Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. doi:org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Almeida, A., Correia, I., & Marinho, S. (2010). Moral disengagement, normative beliefs of peer group, and attitudes regarding roles in bullying. Journal of School Violence, 9, 23–36. doi:10.1080/15388220903185639
Almeida, A., Correia, I., Marinho, S., & Garcia, D. (2012). Virtual but not less real. In Li, Q., Cross, D., & Smith, P.K. (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives (pp. 223–244). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781119954484.
Armario, C. (2007, January 18). Police say videotaped beating of N. Babylon teen by 3 other teenage girls was about a boy that victim and one of her attackers had dated. Newsday. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from http://jea.sagepub.com/content/30/6/803.abstract
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 92, 86–100.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31, 101–119. doi:10.1080/0305724022014322
Banks, M. (2007). Using visual data in qualitative research. London: Sage.
Bauman, S. (2010). Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: An exploratory study. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 803–833. doi:10.1177/0272431609350927
Berg, B. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (6th ed.), Boston: Pearson Education.
Bonanno, K. (2005, April). Online learning: the good, the bad and the ugly. Paper presented at the ASLA XIX Biennial conference, Meeting the Challenge, Canberra, Australia. Retrieved May 13, 2013, from http://www.kb.com.au/downloads/online-learning.pdf
Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2012). Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17, 389–401. doi:10.1080/13632752.2012.704316
Cowie, H., & Jennifer, D. (2008). New perspectives on bullying. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Craig, W.M., & Pepler, D.J. (1997). Observations of bullying and victimization in the schoolyard. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 13, 41–60. doi:10.1177/082957359801300205
Craig, W.M., Pepler, D., & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground. School Psychology International, 21, 22–36. doi:10.1177/0143034300211002
Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., Monks, H., Lester, L., & Thomas, L. (2009). Australian covert bullying prevalence study. Perth, Australia: Child Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University.
Guzell, J.R. (2001, November). Family life education in the digital age: Using digital media to increase participant involvement and understanding. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, Rochester, New York.
Hill, T.E. (2010). Moral responsibilities of bystanders. Journal of Social Philosophy, 41, 28–39. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2009.01476.x
Hymel, S., Gregory, S., Trach, J., Shumka, E., & Lee, M. (2012, March). Moral disengagement when witnessing bullying. An investigation of morality and bystander behaviour in Canadian Schools. Poster presented at the 14th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Vancouver, Canada.
Hymel, S., Schonert-Reichi, K., Bonanno, R., Vaillancourt, T., & Rocke-Henderson, N. (2010). Bullying and morality: How good kids can behave badly. In Jimerson, S., Swearer, S., Espelage, D., Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 101–118). Routledge: Hoboken.
Jones, S.E., Manstead, A.S.R., & Livingstone, A.G. (2011). Ganging up or sticking together? Group processes and children's responses to text-message bullying. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 71–96. doi:10.1348/000712610´502826
Kant, I. (2002). Groundwork for the metaphysics of morals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive developmental approach to socialization. In Goslin, D. (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347–480). Chicago, Illinois: Rand McNally.
Krebs, D.L., & Van Hesteren, F. (1994). The development of altruism: Toward an integrative model. Developmental Review, 14, 103–158. doi:org/10.1006/drev.1994.1006
Kring, A.M., & Gordon, A.H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 686–703. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.116
Laible, D., Eye, J., & Carlo, G. (2008). Dimensions of conscience in mid-adolescence: Links with social behavior, parenting, and temperament. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 875–887. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9277-8
Law, D.M., Shapka, J.D., Hymel, S., Olson, B.F., & Waterhouse, T. (2012). The changing face of bullying: An empirical comparison between traditional and internet bullying and victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 226–232. doi:org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.09.004
Manefield, J., Collins, R., Moore, J., Mahar, S., & Warne, C. (2007). Student voice: A historical perspective and new directions. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Department of Education.
Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B.E., Frisén, A., Berne, S., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Smith, P.K. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: A comparison across six European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 455–463. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0040
Menesini, E., Sanchez, V., Fonzi, A., Ortega, R., Costabile, A., & Lo Feudo, G. (2003). Moral emotions and bullying: A cross-national comparison of differences between bullies, victims and outsiders. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 515–530. doi:10.1002/ab.10060
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Gadalla, T., & Daciuk, J. (2012). Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: Victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.032
Obermann, M.L. (2011). Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer nominated school bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 133–144. doi:10.1002/ab.20378
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child. New York: Free Press.
Polanin, J.R., Espelage, D.L., & Pigott, T.D. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs’ effects on bystander intervention behaviour. School Psychology Review, 41, 47–65.
Rigby, K. (2004). Addressing bullying in schools: Theoretical perspectives and their implications. School Psychology International, 25, 287–300. doi:10.1177/0143034304046902
Rigby, K., & Johnson, B. (2006). Expressed readiness of Australian schoolchildren to act as bystanders in support of children who are being bullied. Educational Psychology, 26, 425–440. doi:10.1080/01443410500342047
Rigby, K., & Smith, P.K. (2011). Is school bullying really on the rise? Social Psychology, 14, 441–455. doi:10.1007/s11218-011-9158-y
Rivers, I., Poteat, V.P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 211–223. doi:10.1037/a0018164
Salmivalli, C., Lappalainen, M., & Lagerspetz, M.J. (1998). Stability and change of behavior in connection with bullying in schools: A two year follow-up. Aggressive Behavior, 24, 205–218. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1998)24:3<205::AID-AB5>3.0.CO;2-J
Salmivalli, C., Huttunen, A., & Lagherspetz, K.M.J. (1997). Peer networks and bullying in schools. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38, 305–312. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00040
Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K.M.J., Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Kaukiuanen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behaviour, 22, 1–15. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:1<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-T
Slee, P.T., Campbell, M., & Spears, B. (2012). Child, adolescent and family development (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slonje, R., & Smith, P.K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147–154. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x
Slonje, R., Smith, P.K., & Frisén, A. (2012). Processes of cyberbullying, and feelings of remorse by bullies: A pilot study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 244–259. doi:org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.024
Spears, B.A. (2012). A review of initiatives using technology to promote cyber-safety and digital citizenship. In Costabile, A. & Spears, B.A. (Eds.). The impact of technology on relationships in educational settings (pp. 188–203). London: Routledge.
Spears, B., Barnes, A., Johnson, B., Scrimgeour, M., Price, D., Geer, R., & Green, D. (2013). Cyber-bystanders, social context and moral dis/engagement. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Spears, B. & Kofoed, J. (in press). Transgressing research binaries: Youth as knowledge brokers in cyberbullying research. In Smith, P. & Steffgen, G. (Eds.), Cyberbullying through the new media: Findings from an international network. London: Psychology Press.
Spears, B.A., Kofoed, J., Bartolo, M.G., Palermiti, A., & Costabile, A. (2012). Positive uses of social networking sites: Youth voice perspectives. In Costabile, A. & Spears, B. A. (Eds.) The impact of technology on relationships in educational settings (pp. 7–21). London: Routledge.
Spears, B.A., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens: Insights into the human dimension of covert and cyber bullying. Journal of Psychology, 217, 189–196. doi:10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.189
Spears, B., Slee, P., Campbell, M., & Cross, D. (2011). Educational change and youth voice: Informing school action on cyberbullying (Seminar Series Paper No. 208). Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Strategic Education.
Thomas, L., Falconer, S., Cross, D., Monks, H., & Brown, D. (2012). Cyberbullying and the bystander (Report prepared for the Australian Human Rights Commission). Perth, Australia: Child Health Promotion Research Centre, Edith Cowan University.
Trach, J., Hymel, S., Waterhouse, T., & Neale, K. (2010). Bystander responses to school bullying: A cross sectional investigation of grade and sex differences. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 114–130. doi:10.1177/0829573509357553
Wachs, S. (2012). Moral disengagement and emotional and social difficulties in bullying and cyberbullying: Differences by participant role. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17, 347–360. doi:10.1080/13632752.2012.704318
Yin, R.K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.