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Roman Britain in 1959

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page 210 note * The Editor wishes to acknowledge all the help she has received from Professor I. A. Richmond during her illness.

page 211 note 1 Wheeler, , Segontium (Y Cymmrodor, XXXIII, 1923). 1924. 67 ff.

page 211 note 2 Information from Mr. G. C. Boon, who directed the excavation for the National Museum of Wales on behalf of the Ministry of Works. Vermaseren in his Corpus inscr. et mon. religionis Mithraicae (1956) mentions several cases of Leones carrying burning candles and in one case a bundle of four, apparently in procession. A small iron candlestick was found at Carrawburgh (see Richmond, I. A., Arch. Ael. xxx, 1951, 84 f.), and some iron object, described as a three-footed candlestick, was found at Rudchester in 1844(Collingwood Bruce, Roman Wall,3 1867, 127 ff.).

page 211 note 3 Information from Mr. A. H. A. Hogg, who directed a short excavation for the Ministry of Works besides keeping the site under constant observation. The Samian ware was dated by Mr. B. R. Hartley and the coins by Mr. G. C. Boon.

page 211 note 4 Caernarvonshire Inventory (RHC Wales) II, 1960, no. 852.

page 211 note 5 Information from Mr. A. H. A. Hogg.

page 211 note 6 Information from Mr. Leslie Alcock. The report will be published in Arch. Cambr. 1960.

page 211 note 7 Bull. Bd. Celtic Studies 1960 (forthcoming).

page 211 note 8 By Mr. G. D. B. Jones in a survey financed by the Council of British Archaeology and the Board of Celtic Studies.

page 212 note 9 Information and photographs from Mr. G. C. Boon. For a stamp on the glass vessel see below, p. 239, no. 17. The objects have been deposited by the Welshpool Borough Council in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, for three years. They were recovered by Mr. G. H. Shepherd and S. Martin. The hoard is now published in Antiquity XXXIV (1960), 143, pls. XV, XVI, to which we are indebted for the blocks shown on pl. xx.

page 212 note 10 cf. Lincoln, , Arch.Journ. CIII, 45.

page 213 note 11 Information from Mr. G. D. B. Jones.

page 213 note 12 Bull. Bd. Celtic Studies 1960 (forthcoming).

page 213 note 13 Information from Mr. G. D. B. Jones.

page 213 note 14 Information from Mr. G. C. Boon, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works. The jughandle is in the Legionary Museum. For a stamped Samian bowl see below, p. 241, no. 30.

page 213 note 15 Information from Professor I. A. Richmond, excavator with Dr. J. K. St. Joseph.

page 213 note 16 The Rev. C. H. H. Scobie in Discovery and Excavation. Scotland 1959, 24.

page 213 note 17 Discovery and Excavation. Scotland 1959, 37 f. A report will be published in Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot.

page 214 note 18 ibid. 40 f.

page 214 note 19 Mr. and Mrs. Alan Rae, ibid. 26.

page 214 note 20 ibid. 39.

page 214 note 21 ibid. 20.

page 214 note 22 Directed by Miss A. S. Robertson. Discovery and Excavation 22.

page 214 note 23 cf. Arch. Ael.4 VIII (1931), 317.

page 215 note 24 Report from Miss Charmian Phillips who carried out the work for Durham University Excavation Committee and the Ministry of Works.

page 215 note 25 The excavation was carried out by the Durham University Excavation Committee.

page 215 note 26 Information from Mr. J. P. Gillam, who with Mr. C. M. Daniels directed the excavation for Durham Univ. Excav. Committee. The site was first discovered from the air by Dr. St. Joseph in 1949.

page 215 note 27 Information from Mr. J. Thornbarrow on behalf of the South Shields Archl. Society and Durham Univ. Excav. Committee.

page 215 note 28 By Dr. M. G. Jarrett, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works; this report is to be published in Arch. Ael. XXXVIII, 1960.

