

35. James D. Braman to John A. Volpe, 12 June 1969, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 99; Wolf Von Eckardt, “The Vieux Carré: A New Life,” Washington Post, 20 February 1969; Wolf Von Eckardt, “Victory in New Orleans,” Washington Post, 19 July 1969; Bill Bryan, “NO ROAD: Volpe Transfers U.S. Funds to Outer Beltway,” [New Orleans] Vieux Carré Courier, 4 July 1969; William M. Blair, “Volpe Vetoes a Freeway to Save French Quarter in New Orleans,” New York Times, 10 July 1969; Baumbach and Borah, Second Battle of New Orleans, 184–206; Wright Beverly H., “New Orleans Neighborhoods Under Siege,” in Just Transportation: Dismantling Race and Class Barriers to Mobility, ed. Bullard Robert D. and Johnson Glenn S. (Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada, 1997), 121144; Kelman Ari, A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2003), 197221.

36. Louis F. Oberdorfer, “Memorandum for Honorable Lowell Bridwell Re: New Orleans Riverfront Expressway,” 13 April 1967, dot Records, RG 398 General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 45; Russell E. Train to John Volpe, 12 June 1969, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1968–72, box 306; Alfred G. Vigderman to John A. Volpe, 5 February 1969 and 3 March 1969, dot Records, RG 398, General Correspondence, 1967–72, box 99.

37. “Trouble for Freeways,” U.S. News and World Report (11 August 1969): 76–77; Albert R. Karr, “Halting Highways: Volpe Stiffens Stand on Roads That Disrupt Housing, Scenic Sites,” Wall Street Journal, 7 April 1970; Albert R. Karr, “Mr. Volpe's Surprising Achievements,” Wall Street Journal, 25 May 1971; Martin F. Nolan, “Volpe Alarms Roads Lobby,” Boston Globe, undated clipping, c. 1971, in Movement Against Destruction Collection, Series VIII, box 1, University of Baltimore; Dean and Beggs, “The Department of Transportation Comes of Age,” 209–15; Wofford John G., “Participatory Planning for Boston Metro-area Transportation,” Civil Engineering 43 (04 1973): 7881; Fellman Gordon and Brandt Barbara, The Deceived Majority: Politics and Protest in Middle America (New Brunswick, N.J., 1973), 5790; Sloan Allan K., Citizen Participation in Transportation Planning: The Boston Experience (Cambridge, Mass., 1974).

38. Fairweather VirginiaSan Antonio: Classic ‘Stop the Freeway’ Case,” Civil Engineering 43 (07 1973): 5961; Volpe Reprieves Overton Park,” Audubon 75 (03 1973): 122; Interstate Routes Stop in Several Major Cities,” The Concrete Opposition (03 1973): 1, 8; Nolan, “Volpe Alarms Roads Lobby”; Karr, “Halting Highways”; John A. Volpe, Internal Memorandum on “The Environmental Policy,” 26 February 1970, Movement Against Destruction Collection, Series VII, box B1; Train Russell E., “The Environmental Record of the Nixon Administration,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 26 (Winter 1996): 185196. Regarding nepa's impact on the highway engineers, Lee Mertz stated in his interview with John Greenwood: “Then in 1969, out of left field, the Environmental Policy Act came onto the scene. I am puzzled to this day where it came from. It arrived with no warning. There were no hearings that I know about. There was no public debate or debate in the Congress. Just all of a sudden, boom. There it was. Nobody knew what it meant.” See Greenwood interview with Mertz, p. 79.

39. Nolan, “Volpe Alarms the Roads Lobby”; Highway Officials Fear Loss of Influence,” Engineering News-Record 185 (19 11 1970): 1920; “Highway Users Federation Hits Volpe's ‘Alarming’ Road Bias,” Transport Topics (1 March 1971); “A Trust Fund Grab,” Transport Topics (30 June 1969): 6; “Trust Fund Showdown,” Transport Topics (22 September 1969): 8; “The Diversion Refrain,” Transport Topics (20 July 1970): 16; “Embattled Trust Fund,” Transport Topics (3 August 1970), 18; “Trust Fund Attacked,” Transport Topics (17 August 1970): 14; “Breaking the Trust Fund,” Transport Topics (29 March 1971): 10; Karr, “Halting Highways”; Burby, The Great American Motion Sickness, 307; Kilgore, John Volpe, 170–98.

40. Greenwood interview with Mertz, pp. 77–79, at p. 79; Marty Loken, “Braman Tells of Battling Roadbuilders,” Seattle Times, 26 November 1970; “Highway Expediency Stirs Braman's Wrath,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 23 October 1970; “fhwa Chief Rips Proposal to ‘Rob’ Highway Trust Fund,” Transport Topics (7 June 1971): 7; Albert R. Karr, “The Highway Lobby Aims to Prove There Is No Highway Lobby,” Wall Street Journal, 17 February 1972; Seely, “Francis C. Turner,” 10; David E. Rosenbaum, “Lobbyists Powerful in Road Fund Battle,” New York Times, 24 October 1972.

41. Sugrue Thomas J., “All Politics Is Local: The Persistence of Localism in Twentieth-Century America,” in The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History, ed. Jacobs Meg, Novak William J., and Zelizer Julian E. (Princeton, 2003), 301326, at p. 302. For “complex federalism” as it applied to highway policy in one state, see Fein Michael R., Paving the Way: New York Road Building and the American State, 1880–1956 (Lawrence, Kans., 2008). See also Califano, Presidential Nation, 24–29; Altshuler Alan A. and Curry Robert W., “The Changing Environment of Urban Development Policy—Shared Power or Shared Impotence?Urban Law Annual 10 (1975), 341; Heclo Hugh, “The Sixties' False Dawn: Awakenings, Movements, and Postmodern Policymaking,” Journal of Policy History 8, no. 1 (1996): 3463; Milkis Sidney M., “Remaking Government Institutions in the 1970s: Participatory Democracy and the Triumph of Administrative Politics,” Journal of Policy History 10, no. 1 (1998): 5174; Rose, “Reframing American Highway Politics.”

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