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A multilevel analysis of change in hatred of academic work during high school: focusing on the sociocultural background of Korea

  • Minyoung Lee (a1), Soohyun Cho (a2) and Sang Min Lee (a1)


Development of academic hatred was examined at four time points across 7 months among 1,015 South Korean high school students. A multilevel growth model showed that the baseline of, and change in, academic hatred varied across individuals and classrooms. At the individual level, gender, parents’ academic pressure, depression, and test anxiety were related to the initial level of academic hatred; gender and test anxiety were associated with a decrease in academic hatred over time. At the class level, lower socio-economic status and higher teachers’ autonomy support were associated with a lower baseline of academic hatred, and higher teachers’ autonomy support decreased academic hatred. Influence mechanisms of protective and risk factors on students’ academic hatred can be considered for strategic and policy interventions.


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A multilevel analysis of change in hatred of academic work during high school: focusing on the sociocultural background of Korea

  • Minyoung Lee (a1), Soohyun Cho (a2) and Sang Min Lee (a1)


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