page 215 note 29 Information from Mr. J. C. Mann.

page 215 note 30 Mr. E. E. Pickering, West Lanes. Evening Gazette, 10th September, 1959.

page 215 note 31 F. A. Bruton, Excavations at Toothill and Melandra (Cl. Ass. The Manchester Branch. Second Annual Report 1909) 25.

page 216 note 32 Petch, J. A., Derbys. Arch.Journ. LXXVIII, 1 ff.

page 216 note 33 Information from Mr. J. Bartlett, of Hull Museum, who also supplied the photograph.

page 216 note 34 For earlier finds see The Cheshire Historian no. 5, p. 20; for colonnaded building facing S found in 1884 some 50 ft. S of the above, see Newstead, Chester Arch. Soc. Journ. XXVII (1926), 175, no. XL.

page 216 note 35 Chester Arch. Soc. Journ. XXXVIII (1951), 181.

page 217 note 36 Information from Mr. F. H. Thompson, of the Grosvenor Museum, who directed the excavations and also sent the plan. For an inscribed stone found at site no. 1, see below, p. 236, no. 5.

page 218 note 36a JRS XLIX, 108, n. 32.

page 218 note 37 Information and plan from Mr. J. S. Wacher, who directed the excavations for the Ministry of Works. For inscribed stones, see below, pp. 236, 237, 239–242, nos. 6, 7, 19, 22, 28, 36, and 44.

page 219 note 38 Information from the excavator, Mr. G. F. Willmot.

page 219 note 39 Information from Mr. H. G. Ramm.

page 219 note 40 Roman Roads in Britain II, 1957, 149, fig. 4.

page 220 note 41 Information from Mr. L. P. Wenham.

page 220 note 42 Wenham, L. P. in Yorks. Arch.Journ. XL, 1960, 315–27.

page 220 note 43 Information from Mr. H. G. Ramm, who with Mr. Thackrah excavated it and suggests that it is not a main road.

page 220 note 44 The excavation was supervised by Miss V. Russell; cf. Antiq. Journ. XL, 640. For a plan of the late town defences, see ibid. p. 60, fig. 1.

page 220 note 45 Published in Yorks. Arch.Journ. and Doncaster Museum Publications XIII–XVI, XVIII, XXIV.

page 221 note 46 Information from Mr. J. R. Lidster who carried out the excavations under Mr. E. F. Gilmour, Director of Doncaster Museum, and sent the drawing.

page 221 note 47 The plinth of the north bastion was found in 1945, see Roman Lincoln 1945–6 18, pl. 6; JRS XXXVII, 171.

page 221 note 48 Information, plan and photograph from the excavator, Dr. D. F. Petch, of Lincoln Museum. For a graffito on an amphora, see below, p. 241, no. 35.

page 222 note 49 Information from Mr. I. M. Stead, who directed the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 222 note 50 Information from Mrs. H. and D. Webster.

page 222 note 51 By Mr. E. Greenfield for the Ministry of Works, before destruction, now complete, by ironstone quarrying.

page 222 note 52 Information from Mr. S. C. Stanford, director of the excavation for the Woolhope Naturalists Group; see their Transactions XXXVI, 1958, 90 ff., for the 1958 Report.

page 222 note 53 Information from Mr. S. C. Stanford, as above.

page 222 note 54 ‘W. Midlands Archl. News-Sheet,’ no. 2, 1959.

page 222 note 55 Fox thought the original line lay to the south where he observed a gap which he thought to be of contemporary date in a marshy passage of the Dyke. Arch. Cambr. 1929, 28 (fig. 13, III), 42.

page 222 note 56 Dr. A. W. J. Houghton sent detailed notes of all these roads with drawn sections.

page 222 note 57 Vict. Co. Hist. Shrops. I, 231, fig. 11; Archaeologia LXXXVIII, 1940, pl. LXXI.

page 223 note 58 Information from Mr. Graham Webster, director of the work for a Summer School.

page 223 note 59 Information from Mrs. Muriel and Brian Stanley, directors of the excavation for the Coventry and District Archaeological Society.

page 223 note 60 Information from Mr. A. R. Mountford, of Hanley Museum, Stoke-on-Trent.

page 223 note 61 Information from Mr. Frank Lyon, of Litchfield Archaeological Society. For the 1955 ditches see JRS XLVI, 131; Birmingham Arch. Soc. Trans. LXXV, 1957, 24 ff.

page 223 note 62 Thoroton Soc. Trans., v, 58; bibliography in Vict. Co. Hist. Notts. II, 1919, 34.

page 224 note 63 Information from Mr. C. M. Daniels, director of the excavation for the Ministry of Works.

page 224 note 63a The hoard is at present in Nottingham University. Information from Mr. Harold B. Mattingly, junr., who hopes to publish it in Num. Chron.

page 224 note 64 By Mr. E. Greenfield, for the Ministry of Works, who sent the information. The excavation is to be completed in 1960.

page 225 note 65 By the Archaeological Field Section of the Peterborough Museum Society, under the direction of Mr. G. F. Dakin, who sent the information.

page 225 note 66 Information and plan from Mr. E. Greenfield, the excavator, for the Ministry of Works.

page 227 note 67 Information from Mr. J. E. Johnston on behalf of the Bedford Archaeological Society.

page 227 note 68 Report with plan by Mr. C. Green in Wolverton and District Archaeological News Letter No. 5 (Jan., 1960), which contains accounts of various other small sites examined in the neighbourhood.

page 227 note 68a cf. Winter Die antike Terracotten III2, 219, no. 3; W. Weber, Die Aegyptisch-graechischen Terrakotten (1914), pl. 18, nos. 177–8, a reference we owe to Mrs. Dorothy Thompson.

page 227 note 69 Period II ended at the Antonine fire c. A.D. 155, Period I at the Boudiccan fire A.D. 60 or 61.

page 227 note 70 The Claudian date of street XII/XXVII was indicated in 1956 (JRS XLVII, 217).

page 227 note 71 Mr. Frere's interim report is published in Antiq. Journ. (1960), to which we are indebted for the blocks of pls. XXIII and XXV, 2.

page 227 note 72 Now removed to King's Lynn Museum.

page 227 note 73 By Mr. R. Rainbird Clarke who has also sent information about other Norfolk sites.

page 228 note 74 By Mr. D. R. Howlett.

page 228 note 75 By Mr. Charles Green, who sent the information.

page 228 note 75a ‘Bulletin no. 6 (for 1959) of Council Brit. Archaeology, Group 7’.

page 229 note 76 Information from Mr. E. Greenfield, excavator for the Ministry of Works.

page 229 note 77 By Mr. Brian Blake. Information from Mr. M. R. Hull.

page 229 note 78 Under the direction of Mr. M. R. Hull and Brian Blake.

page 229 note 79 The report of both the 1933 and 1959 excavations is now in the Press.

page 229 note 79a East Essex Gazette, 8 May 1959.

page 229 note 80 By Mr. G. D. V. Rybot working with volunteers.

page 230 note 81 Information on both sites from Mrs. Harris, of the Guildhall Museum, the observer. For incised leather fragments from these sites see below, p. 240, nos. 23, 26.

page 230 note 82 Information and photograph from Peter Marsden, of the Guildhall Museum.

page 230 note 83 Information from Mr. A. G. Hunter, the excavator or observer.

page 230 note 84 Information from Professor I. A. Richmond, who undertook the work : a report will appear in Glos. Arch. Soc. Trans. LXXVIII.

page 230 note 85 Information from Miss K. M. Richardson, the excavator.

page 230 note 86 Information from Instructor-Captain H. S. Gracie, R.N., the excavator, whose interim report is published in Glos. Arch. Soc. Trans. LXXVII (1959), 23–30; an earlier reference to remains SW of the church is o.c. LII, 157.

