Skip to main content

Dismantling the ‘Iron Rice Bowl’: Welfare Reforms in the People's Republic of China*

  • Joe C. B. Leung

In common with most countries in the world, China is facing an increasing demand for welfare. The free-market economic reforms of the last decade have dramatically transformed social policy in China, which is gradually retreating from an egalitarian and collective approach and moving towards a pluralistic and ‘residual’ orientation. Now, widening income inequalities are accepted as both necessary and inevitable.

Hide All
Ahmad, E. and Hussain, A. (1990), ‘Social security in China: a historical perspective’, in Ahmad, E., Dreeze, J., Hills, J. and Sen, A. (eds.), Social Security in Developing Countries, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Beijing Review, Beijing.
China Civil Affairs, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing.
China Society, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing.
China Statistical Information and Consultancy Service Centre (1990), China Report (1949–1989), Influxfunds Co. Ltd, and Zie Yongder Co. Ltd., Hong Kong.
China Working Group on Income Distribution of Urban and Rural Residents (1991), ‘The characteristics of individual income distribution in the process of economic reform’. Reform, 5, 80–8, Zhongqing.
Contemporary China Workers’ Wage, Welfare and Social Insurance Editorial Committee (1987), Contemporary China Workers’ Wage, Welfare and Social Insurance, China Social Science Publishers, Beijing.
Cui, N. F. (1989), Explorations in the Work of Civil Affairs, People's Publishers, Beijing.
Economic Management (1993), 2, 2734, Beijing.
Jian, C. D. (1991), ‘Attempt to discuss the causes, problems, and responses of employment of relatives’, Labour Economics and Personnel Management, 7, 3840, People's University Publication Centre, Beijing.
Jiang, L., Liu, X. Y., and Shan, T. L. (1993), 1992–1993 China: Social Situation Analysis and Forecast, China Social Science Publishers, Beijing.
Johnson, C. A. (1985), ‘Political institutions and economic performance’, in Scalpino, R. A., Sato, S. and Wanandi, J. (eds.), Asian Economic Development – Present and Future, 6389, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Leung, J. C. B. (1990a), ‘The community-based social welfare provisions in rural China: mutual-help and self-protection’. Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, 24, 1124, Hong Kong Social Workers’ Association, Hong Kong.
Leung, J. C. B. (1990b), ‘The community-based social welfare system in urban China’, Community Development Journal, 25: 3 (July), 196–205, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Leung, J. C. B. (1992), The Transformation of the Occupational Welfare in the PRC: From a Political Asset to an Economic Burden, Social Welfare in China Monograph Series, 3, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong.
Lu, M. H. (1990), Chinese Social Work, China Society Publishers, Beijing.
Meng, Z. H. and Wang, M. H. (1986), The History of Civil Affairs in China, Heinongjiang People's Publishers, Harbin.
Ming Pao, Hong Kong.
Ministry of Agriculture (1992), China Agricultural Statistics, Agricultural Publishers, Beijing.
Ministry of Civil Affairs (1986), Civil Affairs Work in China, The Ministry of Civil Affairs of the PRC, Beijing.
Outlook Weekly, Beijing.
People's Daily, Beijing.
Sautman, B. (1992), ‘Sirens of the strongman: neo-authoritarianism in recent Chinese political theory’, The China Quarterly, 129 (03), 72102.
Shen, Q. Q. and Pan, Y. (1991), ‘Facing the challenges of and the responses to the problem of unemployment in the 1990sJournal of the China Labour Movement College, 3, 2529, Beijing.
Social Security Bulletin, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing.
South China Morning Post, Hong Kong.
State Planning Commission, Manpower Planning Research Group (1993), ‘An exploration on the improvement of the unemployment insurance scheme’, China Manpower Resource Development, 1, 2831, Beijing.
State Statistical Bureau (SSB) (1990) (1992) China Statistical Annual Report, China Statistical Publishers, Beijing.
Walder, A. (1989), ‘Factory and manager in an era of reform’. The China Quarterly, 118, 242–64 (06).
World Bank (1984), China: The Health Sector, World Bank. Washington, DC.
World Bank (1985), China Long Term Development Issues and Options, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
World Bank (1989), Social Security Reforms in the Chinese Socialist Economy, China Department, World Bank.
World Bank (1991). World Development Report 1991, China Finance and Economic Publishers, Beijing.
Xu, K. L. (1990), The Theory and Practice of the Construction of Socialism in China, Knowledge Publishers, Shanghai.
Zhao, R. W. and La, S. (1992), ‘The distribution of income of Chinese residents: cities, villages and regions’. Reform, 2, 4658, Beijing.
Zhu, Q. F. (1991), ‘Relationship between social security and economic and social development’, Social Science Research, 1, 4248, Chengdu.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Social Policy
  • ISSN: 0047-2794
  • EISSN: 1469-7823
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-social-policy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed