1 Williams, Alan, ‘One economist's view of social medicine’, Epidemiology and Community Health, 33 (1979), 3–7.
2 Cahnman, W. J. and Schmitt, C. M., ‘The concept of social policy (Sozialpolitik)’, Journal of Social Policy, 8 (1979), 47–59.
3 Titmuss, R. M., Social Policy: an Introduction, Allen and Unwin, London, 1974.
5 Titmuss, R. M., The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy, Allen and Unwin, London, 1970.
6 See Edgeworth, F. Y., Mathematical Psychics, C. Kegan Paul, London, 1881.
7 See Dickinson, F. G., Philanthropy and Public Policy, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1962; Phelps, E. S. (ed.), Altruism, Morality and Economic Theory, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1975; Collard, D., Altruism and Economics, Martin Robertson, London, 1978.
8 In emphasizing the idea of caring as an integrating concept of social science I am not, of course, implying it is not substantiively important in the analysis of actual policies.
9 Lafitte, F., Social Policy in a Free Society, Birmingham University Press, Birmingham, 1962.
10 Marshall, T. H., Social Policy, Hutchinson, London, 1967.
11 See the introduction in Jones, K. (ed.), Yearbook of Social Policy in Britain 1973, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1973.
12 Donnison, D., ‘Social policy since Titmuss’, Journal of Social Policy, 8 (1979), 145–56.
13 The reason, for this may lie on the ‘supply side’: the vast expansion in sociology teaching in universities since the war and the limited employment prospects for the better graduates may have led them to offer themselves relatively more frequently than others – including social administration graduates, who came later, were fewer in number, and had considerable employment potential elsewhere. (I am grateful to Brian Abel-Smith for this point).
14 Economists, sociologists, etc. are identified by their discipline. The discipline is identified by its theory. Hence theoreticians are ‘disciplinarians’ – in quotation marks to avoid confusion with the more usual meaning of the word. A social administrator may be a ‘disciplinarian’ in this sense or a ‘multi-disciplinarian’.
15 See Culyer, A. J., The Political Economy of Social Policy, Martin Robertson, Oxford, 1980.
16 Pinker, R., The Idea of Welfare, Heinemann, London, 1979.
17 A superb review for those unfamiliar with this territory is Mueller, D. C., Public Choice, Cambridge University Press, London, 1979.
18 Warham, J., ‘Social administration and sociology’, Journal of Social Policy, 2 (1973), 193–207.
19 Smith, J. H., ‘The human factor in social administration’, Journal of Social Policy, 8 (1979). 433–48.
20 Titmuss, R. M., Commitment to Welfare, Allen and Unwin, London, 1968, p. 22.
21 In a paper for the Social Administration Association's meeting in Leeds 1981.
22 Godfrey, L. G., Theoretical and Empirical Aspects of the Effects of Taxation on the Supply of Labour, OECD, Paris, 1975; Atkinson, A. B. and Flemming, J. S., ‘Unemployment, social security and incentives’, Midland Bank Review, Autumn (1978), 6–16; Feldstein, M. S., ‘The welfare loss of excess health insurance’, Journal of Political Economy, 81 (1973), 251–80; Lindsay, C. M., ‘Demand with zero-priced care’, in C. M. Lindsay, National Health Issues: the British Experience, Roche, New Jersey, 1980; Evans, R. G. and Walker, H. D., ‘Information theory and the analysis of hospital cost structure’, Canadian Journal of Economics, 5 (1972), 398–418; Culyer, A. J., Wiseman, J., Drummond, M. F. and West, P. A., ‘What accounts for the higher costs of teaching hospitals?’ Social and Economic Administration, 12 (1978), 20–9; Layard, P. R. G. and Verry, D. W., ‘Cost functions for university teaching and research’, Economic Journal, 85 (1975), 55–74; Jones-Lee, M., The Value of Life: an Economic Analysis, Martin Robertson, London, 1976; Le Grand, J., ‘The distribution of public expenditure: the case of health care’, Economica, 45 (1978), 125–42; Boskin, M. J. and Hurd, M. D., ‘The effect of social security on early retirement’, Journal of Public Economics, 10 (1978), 361–78; Mincer, J., ‘Unemployment effects of minimum wages’, Journal of Political Economy, 84 (1976), S87-S104; Needleman, L., ‘The comparative economics of improvement and new building’, Urban Studies, 6 (1969), 196–209.
23 Barry, B. M., Political Argument, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1965.
24 Culyer, A. J., Lavers, R. J. and Williams, Alan, ‘Social Indicators: health’ Social Trends, 2 (1971), 31–42.
25 Bradshaw, J., ‘A taxonomy of social need’ in Mc, G.Lachlan (ed.), Problems and Progress in Medical Care, 7, Oxford University Press, London, 1972.
26 See Bebbington, A. C. and Davies, B. P., ‘Territorial need indicators: a new approach’ Parts I and II, Journal of Social Policy, 9 (1980), 145–68 and 433–62.
27 Williams, Alan, ‘Need – an economic exegesis’, in Culyer, A. J. and Wright, K. G. (eds), Economic Aspects of Health Services, Martin Robertson, Oxford, 1978.
28 Weale, A., Equality and Social Policy, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1978.
29 Culyer, A. J., ‘Need, values and health status measurement’ in Culyer, A. J. and Wright, K. G. (eds), Economic Aspects of Health Services, Martin Robertson, Oxford, 1978.
30 Sen, A. K., ‘Planners' preferences: optimality, distribution and social welfare’ in Margolis, J. and Guitton, H. (eds), Public Economics, Macmillan, London, 1969. This is set out in a simplified version in Culyer, A. J., The Political Economy of Social Policy, op. cit. chapter 4.
31 Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972.
32 Nozick, R., Anarchy, State and Utopia, Blackwell, Oxford, 1974.