page 231 note 87 Information from Professor I. A. Richmond, who superintended the work.

page 231 note 88 Information from Lady Aileen Fox, the excavator.

page 231 note 89 Information from Mr. E. N. Masson Phillips, who directed the excavations.

page 231 note 90 Information from Mr. G. Webster, the excavator.

page 231 note 91 Information from Mr. C. J. Bailey, through Mr. R. A. H. Farrar.

page 231 note 92 Information from Mr. P. Fowler, through Mr. R. A. H. Farrar. For a stamped vessel from no. 3, see below, p. 241, no. 31.

page 233 note 93 By Mr. F. A. Aberg, of Southampton Museums.

page 233 note 94 Information from Mr. S. S. Frere and, with plans, from Mrs. C. M. Bennett, the excavator.

page 233 note 93 cf. Surrey Arch. Coll. XLIII, 34, fig. 16; JRS XXV, 222 ad.; XLIII, 125.

page 233 note 94 Information of both (1) and (2) from Mr. A. W. G. Lowther.

page 234 note 97 Information from Mr. J. Holmes, who directed the first two excavations and Miss K. M. Murray who directed the third. For the defences, cf. JRS XLVIII, 148, and references in note 88.

page 234 note 98 Information from Mr. S. S. Frere, the excavator.

page 234 note 99 Worthing Gazette, 15 July, 1959.

page 234 note 100 Summary report by Lt.-Col. Meates, the excavator, in Arch. Cantiana LXXIII, xlix.

page 235 note 101 Information and plan from Mr. W. S. Penn, the excavator on behalf of the Gravesend Historical Society.

page 235 note 102 Information from Mr. R. E. Chaplin, the excavator.

page 235 note 103 Information from Mrs. M. C. Lebon; a full report is promised for Arch. Cant., LXXIV.

page 236 note 104 Information from Mr. R. A. G. Carson. The hoard will eventually be published in full in Numis. Chron. The damaged pot is in Maidstone Museum.

page 236 note 105 Information from Mr. F. Jenkins.

page 236 note 106 Summary report by the Reculver Excavation Group in Arch. Cantiana LXXIII, li, f., and 208.

page 236 note 1 When measurements are quoted the width precedes the height.

page 236 note 2 Mr. B. J. Philip submitted this for the Reculver Excavation Group.

page 236 note 3 Submitted by Mr. M. J. Campen.

page 236 note 4 Now in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, where Dr. H. N. Savory made it available.

page 236 note 5 Mr. G. C. Boon supplied details (see above, p. 210); seen by the present writer.

page 236 note 6 Now in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester. Mr. F. H. Thompson sent a squeeze, photograph, and details. For the site see above, pp. 216 f.

page 237 note 7 Mr. E. J. W. Hildyard sent details. Now stored by H.M. Ministry of Works at Richmond Castle; drawn by the present writer.

page 237 note 8 On behalf of H.M. Ministry of Works Mr. J. S. Wacher made available this item and nos. 22, 28, 36, and 44. For the site see above, pp. 217 f.

page 237 note 9 Presented to South Shields Museum by the South Shields Archaeological and Historical Society. Mr. J. W. Thornborrow gave details; drawn by the present writer. For the site see above, p. 215.

page 237 note 10 Professor E. Birley drew attention to this passage (Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne, J. Hodgson MS Q p. 26) and reported that he had sought for the stone in vain.

page 237 note 11 Found by Dr. Brenda Swinbank (now Mrs. Heywood), who supplied details; drawn by the present writer. Presented by Mr. J. Oliver, of Cawfields Farm, to the Museum of Antiquities, Newcastle upon Tyne. For the site see JRS XLIX (1959), 104.

page 237 note 12 Found in conservation carried out by H.M. Ministry of Works, and stored by the same authority. Mr. C. Anderson made the two stones available to the present writer. For Flavius Noricus, a centurion still in the tenth cohort, see CIL vii 779; for the same centurion promoted to the ninth cohort see JRS XIX (1929) 215 no. 5, Stevens, AA4 XXVI (1948) 15.

page 237 note 13 For the same centurion see JRS XXV (1935), 224, and EE VII, 1077.

page 237 note 14 During conservation-work in this sector by H.M. Ministry of Works in one of the years before 1959 this stone was included among material tipped down the eroded west bank of the R. Irthing at Harrow's Scar. In February, 1959, Mr. C. Croser saw it in the river-bed and thinking that it was inscribed placed it on a stack of Roman stones on the east bank. Here it was observed and drawn by the present writer.

page 237 note 15 Drawn by the present writer.

page 238 note 16 Grid ref. SH 66887338, I mile I furlong SW of Llanfairfechan Church and (by map-measurement) 1,300 yards NW of the find-spot of the milestone of Hadrian (EE VII, 1099) and Septimius Severus (EE VII, 1100). The probable line of the Roman road from Caerhun (Kanovium) towards Caernarvon (Segontium) makes one substantial turn in this sector and pursues a somewhat devious course which may have increased the direct measurement by over 100 yards, though even so this falls short of a Roman mile. The stone will shortly be placed in the Museum of Welsh Antiquities, University College of North Wales, Bangor. Mr. A. H. A. Hogg sent details, photographs, and squeezes, from which this interpretation has been prepared.

page 238 note 17 Mr. F. H. Thompson sent the diploma for study and provided a detailed drawing which with slight additions is reproduced here.

page 238 note 18 The date indicated in 1. 4 is either three or four days before the Nones or Ides of May, the Kalends, Nones, or Ides of June or July. The diploma now at Budapest (CIL XVI, 50) was issued on 13 May 105, and the Sydenham example (ibid. no. 51) would fit this date. It seems likely that the Middlewich diploma was issued on the same date.

page 238 note 19 Professor E. Birley can cite no obvious candidate from his exhaustive files, but from their frequency of occurrence suggests as nomen Anicius or Minicius, or with less likelihood Vinicius.

page 238 note 20 Now in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester; Mr. F. H. Thompson sent it for study. Illustrated in Chester Arch. Soc. Journ. XLVI, 80.

page 239 note 21 Now in Lincoln Museum, whence details and a photograph were supplied by Messrs. F. T. Baker and D. F. Petch. The field (ref. TF 145925) produced much Roman pottery, but no trace of any building; it forms part of the site of the villa discovered in 1861 (Gent. Mag. X, 1861, pt. I, 683; Assoc. Archit. Soc. Rep. VI, 1861–2, 135).

page 239 note 22 Welshpool Borough Council placed it on temporary loan in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff; drawn there by the present writer. For the objects see above, pp. 211 f.

page 239 note 23 cf. from Great Chesterford, CIL VII, 1275, with F misread as P, or the larger of the examples found at Corbridge, EE IX, 1301a; AA 3 VII (1912), 190.

page 239 note 24 Col. J. Darrell Hill sent details and this fragment and no. 42 for study.

page 239 note 25 Found by Mr. D. Sells, who has presented it to the British Museum.

page 240 note 26 Now in Guildhall Museum, where Mr. N. C. Cook made it available. Guildhall Museum Publication, Small finds from Walbrook, 1954–1955, p. 6, no. 9.

page 240 note 27 Now in the Townley collection in the British Museum. Society of Antiquaries, Vetusta Monumenta IV, pls. I–III; W. T. Watkin, Roman Lanes. 152, with facing pl. Dr. H. Klumbach of Mainz was the first to observe these graffiti, and has kindly informed the present writer. For the personal name Caravus there seems to be no parallel, but the feminine cognomen Caravanca is found at Aguilar de Campo, about 50 miles south of Santander (CIL n, 6298). Holder Altcelt. Sprachschatz cites the Iberian place-name Caravis from Appian Iber. 43, and It.Ant. 443, I; the personal name is no doubt connected with the ala II Asturum which once garrisoned Ribchester (CIL vn, 221; EE IX, p. 559).

page 240 note 28 See n. 8 (above).

page 240 note 29 Now in Guildhall Museum, where Mr. N. C. Cook made these items and nos. 26, 34 available. For the site see above, p. 229, nos. 2, 3.

page 240 note 30 Mr. G. Webster sent it for study.

page 240 note 31 Now in Dover Museum. See Mrs. Threipland, L. Murray, Arch. Cant. LXXI (1957), 29, pl. II and fig. 10, nos. 5, 6. (a) is pl. IIb, 3; (b) fig. 10, 5; (c) pl. IIb, 5; (d) pl. 116, 4; (e) fig. 10, 6; (f) not figured; (g) pl. IIb, 1, 2, and one not figured. The excavator sent some of these stamps and the Curator the remainder for examination.

page 240 note 32 For Cranbrook examples see JRS XLIX (1959), 137, no. 13 (f).

page 240 note 33 For example from Pevensey see Arch. Journ. LXV (1908), 132, pl. IV, I; Sussex AC LI (1908), 112; EE IX, 1276b; VCH Kent III, 43. For example from Dover, Arch. Journ. LXXXVI (1929), 48.

page 240 note 34 cf. RCHM Rn.Londonp. 176, no. 55c. Now in Guildhall Museum.

page 240 note 35 For the site see JRS XLIX (1959), 127; for the type JRS XLV (1955). 70, no. 8 (6), pl. xv, 8 (b); Mrs. E. M. Clifford sent it for study.

page 240 note 36 Items (a), (b), (e), (g) were made available by Mr. J. S. Wacher, on behalf of H.M. Ministry of Works. Mr. E. J. W. Hildyard made item (c) available, M L D. Sells, of 21 Bronti Close, Walworth, S.E. 17, items (d) and (f), and Dr. J. C. Mann item (h), which he presented to the Ministry.

page 241 note 37 Now in Dover Museum; the Curator sent these items for study. Mrs. Threipland, L. Murray, Arch. Cant. LXXI (1957), 29, fig. 10, nos. 2, 3, 4.

page 241 note 38 Now in the National Museu m of Wales, Cardiff; Mr. G. C. Boon sent full details. For the site, see above, p. 213.

page 241 note 39 See Antiqs. Journ. forthcoming. On behalf of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, Mr. P. J. Fowler submitted the sherd. For the site, see above, p. 232.

page 241 note 40 Now in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, where Dr. H. N. Savory made it available, together with nos. 37 (a), (b), and 43 (a), (b), (c) (below).

page 241 note 41 Mr. B. R. Hartley sent the sherd from Leeds University.

page 241 note 42 Now in Lincoln Museum; submitted by Mr. D. F. Petch. For the site, see above, p. 221.

page 241 note 43 On behalf of H.M. Ministry of Works, Mr. J. S. Wacher made this and nos. 44 (a) and (b) (below) available.

page 241 note 44 Now in Guildhall Museum, where Mr. N. C. Cook made it and no. 39 (below) available. For a wooden tablet with writing in ink from the same pit see E. G. Turner and O. Skutsch, pp. 108-III (above).

page 242 note 45 Submitted by Mr. S. S. Frere.

page 242 note 46 Now in Dover Museum; Mrs. L. Murray Threipland sent it for inspection, after publishing it in Arch. Cant. LXXI (1957), 27, fig. 10, I. Dr. M. H. Callender ibid. regards it as coming from a globular vessel from southern Spain assignable to the first two centuries A.D. and probably to the first half of the second century. He restores it as CA]LLISTI, a known producer.

page 242 note 47 See n. 43 (above).

page 242 note 48 See plan in JRS XLVI (1956), 143, fig. 40, 146. Mr. S. S. Frere gave details.

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